Description of the type of plant, an overview of the conditions and the choice of location in the room, recommendations for transplanting, feeding and reproduction, pest control. Rosa (Rosa) belongs to the Pink family and is a member of the Rosehip genus. Only those representatives of this genus that are grown by humans are considered a rose. From time immemorial, the flower has always been a symbol of beauty - its delicate petals are so harmoniously combined with sharp thorns. In the course of hard work, breeders have already bred more than 30 thousand varieties of these beautiful plants. The first mentions of the rose are found in the annals of Ancient Rome, where they began to grow it not only for aesthetic pleasure, but actively using numerous useful properties. At that time, about 10 varieties of representatives of the Pink family were already known. The ancient Greek philosopher Theophastus mentions in his chronicles the flowers of these plants, consisting of 5 to 100 petals. Today the rose takes its royal place in the world and is the flower that is most popular and sold. It is rather difficult to say where the name came from, since the roots go back to the ancient Greek, Persian, Armenian and Proto-Iranian languages. But looking at the flower (in the classic image, the bud has 32 petals), it resembles the "wind rose" itself, perhaps this served as the prototype for the name of the plant.
In shape, the rose bush takes on a narrow pyramidal appearance or scatters its shoots in different directions. According to the descriptions, various varieties of roses are similar only in the structure of the leaf plates - their structure is complex, pinnate, contain from 5 to 11 leaves. The length of the flower-bearing stems ranges from 10 to 80 cm, and the diameter of the bud in full disclosure can reach 18 cm (there are "babies" only 1, 8 cm in diameter). The flowers of the rose are bisexual, flowering several times during the summer months. The number of petals in some varieties reaches 128 units per bud. A single flower can grow on a plant, and the number of buds in inflorescences approaches 300. The color of the petals, like their aroma, amazes with its diversity. There is only a pure blue shade, but a rose with green petals has already been bred, but so far it is of interest only to botanists.
The beneficial properties of a rose are due to the fact that the flowers contain a large amount of essential oil, for which the plant is grown, and not just for creating bouquets. This oil has the property of calming the human nervous system, stimulating the brain cells to the robot. But to get only 1 gram of this valuable oil, you need to process up to 30 kg of rose petals. In Bulgaria, there is a valley in which bushes of Maslenitsa roses are grown. And the oil produced in Bulgaria is considered the most expensive and of the highest quality.
The presence of fatty acids, which are present in the petals of the plant, are used for the production of cosmetic products. With their help, it is possible to restore the protective properties of the skin, remove inflammation and various irritations. On the basis of active substances from rose petals, preparations are created that inhibit pathogens.
After flowering, the rose ripens the fruits of a nut-like shape, with a dense and woody shell. Ripening occurs from August to September. The number of seeds varies from 5 to 100 or more. Like the fruits of its progenitor, the rose hips, "pink nuts" are widely used in medicine. And although it is customary to grow roses in flower beds in gardens and squares, there are flower growers who prefer to admire the flowers of this queen of the garden on their windowsill. But, alas, not every rose can grow indoors, therefore, a list of requirements for the successful cultivation of this plant is presented.
Conditions for growing roses on windowsills
In order to delight yourself with the flowering of a rose, they choose a variety that grows well in rooms or greenhouses - these are miniature, floribunda, Bengal, tea varieties. The flowering period can be around 170 days.
The height of miniature roses reaches 25-30 cm, which is very suitable for home cultivation, floribunda plants stretch from 30 to 90 cm in height, but the Bengal variety differs 50-60 cm. Tea roses can reach two meters in height, but there is a branch of low-growing plants not exceeding half a meter.
- Lighting. Rose is very fond of warmth and bright light. If you put a pot with a plant on the window sill of a window into which the sun's rays practically do not look, then this will lead to the flower starting to wither, its buds are crushed, and there will be a high probability of being damaged by pests. Therefore, it is necessary to put a flowerpot with a rose, on the windowsills of windows facing south-east, south-west, and only if there is no other possibility for south-facing windows. It is required to arrange shade there, in the hottest hours of the day, from gauze curtains or thin tulles, and yet the plant may be too hot there. With the arrival of autumn, a flower should be supplemented with special phytolamps or fluorescent lamps. The distance from the lamp to the plant should not be less than 30 cm. Also, one of the prerequisites is the inflow of fresh air, that is, frequent ventilation of the room in which the rose is located is necessary - this will help the plant to avoid overheating. During the autumn-winter period, it is important to protect the plant from drafts or put a screen to protect it from cold glasses. With the arrival of spring, as soon as the night temperatures allow, it is preferable to keep the rose on the balcony or terrace, take it out into the garden, but control that the place chosen for the "vacation" of the plant is illuminated and protected from drafts.
- Rose content temperature. Although the queen of flowers loves warmth, overheating will lead to her death, therefore, it is required to withstand summer temperatures no higher than 25 degrees, otherwise the root system of the flower will overheat. With the arrival of winter, the heat indices can be lowered to 10 degrees, the so-called "hibernation" period begins. Protect the rose from the dry and hot air of central heating batteries and heating devices, as it may not tolerate this and perish.
- The moisture content of the home rose. In order for the plant to grow well and not be affected by pests, it is necessary that the humidity in the air does not fall below 60% or maintain moderate levels. With the arrival of the summer heat or as soon as the heating is turned on in the room, you will have to regularly spray the plant bush with soft water (up to 2 times a day). When a rose is blooming, it is important to keep track of so that drops of moisture do not fall on the flower petals. When there are no flowers, you can arrange frequent (daily) shower procedures, which will not only wash off the dust from the leaves, but also contribute to an increase in humidity.
- Watering the rose bush. As soon as the rose has grown pepper, then its watering becomes rare or moderate. Here it is important to focus on the state of the soil in the pot - when the top layer becomes completely dry, moisture is produced. During the winter dormant period, flooding the potted soil will lead to the rapid death of the plant. As soon as the rose begins to show signs of new growth - the appearance of young leaves, swelling of the buds, then the moisture is slightly increased. With the arrival of the summer months, watering the rose becomes abundant and frequent, however, all excess moisture, which glass from the pot to the stand, should be immediately removed. Moisturizing is done very carefully, water is poured directly under the root of the plant. For this operation, use only soft, settled water. Tap water can be filtered and boiled, but it is best to collect rainwater or prepare melted snow. The temperature of the water for irrigation should be room temperature, by no means cold, since the plant is very sensitive to this.
- Application of dressings for the rose. In order for the plant to grow well, it is necessary to apply fertilizers, as they are used mineral complexes in which there are nitrogen compounds. The regularity of such dressings during flowering is weekly, and in other periods (autumn-winter) only a couple of times every 30 days. You can not only apply fertilizers to the soil, but also use special formulations for spraying the bush. The rose also responds well to organic fertilizing, for example, mullein solution. It is required to make, alternating with mineral dressings. Do not fertilize if the potted soil is dry. Before the operation, the substrate must be well moistened with clean, settled water, otherwise the root system can be burned. It is also not recommended to carry out top dressing as soon as the plant has been transplanted. In order for the rose to adapt, they wait up to two weeks.
This type of care is very important when cultivating roses at home. There is light, medium and strong pruning.
- Light is the one in which the branches of the plant are cut by 2/3. If such pruning is carried out over several years, then the bush will stretch out strongly, and the flowers will not bloom well.
- With an average pruning, the branches of the bush are cut off almost in half, and if the shoot is sick, then even more.
- If a strong pruning is necessary, the branch is cut from the base to the height of the third or fourth bud. The length of the remaining shoot is measured at 15 cm. This pruning is applied to bushes of freshly planted plants.
With regard to transplanting a home rose and preparing the soil, these are very important conditions for growing a rose indoors. As soon as the plant has been acquired, no transplant is carried out, the rose is given the opportunity to acclimatize for 2-3 weeks. Young roses require an annual transplant, and as soon as the plant reaches 4 years of age, the pot and soil are changed as needed. The container should be chosen from thick-walled ceramics.
A drainage of 1 cm is poured at the bottom of the pot, if there are holes in the container for the drain of excess moisture. In their absence, the thickness of the drainage layer increases to 4 cm. The container for the transplant is selected quite a bit more than the previous one, otherwise the rose will bloom poorly. The pot increases by 5 cm in width and height compared to the previous one.
The flowerpot with the plant is turned over, the rose is held with hands, then a little tapping on the pot, the earthen lump with the root system of the flower is taken out. Without destroying the soil, it is placed in a new prepared container, the pot is filled with soil along the edges to the middle, it must be well compacted and watered with soft water. Then the substrate is filled to the top and moistened again. After transplanting, the plant can not be watered for a while, but only the leaves can be sprayed. After a day or two, the rose pot can be placed in the place of constant growth.
Also, for the substrate during transplantation, a special purchased soil "Rose" is used, which is distinguished by moisture and air permeability, or the soil mixture is compiled independently from the following ingredients:
- sod land, humus soil, coarse sand (in proportions 4: 4: 1);
- clay-sod soil or garden soil, humus soil or compost (proportions are taken 1: 1);
- garden land, peat land, humus (in a ratio of 1: 2: 2) with the addition of a small part of river sand.
Recommendations for breeding roses indoors
To obtain a new plant, methods of cuttings, planting of seeds and grafting are used. But for indoor propagation, cuttings are the best way. This method of getting a new rose is the simplest and can be performed at any time of the year.
Also, after planned pruning, pieces of cut shoots are used for reproduction (in time - this is the beginning of the spring months). If you are cutting branches from a bush, then you should choose a healthy and well-developed shoot. With the help of a sharpened knife, a cut of a branch about 13-15 cm long is made, on which there are already 3-4 living buds and at least a few leaf plates. The cut is made slightly obliquely under the lower bud - this is done so that the cut surface of the cutting increases in area, the cutting absorbs nutrients and moisture with it. The upper cut can be made straight or also at a slight slope, then the condensation drops will roll off it. Complex leaves are removed so that no more than 4 pieces of leaves remain on the branch. It is important that if there are buds, they must be completely removed.
Then these twigs are placed in clean boiled water at a temperature of 20-23 degrees. You can add the drug "Kornevin" to it, which will increase the likelihood of early root formation. After a few weeks, the cuttings should have roots, they should develop up to 1.5–2 cm. Then they are planted in a container of about 200–300 ml, with prepared soil with the addition of phytohormones, so that the rose twigs take root better. A layer of nutrient medium should be poured onto the bottom of the pot, followed by a layer of moistened and disinfected coarse sand, perlite or similar material. This is done in order to provide more nutrition for the roots that grow through sand or other material. But you can do without this by planting cuttings in sand or perlite.
The branch is set in the substrate slightly at an angle to a depth of 1.5–2 cm. It is important that the planted cuttings do not touch or shade each other. Next, the pots with plants are covered with plastic wrap or placed under a glass jar. This will help maintain the required level of warmth and humidity. It is necessary to regularly ventilate the mini-greenhouse so that condensation does not collect in it and moisten the soil a little, in the event that it has dried out a little on top. Heat indicators should not go beyond 22-27 degrees. It is recommended to place pots with cuttings on the windowsills of bright windows, but not in direct sunlight.
You can also get a plant from a donated bouquet of roses. To do this, cut a stalk 15–20 cm long, remove all buds and leaves. The stalk is moistened with water and both cuts are cauterized with potassium permanganate. For a day, it is placed in a lower cut in a solution of potassium permanganate. Then the twig sits in the prepared substrate to the depth of one bud. Next, the cutting is planted in a prepared pot with a substrate and covered with a plastic bag. They look after him in the same way as described earlier.
Problems in growing roses and pest control
Most often, all varieties of roses that are grown at home are affected by the red spider mite. They can help in the early stages of the disease by spraying with folk remedies - oil, soap or alcohol solutions, as well as manually removing pests with a cotton swab moistened with these means. If this method did not give results, then it is worth applying modern insecticides.
Also, the rose can be susceptible to powdery mildew disease. In this case, all leaves affected by the disease are cut off and destroyed, and the plant is sprayed with ground sulfur (but this method is rarely used indoors). You can carry out the treatment with a soda solution - 2 tsp. dissolves in 1 liter of water. Before the procedure, the pot and soil are covered with a plastic bag. The duration of treatment is one and a half months with a regularity of two weeks.
How to grow a rose from a bouquet, see this video: