What is daikon, useful and consumer properties. The best varieties of Japanese radish, planting dates. Agrotechnics of growing daikon, features of care, harvesting.
Daikon is a root vegetable from the Cabbage family that is popular in Japan, where it has been grown for over a thousand years. However, due to its numerous useful properties and pleasant taste, Japanese radish is cultivated in other countries, including Russia. Active work is underway to create varieties and hybrids suitable for our climatic and soil conditions, the agrotechnology of daikon cultivation is being improved, individual farms are harvesting high yields.
What is daikon?
Daikon (translated from Japanese as "big root") is a one-two-year-old vegetable crop from the Cabbage family, which resembles the familiar radish to all of us, only it has a softer and more delicate taste, without a burning effect, since it does not contain mustard oils. Also, unlike radish, daikon retains its juiciness even when the plant starts shooting.
Depending on the variety, the length of the root crop is 15-60 cm, and the weight is about 500 g. It resembles a carrot in shape, the color is white.
The pulp of the root vegetable is eaten fresh without any additives, as part of salads, it is also boiled and salted. Since it is devoid of the specific bitterness that is inherent in radish, the vegetable is allowed for use by children and the elderly without restrictions.
At the top of the root vegetable there is a root rosette of leaves, which has also found application in cooking, but only when growing daikon on its own site, since it is not sold in stores, because it has a short shelf life.
Useful properties of daikon
The composition of Japanese radish is impeccably balanced. Daikon contains many useful substances: these are minerals (especially phosphorus, magnesium, iron) and vitamins (ascorbic acid, group B), and fiber, enzymes and pectin substances. Thanks to them, with the regular use of Japanese radish, you can count on strengthening the immune system.
There are also many calcium salts in the composition of daikon. These substances are responsible for the removal of excess water from the body, its purification from toxins and toxins. In addition, the pulp is able to dissolve stones accumulated in the kidneys. It is also advised to use it for diabetes.
In addition, Japanese radish contains a unique substance, lysocine, with antiseptic properties. Thanks to the use of root crops, the reproduction of bacteria in the body is blocked, the risk of developing infectious diseases is reduced, and digestive processes are normalized.
But the most important useful property of daikon is that the root crop does not absorb salts of heavy metals and radioactive elements from the soil. By the way, studies were carried out, according to which they found out that black radish absorbs 16 times more harmful substances than daikon. Thus, it is a truly environmentally friendly product.
Excellent taste, nutritional value, beneficial properties made daikon for planting on its site very popular. However, there are some nuances that must be taken into account in order to harvest a good harvest.
The best daikon varieties
Daikon is loved by vegetable growers all over the world, so breeders have bred many varieties suitable for a wide variety of climatic conditions, for example, frost-resistant, for different soils and even a specific region. Therefore, it is important to choose the right daikon variety before growing. For example, the types of Japanese radish that successfully grow in the Moscow region are not suitable for cultivation in Siberia.
Early ripening (early), mid- and late-ripening varieties of daikon are isolated. We will consider the best of them further.
Early ripening types of Japanese radish are varieties with a growing season of 40-50 days. Suitable for cultivation in regions where the weather is already warm in April.
The most popular ones are:
- Sasha … Early maturing, cold-resistant variety. The root vegetable has a juicy pulp, the taste is sweet-spicy, the skin is thin.
- Prince of Denmark … The hybrid is considered medium early. Known for its ability to harvest a high yield - up to 2 kg from 1 m2… The skin is red, the flesh is white. A distinctive feature of the daikon radish of this variety is disease resistance.
- Red samurai … The length of the root crop is 30 cm, and the weight can be up to 4 kg! The hybrid has a white skin and pale pink flesh.
- Russian size … It reaches 50 cm in length, 10-12 cm in diameter, and weighs up to 2 kg. The variety is appreciated for its crispy flesh and great juiciness. Also has a thin skin.
- Snow White … The best daikon variety for long-term storage is up to 5 months, if kept in a basement. The skin of the root vegetable is light green, the pulp is snow-white, the vegetable is very juicy.
- Minovashi … The pulp is dense, has great juiciness, sweetish taste. Root crops lie well, are stored for a long time.
- Misato Green … The length of the root crops is 12 cm, the weight reaches 300 g. Initially, when ripe, the skin is green, then it turns white. Such a radish does not lie for a long time, so it will not work to store it for a long time.
The ripening period of mid-season daikon varieties is 60-80 days. Several popular types of culture:
- The Dragon … The root vegetable has a sweetish taste and significant weight. Some specimens reach 1 kg, and 60 cm long.
- Pink glitter … It got its name from the pulp, which has a pink color. But the pulp is white. Known for its cold resistance. This type of daikon radish is suitable for growing in areas where the daylight hours are short. The fruit has a round shape and a short length - only 10 cm.
- Dubinushka … The root crop reaches 50 centimeters in length, and the weight can reach 1.5 kg. The vegetable has a sweetish taste and a slight bitterness. The pulp is white.
- Caesar … The color of the fruit is white, the shape is cylindrical. Interestingly, when growing a daikon in an open field, the root completely goes into the ground.
- Big bull … No wonder the variety got this name: the weight of the root crop can reach 3 kg! Such a culture is also valued for its property for long-term storage. You can grow daikon in the garden when the temperature drops.
Late-ripening varieties of Japanese radish ripen approximately 90-100 days after planting. Not suitable for cultivation in temperate climates, as they do not have time to ripen. As a rule, the fruits are heavy. Can be stored for a long time.
The best varieties of late maturing daikon:
- Japanese long;
- Elephant fang;
Daikon varieties are also selected taking into account the type of soil: Shiroagari and Shogoin - for heavy clay, Miyashige or Tokinashi - for loams, Nerima and Ninengo - for light soil.
Important! Consider the characteristics of the variety when purchasing daikon seeds. The larger the fruit, the juicier the pulp it has.
Daikon planting dates
To get the large fruits of Japanese radish, it is important to know when to plant the daikon, otherwise it will not have time to ripen. The best time is early spring or summer (late July - early August). This avoids arrowheading and harvests a good crop, and the roots will taste great.
The timing of planting Japanese radish is reflected in the way the daikon is grown and the subsequent care. In the spring, Japanese radish is cultivated by the seedling method: first, seedlings are grown, and then they are transferred to a permanent place - in a warmed greenhouse. If you do not plan to plant young plants under film tunnels, but immediately transfer them to open ground, it is recommended to keep the seedlings on a glazed loggia on warm days.
Note! North of 55 ° when planting daikon in spring, root crops are not formed.
In summer, you can sow seeds outdoors. If you plan to harvest a late harvest, sow the daikon in August, but keep in mind: when the air temperature reaches + 10 ° C, the culture must be covered with a film, since the Japanese radish is a heat-loving plant. With a later sowing, do not expect large fruits to form. As a rule, their weight does not exceed 350 g.
It is important to know that daikon is a short day plant. When sowing a crop in May-June, when there is a long daylight hours, it will release flower stalks and go to the arrow, and this harms the development of root crops. A good harvest will not work, but this way you can get crop seeds.
An autumn planting of a daikon is also possible, but be prepared that the crop yield will be lower. You cannot count on the maximum size of root crops. In this case, the agricultural technology for growing Japanese radish requires more fertilizer to be applied to the garden bed, since the site is depleted after early crops (it is important if you plant it in a place that was freed up after harvesting other plants). Several seeds are sown into the hole at the same time, and then thinned out.
How to grow a daikon on your site?
Japanese radish is considered an unpretentious crop, however, when cultivating it, it is important to take into account all the nuances if your goal is to harvest a large harvest. Further, all the subtleties of growing daikon in the open field and caring for it.
Site preparation for daikon
Japanese radish can grow on a variety of soil. However, the best option is light, fertile soil, well fertilized, where the groundwater is deep. It is good if the soil has a neutral reaction.
Before you start growing a daikon in the country, it is important to correctly allocate a site for planting a culture. Cruciferous plants should not grow on it. And the best predecessors are Pumpkin, which include the actual pumpkin, cucumber, zucchini.
To prepare the bed, you should loosen it using a pitchfork to a depth of about 25-35 cm. It is best to use compost together with rotted manure as fertilizer, as well as sifted ash. In addition, the use of mineral fertilizers does not hurt.
The introduction of ash is a mandatory action, this is the secret of how to grow daikon from seeds, since the enemies of the culture are slugs and a cruciferous flea, and in the event of their attack, you can be left without a crop.
After fertilization, the beds should be closed using black foil for 6 days. When the sowing of daikon is delayed, it is necessary to lightly loosen the soil, and then cover the garden bed again to prevent moisture evaporation, the growth of weeds and the development of pests.
Before sowing a daikon or planting seedlings, remove the foil and loosen the bed again. Also, don't forget to moisten the soil a little. Then you can start marking the site.
Prepare a marker. With its help, it is necessary to mark the surface according to the scheme of an equilateral triangle in order to ensure efficient use of the area.
After purchase, you should sort out the daikon seeds and separate the largest of them. Choose free from defects. Small ones and those that have visible defects are good for growing seedlings.
Before sowing Japanese radish, a special soil mixture should be prepared for growing daikon from seeds: ripe compost with rotted manure, ventilated peat and forest soil from the hills in equal amounts.
Pour the prepared mixture into a regular vegetable drawer. The layer thickness should not exceed 7 cm.
To grow daikon radish, stick to a 4x4 cm or 5x5 cm seed sowing pattern and maintain a sowing depth of no more than 4 cm. For even sowing, you can pre-make marking strips.
Moisten the potting soil before sowing the daikon. Place the seeds in the soil using small tweezers. After completing the work, the box must be closed.
Note! Germination time for daikon seeds varies from 4 to 6 days.
The timing of planting daikon depends on the selected variety. Seedlings are planted when 2-4 leaves appear. When counting, the cotyledons are also taken into account.
Before planting young plants, water the soil generously in the box to prevent the root ball from scattering when you pull it out. This is a very important condition: when diving a seedling, you must not break a clod of earth.
Gently grasp the leaves with two fingers. Remember not to grab the stalk. Dip the young plant into a hole that is about 7 cm deep. Lower it deeply, but the leaves must remain on the surface, otherwise the plant will die. Spread out the seedling using the peg and straighten the root.
If you plan to grow a daikon in the open field, which has a long root crop, the holes for the seedlings need to be made deeper. It is convenient to use a peg for deepening. When planting seedlings, the distance between the plants is maintained - 25 cm, and between the rows - 40 cm.
After the daikon seedling is correctly positioned in the hole, fill it with loose soil. Remember not to ram the surface around it.
Sowing daikon in open ground
Ideally, if the area under the daikon is light soil with deep groundwater. The garden bed can be prepared in the fall by deep digging, since the root of the culture goes deep underground.
Then it is fertilized using humus and superphosphate - respectively 1 bucket and 40 g per 1 m2… Before sowing the daikon, the plot is loosened, since the culture gives the best yield on light, loose soils.
To grow a daikon, make rows, maintaining a certain distance between them - as a rule, not exceeding 40-50 cm. The seeds are sown to a depth of 3-4 cm. The distance between plants is 20-25 cm, this is an important rule, since the daikon, like any radish, does not like dense crops, and his roots are large, enough space is required. After sprinkling with earth, they are compacted.
Provided that the soil is not fertile, the beds are placed at a distance of 30 cm. Part of the soil is removed to a depth of up to 60 cm, instead of it, fertile soil and humus are placed in the holes. Also, do not forget to add ash and superphosphate.
If you are sowing daikon in spring, do not water too much, because the soil is well saturated with water, but summer crops, on the contrary, need to be moistened (shed holes) to ensure better seed germination.
Germinates quickly: after a few days, sometimes you have to wait about a week, the first shoots will appear, and when you find 3 leaves on a young plant, thin out.
Water the daikon as needed. It is recommended to add mulch after watering.
Note! Before growing daikon for seeds, make sure that there are no other cruciferous species nearby in order to prevent cross-pollination and get a hybrid.
A few days after planting the daikon, you need to start caring for the plant. Due to the used supply of nutrients contained in the seed, you need to feed.
For the first feeding, it is recommended to use mullein infusion with the addition of urea. To prepare it, add water to 1/3 of a barrel of cow dung and leave for two weeks to ferment. Before applying the fertilizer, do not forget to dilute it with water and add urea - 1 tsp. on the bucket. Fertilizer is applied carefully, spreading at a distance of 1.5-2 cm from the stem.
The next feeding should be done two weeks after the first one. For this, it is recommended to use a complex mineral fertilizer. But remember that it is better to under-feed the plant. Otherwise, the tops will grow, and the roots will be small.
Further, it is recommended to alternate fertilization and irrigation, which is carried out depending on soil moisture and weather.
In order not to reduce the quality of the root crop, adjust the watering. The plant does not tolerate stagnant water, but it is also harmed by a prolonged lack of moisture and drying out of the soil. Japanese radish needs moderate watering. When watering the plants, fold back the tops. Water should only get into the soil. With waterlogging, you can encounter such a daikon disease as a mucous bacteriosis.
On loams after watering or rain, you need to increase the air exchange of the soil: for this, pierce the ground using a pitchfork.
When the air temperature drops to +10 degrees, you should cover the culture using a covering film, since the daikon is afraid of cold snaps. At a lower temperature (2-3 ° C), the roots of an unprotected plant begin to freeze, in this case there is a loss of taste and keeping quality of the fruit. If you did not manage to cover the daikon and it froze, dig up the roots, otherwise they will become hollow and loose, and acquire a bitter taste.
In addition, the maintenance of the daikon consists of weeding and loosening the soil to provide better air flow to the roots.
As the daikon grows, the tops of root crops will begin to peep above the ground. Do not be alarmed, in some varieties up to 1/3 of the fruit is released into the air. To preserve the nutritional and taste qualities of the pulp, it is necessary to huddle the plants.
Young shoots are attacked by a cruciferous flea - a common pest of radish, radish, cabbage, which eats plant leaves. To organize reliable protection, you will need lutrasil, which is attached to low arcs. You can remove it when the daikon tops close.
If, nevertheless, it was not possible to prevent the invasion of the pest, it can be driven away. To do this, sprinkle the seedlings with ash or tobacco dust. Red pepper is also actively used for this purpose. In order for the substance to adhere better, a soap solution is preliminarily sprayed onto the plants.
The larvae and caterpillars of the garden scoop harm the Japanese radish. To get rid of them, use a solution of potassium permanganate or an infusion of red pepper. To prepare it, pour 1 boiling water 5 pepper pods and insist for half a day. Before processing the daikon, the substance is dissolved in water (10 l).
Slugs can damage the root crop. In this case, the fruit becomes unsuitable for storage. To block the path to the plant for the pest, make grooves around the bed. It is recommended to grind such holes with ash.
Harvest time varies depending on the daikon variety. For early ripening vegetation period is 40-50 days, for mid-ripening - 60-80 days, for late-ripening - 90-100 days. However, in any case, you should remove the root crops before the first frost, otherwise you will lose the daikon in the taste.
Work is carried out in dry weather, thus, it will be easier to pull the roots out of the ground, because the soil adhering to the fruits is easily separated. If the soil is heavy, wet, it is recommended to use a pitchfork to pull out the root crop and harvest the daikon without loss. Don't use a shovel to dig up the Japanese radish; you can chop it up.
At first glance, it seems that pulling out the daikon is not a big deal, since a third of the root crop, as a rule, sticks out above the ground, it is enough to pull it. However, the fruit is crispy and brittle, use caution. Keep in mind that at the slightest damage, Japanese radish will not be stored, so separate such specimens from the rest during harvesting. Use them in food first.
The fruits of Japanese radish cannot be kept in direct sunlight for a long time, they will wilt. Treat them immediately and store them. The tops are cut off by twisting it. Then the roots are slightly dried and shaken off the ground.
Harvest daikon for long-term storage is placed in boxes in several layers. Each of them must be poured using moss or wet sand for this purpose. Now you can put the boxes in a dark, cool place - a cellar or subfloor, where the temperature ranges from 0 to + 1 ° C. In this case, it will be possible to keep the Japanese radish fresh until February.
Important! Keep the sand or moss in the daikon crate moist to prevent sagging roots.
In addition, open bags of sawdust or onion skins are good for storing daikon. They are also placed in a cool, dark place. To retain moisture, the bag is tied, but holes are made in it, which are needed for air to reach the root crops.
To obtain daikon seeds, you need to select the fruits, cut off the tops, leaving the stalks - no more than 10 cm in length. Place the root vegetables in the refrigerator and refrigerate them for 10 days. The daikon is then planted (tilted!) And waited until the seeds are fully ripe.
Note! With late harvesting of Japanese radish, the mass of the root crop and the storage duration increase.
How to grow a daikon - watch the video: