The origin of the Pomeranian Spitz breed, exterior standard, character, health description, advice on care and training, interesting facts. Price when buying a puppy. It is impossible to refrain from smiling, watching this funny miniature dog with the face of a smiling fox, dressed in a fur coat with an unusually fluffy collar. The playfulness and playfulness of these chanterelle dogs is off scale. And it's hard to imagine that this agile minx once participated in all the pompous royal ceremonies and was, well, almost a prince among dogs.
Origin history and types of Pomeranian
Pomeranian spitz belongs to the category of dog breeds that have a long and interesting history, rich in events, and from time to time closely intertwined with the stories of the royal houses of Europe.
It is generally accepted that all modern Spitz dogs descended from the same ancient species - the peat dog, which is sometimes called the marsh dog or peat spitz. The remains of this now fossil species were first discovered in 1862 in a peatland area of Swiss lakes by a Swedish zoologist Ludwig R? Timeyer. The peat layer, which has preserved the remains of an ancient spitz-like dog, was dated back to the 2nd or 3rd millennium BC. Subsequently, the remains of such small dogs were found on the territory of peat bogs in Germany, in caves in Belgium, in the swamps of Poland and Belarus, on the shores of Lake Ladoga and Lake Lacha in the Leningrad region, in the wetlands of the Krasnoyarsk Territory and some other regions of Siberia.
Dogs closer to modern Spitz appear for the first time in the Nordic countries. Depending on the territorial affiliation, they are called differently. In Holland they are called Keeshond or barge dogs (because of the special attachment of local fishermen to this breed), and in Germany - Wolfspitz, probably because of the similarity to a wolf in exterior and color. But, according to modern researchers, in both cases it was about dogs of the same species.
One of the first documented references to Spitz dogs dates back to 1450, although the meaning of this mention is abusive. In the future, the word "Spitzhund" was often used by the Germans as an abusive word. The very first mentions of Spitz dogs as typical guard dogs date back to the 16th century. In those years, dogs even acquired the Latin scientific name - "Cannibus Brutanicus".
Spitz of those years, although they were considered rather small dogs, were still larger than modern ones, which made it possible to use them to protect property and vineyards, exterminate rodents and look after small animals.
Nevertheless, spontaneous selection of the breed moved towards miniaturizing dogs and improving their overall appearance, which is pleasing to the eye. Already in the 17th century, a special disposition towards this group of canine aristocratic circles of Western Europe was noted. All over Europe in those years there are already about 48 species of Spitz dogs of all kinds.
In the 18th century, they became a kind of "favorites" of the English royal court. The Duchess of Maclenburg, the bride of Prince and future King of Great Britain, George III, brought with her to the wedding a pair of funny white dogs of the local Pomeranian breed (the territory of the Principality of Pomerania bordered on the Duchy of Maclenburg). It was then that the Spitz from those lands became popular among the court nobility, becoming court dogs.
It should be noted that the Pomeranian White Spitz has been raised in Pomerania since 1700.He was well known in the area much earlier than his appearance in the British royal palace. As a result, the Spitz are getting smaller and more popular. It is known that Spitz (including Pomeranians) were in favor with Queen Victoria (she even had her own Pomeranian nursery in Windsor) and Marie Antoinette, King George IV, Russian Empresses Elizabeth and Catherine II. They were adored by Michelangelo and Mozart, Emile Zola and Gustav Frensen and many more famous people.
In the already mentioned royal kennel, and not in his native Pomerania, the modern history of the representatives of the breed, surprisingly enough, begins. It was there that the Spitz brought in were transformed into full-fledged miniature dogs with a modern exterior. In 1891, the English Pomeranian Club was created. In the same year, the breed standard was developed and approved, which predetermined the further fate of these small and surprisingly cute dogs.
In the United States, the first Pomeranian fans' club appeared in 1909, and already in 1911 the first exhibition was held, which brought together almost 140 participants.
In Russia, the breed of these miniature dogs gained popularity by the end of the 19th century (even the famous Chekhov's "lady with a dog" walked with a Pomeranian).
The Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) has classified the Pomeranians as a German Spitz, making them a separate subgroup of Miniature Spitz. The Americans (American Kennel Club) thought differently, singling out these representatives of the canines in a separate breed.
The latest breed standard was approved by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) in 1998.
Purpose and use of the Pomeranian
Despite the fact that the Pomeranian with its size and funny appearance looks more like a child's toy, you should not forget that in fact he is the same dog as others. And at one time his ancestors were quite working dogs with their duties and functions. Naturally, the subsequent "court role" offered to the Spitz left its historical imprint. These funny little dogs have become more decorative, having almost completely lost their guarding and hunting talents.
Nowadays, the Pomeranian is a dog more for the soul, for pleasant communication and joint games. And, of course, to participate in exhibitions and championships. How not to show such beauty to the world!
In the role of a companion dog, Spitz feel great, with all their heart "sticking" to their owner. In games and fun walks, they have no equal, they get along well with children and small animals, have excellent command of the situation, are smart and disciplined, and sometimes desperately jealous. But apparently, being a universal pet is their main purpose and vocation, which they themselves really like.
Pomeranian external standard
The Pomeranian is a fairly small dog with a dry but strong build. The main pride of the breed is a magnificent coat with a rich undercoat and an amazingly beautiful "collar". The doggie resembles an elegant toy with a sly smiling face, for some unknown reason suddenly found itself among real dogs.
The Pomeranian is classified as a miniature spitz. Its dimensions are really extremely small. At the withers, it reaches 18-22 centimeters and weighs from 1.5 to 3.5 kg. Often they are confused with German Spitz, or even mix up all the existing Spitz in a bunch. The main difference between modern Pomeranians is their unique miniature size.
- Head small, wedge-shaped. The stop is pronounced clearly, but smoothly. The frontal part of the skull is round and wide. The occipital protuberance is poorly expressed. The muzzle is "fox", but of a shorter type. The bridge of the nose is straight, medium in width. The nose is small, distinct, black in color (in brown dogs, it is dark brown).The lips are tight-fitting, dry, black in color (in dogs of the brown-red color spectrum, brown is allowed). The jaws are normal. Teeth according to the standard dental formula (set of 42 teeth). Scissor bite. A straight or pincer bite is acceptable. The absence of several premolars (small molars) is possible.
- Eyes small, oval, set obliquely. The color of the eyes is brown or dark brown.
- Ears small, set close together, triangular with rounded tips, upright, richly pubescent with hair.
- Neck medium length, with a slight nape. The neck is richly covered with a beautiful fur collar, which makes it seem short.
- Torso Pomeranian spitz square type, small, but rather muscular, with a fairly developed chest, short strong back and strong loin. The line of the back is moderately sloping towards the croup. The croup is wide, short, not sloping.
- Tail set high, medium in length, very fluffy. The tail is rolled over the back and rolled into a ring (double curl is allowed).
- Limbs straight, parallel, lean and muscular. The paws are round, small, and resemble those of a cat.
- Wool very pretty, with a double dense soft undercoat and long guard hair of a rather coarse quality. The fur on the neck forms a rich fur collar that adorns the dog. On the legs there are rich feathers in the form of lush "panties". The tail is also very thick and beautiful. The coat of thoroughbred dogs should not be curly, wavy or shaggy, and should not split into a parting on the back. Finally, wool in Pomeranian Spitz dogs is formed only by the age of three years.
- Color. The classic orange color is white. Also, the standards allowed colors: pure black and black and tan, sable (reddish brown with niello), chocolate, cream, blue, blue and tan, red, reddish orange. Two-color options are also possible, while the spots of a different color should be aesthetically pleasing and evenly distributed over the entire body of the animal.
The nature of the "oranges"
"Pomeranets" or "pom" (as they are sometimes called) is a very energetic and agile dog, very inquisitive and nosy. And also very smart, independent and independent. Spitz can behave dignified and aristocratic, and can be worn like crazy, but only when he wants to. He can be impossibly stubborn and even stubborn and harmful if he wants to achieve something. And also shows wonders of tact and sweet courtesy, striking those around him with his quick-wittedness and kindness.
And no matter how this fox-dog behaves, he is always very cheerful, playful and playful, like a child. He loves walks and travel, enjoys communicating with children, but with other dogs he behaves rather jealously, not allowing them liberties with his owner. And do not be confused by the miniature fragile appearance of this dog. In his blood lives a real big dog, brave and decisive, not inferior in strength of mind to large dogs. Being on their territory or in the hands of the owner, they feel like real guards, uncompromising and incorruptible.
Pomeranian Spitz are very affectionate, once acquiring an owner in their life, they remain faithful to him for life. Therefore, they jealously guard it from any, in their opinion, dangers. Strangers are treated with distrust and suspicion and are even capable of biting.
"Pomy" are quite noisy dogs who love to bark to their hearts' content, and even more so when there is a reason. And even when there is no reason, they will find it to attract the attention of their beloved owner.
Although the average duration of "Pomeranians" is quite long and reaches 14 years, and often they live much longer, they also have enough diseases.
Basically, the main problems of the Pomeranian Spitz are connected precisely with their miniature size.Various dislocations and deformities, dysplasia of joints of varying severity, an increased risk of injury - thin bones and rather weak ligaments simply cannot withstand the loads during active games. Especially if the dog is too fed and often carried in the arms. By the way, obesity is not such a rare problem for this breed.
The problem of dysfunction of the pituitary gland, associated with the special diminutiveness of the animal, also makes itself felt. From anatomical problems, there are pathologies with eyes, teeth and the presence of a special type of cough. Dogs-"oranges" require preventive veterinary examinations, attentive attitude to themselves, constant care and attention.
Pomeranian care tips
The main beauty and pride of the "orange" is his fur coat. Looking at it, one might think that the coat is too abundant and requires enormous additional trouble in combing it out. And this is a very common misconception. The coat of these dogs is quite tough, keeps its shape well and does not fall into tangles. And therefore the care is the most standard. And the diminutiveness of the dog further simplifies this process. Of course, if your pet is not a "catwalk star".
Nuances of training a Pomeranian
"Pomeranians" are very intelligent and easily trainable dogs, capable of quickly mastering many tricks even when trained by a layman. The only thing to remember is that the Spitz matures for a long time, and therefore does not always fulfill all the requirements for him at a young age. And punishment won't help here. You need to be able to negotiate with him and wait patiently for him to grow up. And if you are already familiar with this breed and know a hundred ways of correct upbringing, then with each new Spitz dog you will have to find the one hundred and first and one hundred subsequent ways.
Interesting facts about the Pomeranian
It is known that the British Queen Victoria had a special love for the Pomeranian dog breed. And this love began with a visit to India, where the queen made awards to especially distinguished soldiers of the British army. There she first saw a Pomeranian, a regimental pet. In her diary dated August 17, 1881, there is an entry: “They had a small dog -" orange ". She went with them all the way to battle and was immensely devoted to them. Missing after Maywand, she returned with Sir F. Roberts when he entered Kandahar and immediately recognized the rest of the regiment. "Bobby" - that was her name - a wonderful dog. She wore a pearl-embroidered corduroy vest with two bravery patches, and around her neck were various regalia and orders. She was wounded in the back, but by that time she had already recovered. " The queen managed to acquire her own "orange" only seven years later. Since then, Her Majesty has carried her love for Pomeranians throughout her life. And even on her deathbed in January 1901 next to the dying Victoria lay her beloved "orange" Tory. This was her will.
Price when buying a puppy - "orange"
The Pomeranian Spitz has firmly established itself in Russia since the end of the 19th century. There were, of course, difficult times when the breed practically disappeared, and then revived again thanks to the efforts of enthusiasts.
Nowadays Pomeranian dogs are bred in kennels practically throughout Russia, it is not difficult to find a suitable puppy of this breed.
Another issue is the price. Of course, the wide range in prices is often due to the quality of the litters. It is not so easy to breed "pom poms", the number of newborn puppies is almost never more than three, and mating with an imported foreign thoroughbred sire is expensive (up to 1000 euros). So it turns out that a purebred "Pomeranian" puppy, capable of participating in an exhibition with the prospect, will cost no less than 36,000–40,000 rubles.
Naturally, you can find a puppy and cheaper. Somewhere on the periphery of Russia, in Ukraine or in Belarus, the cost of miniature spitz is much lower.However, truly worthy puppies are expensive everywhere.
For more information on the Pomeranian Spitz breed, see this video: