Fireplace in the bath: construction technology

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Fireplace in the bath: construction technology
Fireplace in the bath: construction technology

A fireplace in a bathhouse can not only warm up the room, but also become an original decorative element. To create a functional, safe structure in a unique style, you need to strictly adhere to all the features of the technological process. Content:

  • Varieties of fireplaces for a bath
  • Design and layout
  • Selection of materials
  • Pouring the foundation
  • Fireplace masonry
  • Chimney installation
  • Preparing the fireplace for use

Equipping a fireplace in a steam room is a laborious process that requires a serious approach. It is important to understand the types of construction and the main technological processes of construction in order to properly and safely equip it yourself.

Varieties of fireplaces for a bath

Open fireplace

The hearth in the bath will be an excellent and functional addition to any interior. The traditional place for installing a fireplace in a bath is a relaxation room.

There are several types of fireplaces for installation in a steam room:

  • Open… The installation of such models requires high-quality ventilation equipment to prevent combustion products from entering the room. But the efficiency of the device is only 20%, so it is most often used as a decoration.
  • Closed… Usually connected to air or water heating. The efficiency of such a fireplace is 75%.

By the type of materials used, there are:

  • Brick fireplaces… Traditional wood-fired model. It can be conditionally divided into a firebox and a chimney. They are built-in, free-standing or attached to the wall.
  • Cast iron… Typically, cast iron fireplaces are equipped with fire-resistant glass doors. Also includes chimney equipment.

Depending on the fuel used, there are fireplaces:

  • Electrical… Can be found at any hardware store. For heating large rooms, it is recommended to buy high-power devices. They are usually designed for a three-phase network, and therefore you need to worry about this in advance. They do not need a chimney arrangement.
  • Gas… The ceramic "wood" placed inside, when heated, imitates the smoldering of coals. The efficiency is about 70%. The chimney diameter is only 9 cm.
  • Wood burning… They can be both open and closed, forming a kind of oven.

To install a fireplace in the sauna break room, a brick wood-burning device with an open firebox is optimal, which will complement the interior in an original way and heat the room. On top of it, you can place a steel tank in which water will be heated.

Design and location of the fireplace in the bath

Corner fireplace

First you need to decide on the type of construction and draw up a project for a bath with a fireplace. It is advisable to choose a place for the arrangement even at the construction stage, since the construction of a massive brick structure involves the pouring of an additional foundation. In extreme cases, work can be carried out during the overhaul of the bath.

Features of the location of the fireplace in the bath:

  • It is recommended to locate the fireplace against the inner wall. Otherwise, due to the large temperature difference outside and inside, the outer wall will begin to damp and collapse.
  • If the rest room is small, then a corner fireplace would be an excellent option. It will heat the side walls and take up a minimum of usable space. It is not recommended to build a structure in a draft.
  • When designing the placement of the fireplace, keep in mind that it warms up the space in front of the firebox best of all. Therefore, it is undesirable to erect it opposite the window. On the sides of the structure, heat transfer is weaker.
  • Please note that there are also certain requirements for the room in which the fireplace is installed. It must be equipped with at least one window for fresh air inflow, and its size must be at least 12 m2.

Requirements for the design of a fireplace for a bath:

  1. The fuel compartment must be at least 1/50 of the volume of the room. Usually it is made wide and shallow.
  2. The side and top walls of the fuel compartment are laid with a slight camber or expansion towards the room. For example, if the area of ​​the room is 20 m2, then the height of the firebox will be 53.7 cm (7 rows of bricks), width - 79 cm (3 bricks), depth - 1.5-1.75 bricks.
  3. The proportion of the portal should be observed in a ratio of two to three. This is necessary for proper organization of heat transfer and prevention of smoke.
  4. The diameter of the chimney depends on the area of ​​the furnace and should occupy less than 1/8 of its space, but more than 10 cm with a pipe length of about 5 meters.
  5. If the walls of the bath are made of combustible materials, then they must be protected with asbestos materials before construction, and then the distance to the firebox can be reduced from the standard 32 cm to 26 cm.

Selection of material for the construction of a fireplace in the bath

A drawing of a brick fireplace for a bath

Before proceeding with the installation, you need to draw up a drawing of the structure, paint the order and calculate the amount of materials required. The main building element for the construction of a fireplace is solid fireclay bricks. It can be found in any hardware store. It is distinguished by its high cost (about 30 rubles per piece), but it has high performance characteristics. Thanks to a special manufacturing technology, it is resistant to high temperatures and its changes. Moreover, the market offers many shades of this material.

The choice of clay for mortar must also be taken seriously. Skinny and oily varieties are not suitable for laying a fireplace. The best option is normal refractory clay, which can withstand temperatures up to 1500 degrees.

The technology of pouring the foundation for the fireplace in the bath

The foundation for the fireplace in the bath

A full-fledged brick fireplace is very heavy, therefore it requires equipment with a powerful base, which will also protect the structure from soil moisture.

We carry out work in this order:

  1. We pull out a pit with a depth of 0, 6-0, 7 meters and a width of 15 cm more on each side of the walls of the future structure.
  2. We make a sand pillow, 10-15 cm thick, spill it with water and tamp it.
  3. We fill the bottom with a layer of crushed stone by 10-15 cm and carefully ram it.
  4. We make the formwork. To do this, knock down the boards, cover them with resin and process them with a layer of roofing material.
  5. We insert a reinforcing frame into the recess.
  6. Pour concrete mortar up to 10 cm below the floor.
  7. We level the surface using a building level.
  8. We cover the base with plastic wrap and wait for it to solidify completely. This usually takes a week.

When the foundation is dry, the formwork must be removed, applied tar on the sides, covered with sand and waterproofed with two layers of roofing material, laid in a checkerboard pattern.

Fireplace laying in the bath

The procedure for laying a fireplace for a bath

Before starting work, the brick must be placed in water for two to three days. In this case, all the air will come out of it, and the masonry will turn out to be as strong as possible. We make a mortar for masonry two days before starting work from a mixture of refractory clay and water, which will need to be refilled as it is absorbed. The thickness of the back wall should be about 10 cm, and the side walls should be 20 cm.

We carry out the work in the following sequence:

  • We lay the first row of bricks directly on the waterproofing layer, in the process we wet them with water.
  • We carefully check the corners. In no case should you allow cracks.
  • We make the laying of the second row. Each brick must necessarily overlap the joints formed in the first row. First we lay out the corner elements, then the outer ones and only at the end - the inner elements.
  • We lay the third row and attach the blower door with a wire.Please note that the remaining solution must be removed immediately.
  • We make the laying of the fourth and fifth rows. At this stage, we are assembling the ash pan and air duct grilles. We leave gaps of 0.5 cm between the metal elements and the brick, which, after the completion of the construction, will be sealed with an asbestos 5-mm cord.
  • We fix the sixth row by mounting the blower.
  • We put the seventh row. At this level, we install the grate and the firebox door. Please note that the surface inside the fuel compartment should be as smooth as possible. This will increase heat dissipation.
  • We make masonry from the eighth to the fourteenth row with a partition, from which the chimney is supposed to exit. Having finished the extreme row, we fix the channels.
  • We spread the fifteenth row, placing the halves of the bricks at a slope. It will serve as a kind of basis for the partition.
  • We lay from the sixteenth to the nineteenth rows around the perimeter. On the extreme row, we install a door for steam output.
  • We lay the masonry up to the twenty-third row and begin to install the chimney.

Be sure to check the horizontality of each laid out row and the evenness of all corners. The durability, functionality and strength of the structure depend on this. The width of the seams at the bottom should be about 0.3 mm, and at the top - up to 2.4 cm.

Installation of a chimney for a fireplace in a bath

Chimney diagram for a fireplace in a bath

The main requirement for a chimney for a fireplace in a bath is that it should not go out into the ceiling beam or rafter. The walls of the chimney should be half a brick thick, and its height depends on the height of the steam room.

Before going out into the chimney, we equip a small shaft or a hood for collecting smoke, which, after warming up, will go up. This simple procedure will dramatically increase your cravings.

We make the gas threshold as wide as a chimney, in the form of a curved elbow or tray. It is necessary to prevent the release of sparks and protect against the ingress of precipitation. In addition, it impedes the movement of air currents, which can cause soot and smoke to escape. Be sure to make sure that the gas threshold does not narrow the pipe, and its protrusion does not exceed 1-2 centimeters.

At the intersection of the chimney and the ceiling, we lay asbestos material to protect the insulation. The same applies to the exit from the roof.

For safety, we take the pipe to a level above the ridge and equip its end with a special chimney nozzle. We install a damper in the pipe so that the room does not cool when the fireplace is not functioning.

Preparing the fireplace in the bath for use

Kindling the fireplace in the sauna

Under normal weather conditions, the structure will dry in 15-17 days. If it is necessary to dry the fireplace quickly, then it is heated with two-kilogram portions of paper and wood chips. After the combustion of each portion, you need to allow the structure to cool down and inspect it. If cracks appear, they should be repaired and then re-heated. This method can be used to dry the structure in 4-5 days.

The fireplace, if desired, can be plastered, whitewashed or sheathed with tiles, but it is the brick texture that looks more impressive. Therefore, we recommend simply rubbing the seams with a decorative putty.

How to build a fireplace in a bath - watch the video:

The above instructions and recommendations will help you understand the question of how to build a fireplace stove in a bath. By adhering to them, you will be able to correctly design the structure, choose a suitable location, make a solid foundation and masonry. If you strictly follow all the rules, you will be able to make a real brick fireplace for a bath with your own hands, near which you can relax and unwind after bath procedures.

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