The device and features of the functioning of the drainage field. Advantages and disadvantages of the post-cleaner. Calculation of the length of the pipes and the area of the device. Construction technology, the price of the drainage field.
A drainage field is a post-treatment system for domestic sewage to prevent soil and groundwater pollution. The soil filter is built using a special technology that ensures reliable disposal of sewage over a long period. Information about the device of the drainage field and instructions for its construction with your own hands are given below.
Features and device of the drainage field
In the photo, the design of the drainage field
At dachas and suburban areas that are not connected to the central sewage system, special devices are often installed for the disposal of liquid sewage. The most popular are multi-chamber septic tanks, in which wastewater is purified by 55-60%, and then discharged into the ground. With such a system, there is a high likelihood of soil and groundwater contamination. In order not to create problems in your area, the effluent after the storage tank is sent for additional treatment. One of such additional devices for filtration is a drainage field, in which the degree of water purification reaches 95-98%.
The drainage field is one of the options for clarifying wastewater along with a filter well and an infiltrator. A similar system is built under certain conditions: if there is enough free space for its location (otherwise, a compact infiltrator is installed), when the groundwater is located close to the surface (if the water is deep, a filter well is built).
The drainage field forms one or more rows of pipes with holes and slots located in a pit on a loose foundation. Water moves through them to the bulk mass and passes through it, leaving dirt on the filter particles. The effluents bring microorganisms to the drainage field of the sewage system, which feed on organic matter in the presence of air. They partially decompose impurities, turning them into non-hazardous substances. Ignoring additional cleaners leads to disastrous consequences: pollution of the territory, the termination of the functioning of the sewage system, and a decrease in the level of living comfort.
The drainage field for the sewage system consists of the following elements:
- Filter layer… A pit, partially or completely covered with a loose mass (crushed stone, sand, gravel), which retains sewage.
- Drains… Pipes with holes and slots for moving waste to the filter.
- Sewer pipes… Used to supply water from the septic tank to the filtering field.
- Distribution well… Capacity between the septic tank and the drainage field for the distribution of liquid between the branches of the system.
- Ventilation pipes… Needed to supply air to the system to ensure the vital activity of microorganisms.
- Closing well… A container at the end of the drains that is installed to facilitate the flushing process of the system. In this case, the ventilation pipe is passed through the well cover. With the help of the closing well, it is possible to connect all the branches into one and ensure the flow of liquid from one branch to another. The capacity allows you to control the functioning of the system. Dry wells indicate the normal operation of the drainage field. The presence of water in them indicates that the drains do not fulfill their functions. Perhaps they are clogged or need to be increased.
The wastewater treatment system in the drainage field functions as follows: sewage through the external sewage system goes from the house to the septic tank, where it is located for several days, during this time heavy elements will settle to the bottom, and light organic substances will partially decompose by microorganisms. The mixture formed in the septic tank is removed from the septic tank to a ground filter, seeps through the bulk material and gets rid of dirt, which is then processed by microorganisms. After 10-12 years, crushed stone, sand and other elements of the soil filter, in which a large amount of sewage unprocessed by microorganisms has accumulated, must be replaced.