What are age spots, the main varieties. Features of removal at home, recipes for masks, possible contraindications.
Pigmented spots are dark areas of the skin where an excessive amount of the pigment melanin, which is responsible for the color of the skin, accumulates. Most often, ultraviolet light is the main culprit, but hyperpigmentation can be troubling for other reasons. Therefore, before starting to fight this scourge, it is important to figure out where the age spots come from and what they are.
What are age spots?
In the photo there are age spots on the face
Pigmented spots are areas of increased accumulation of melanin pigment, which determines the color of hair and skin - darker or lighter. An increase in its production occurs for various reasons, as a result, it is distributed unevenly, which leads to local darkening of the skin.
A person experiences skin hyperpigmentation throughout their lives. Freckles in children really look cute, but as they get older, age spots pretty spoil the appearance. They are large and uneven in shape, appear suddenly and grow rapidly.
In young people, age spots on the face are more often located in the forehead, nose, cheeks and above the upper lip. In adulthood, they spread to the back, chest and the outside of the arms.
Note! Contrary to popular stereotype, the occurrence of skin hyperpigmentation is not associated with its color type and sensitivity.
There are several types of age spots:
- Nevi… These are dark areas of the skin of an arbitrary shape that are present on the body from birth and appear throughout life for various reasons. In adulthood, their number may increase. It is forbidden to remove birthmarks on your own!
- Freckles… They are small round spots up to 2 mm in diameter. They appear, as a rule, on light skin as a result of too active exposure to the sun and therefore brighten and often disappear in winter. Ephelids, as a rule, accumulate on the cheeks, nose and other open areas of the body - the neck, shoulders, between the shoulder blades, décolleté, and hands. It is quite possible to remove freckles on your own.
- Lentigo… These are sun spots of light brown color, which arise as a result of active exposure to UV radiation, age-related changes in the skin and are considered the main sign of photoaging. They have an irregular shape and a rather large size - about 20 mm. As a rule, they appear on the face, hands, and forearm. They are more persistent than freckles and do not disappear in winter. Removing such spots on the face requires special efforts.
- Chloasma… Large beige age spots, which are most often localized on the forehead, cheeks, temples. They appear as a result of active UV radiation, genetic predisposition and against the background of hormonal changes in the body that accompany pregnancy, lactation, some diseases, disorders in the liver and ovaries, helminth damage, as well as as a result of taking certain medications, birth control pills. Pigmented areas can decrease in size and disappear as hormone levels stabilize, becoming lighter in the autumn-winter period.
- Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation… It appears as a result of dermatitis, acne, psoriasis, after skin damage by fungus, shingles, burns, at the site of bites, if there are problems with the immune system. Typically, dark spots are a concern for people with dark skin.Removing such stains requires effort and the use of specialized cosmetics.
Note! Due to a decrease in the amount of melanin, skin pigmentation also changes: white spots of vitiligo and areas of albinism appear, where there is no pigment at all.
The main causes of age spots on the face
If you consider the ideal of beauty to be clean skin with an even tone, without freckles and age spots, first of all, you need to eliminate or minimize, as far as possible, the impact of the unfavorable factors causing them. In the presence of specific diseases, it is important to contact the clinic as soon as possible!
Fighting hyperpigmentation is easier if you know why age spots and freckles appear:
- Excessive UV radiation… The sun's rays irritate melanocytes, the cells responsible for the production of melanin. Normally, the body acquires an even tan, but with excessive activity, the sun triggers a protective reaction of the skin. A lot of pigment is produced, it is unevenly deposited in different areas, which results in the appearance of age spots.
- Hormonal changes… Hyperpigmentation can occur due to changes in the level of hormones in the body - during pregnancy, breastfeeding, mesopause, endocrine diseases, nervous disorders. Such age spots disappear on their own after the normalization of the hormonal background.
- Age… Over the years, the skin becomes thinner, so melanocytes in some places end up at the surface. As a result of the accumulation of melanin, age spots become noticeable and appear.
- Mechanical damage to the skin… Hyperpigmentation on the face appears as a result of active regeneration of the skin after micro-cuts, scratches, chemical burns, insect bites, squeezing out acne, boils, as it is accompanied by an increase in the functioning of melanocytes and an increase in the production of melanin. Unsuccessful cosmetic procedures, for example, chemical peeling with fruit acids, laser resurfacing, contribute to the development of mechanical damage to the skin, and at the same time the appearance of age spots.
- Solarium… Pigmented spots are a frequent companion of artificial tanning lovers. They occur when sunscreens are used incorrectly, as well as when the procedure is carried out after peeling or laser hair removal. Pigmentation can be caused by too long exposure to the capsule and overuse of tanning beds. Irritated melanocyte cells begin to actively produce pigment, which is distributed and stains the skin unevenly.
- Some diseases… The unexpected appearance of a scattering of age spots for no apparent reason may indicate malfunctions in the liver and gallbladder (brown formations), kidneys (yellow-brown), intestines (reddish). As a rule, they appear at an early stage of the development of the disease, so consultation with a specialist is the only right decision. Also, hyperpigmentation occurs against the background of skin diseases - dermatitis, psoriasis, eczema, skin damage by a fungus, shingles.
- Lack of vitamins and minerals… A fairly common cause of age spots, which is associated with a lack of vitamins B12, C, copper, zinc, iron in the body. The more spots appear on the face, the more the body is depleted. After the deficiency is eliminated, hyperpigmentation will go away on its own. But the accumulation of substances such as mercury, aluminum, lead, arsenic is dangerous and accompanied by poor health.
- Heredity… Age spots and freckles are often caused by a genetic predisposition. If your parents suffer from hyperpigmentation, you will also have a tendency to localized darkening of areas of the body. First of all, this applies to nevi and large birthmarks, which are noticeable in newborns.
- Some medicines… Pigmented spots on the skin appear after taking medications that increase the sensitivity of the dermis to ultraviolet radiation. These include antibiotics of the tetracycline series, retinoids and drugs for chemotherapy and the fight against cancer. Also, age spots occur as a result of taking birth control pills.
How to get rid of age spots on your face at home?
The simplest remedy that will help remove age spots is prepared from mashed garden berries. You can use any that are at hand: strawberries, raspberries, lingonberries, cranberries. Regular treatments will help keep your skin clear and your complexion healthy and even.
Castor oil shows high efficiency, which is used regularly - in the morning and in the evening. A piece of cotton wool is soaked in castor oil to remove age spots and wipe the places where there are most of them, without affecting healthy skin.
Lemon juice is also the leader in the list of effective remedies for hyperpigmentation due to its outstanding whitening abilities. Squeeze the juice from the citrus wedge, dilute with water, keeping the proportions 1 to 5, and refrigerate. To remove age spots, regularly wipe your face 2 times a day with a cotton swab dipped in brightening agent.
Get rid of age spots using an effective remedy made from 30% peroxide (1 tsp), boric alcohol (2 tsp) and glycerin (1 tsp). The product is used to wipe the skin of the face once a day until a noticeable whitening effect appears.
Recipes for masks for age spots on the face
In the photo, a mask with white clay from age spots on the face
To achieve a visible effect, masks for age spots should be applied in a course of at least several months. However, the result will surprise you: the skin becomes clearer, the face acquires a light, even tone, and the number of freckles and dark spots is reduced.
Recipes for effective masks for age spots:
- With hydrogen peroxide… The agent is aggressive, but it copes well with skin hyperpigmentation. To prepare it, pour 1 tbsp. oat bran, previously ground into powder, with green tea to make a gruel. Add 5 ml each of hazelnut and peanut oils and 3 drops of hydrogen peroxide.
- With parsley… The best remedy for age spots: Fresh herbs have a brightening effect on the skin and destroy the melanin in the cells. To prepare it, chop the leaves and mix in a 1 to 1 ratio with honey and freshly squeezed lemon juice.
- With turmeric… It is also an aggressive agent that can cause allergies, which, moreover, can paint the face in a bright yellow color, but it is effective and copes with old and darkest spots. To prepare the mask, mix 10 g of turmeric with the same amount of honey, the result is a thick gruel, which should be diluted with sour cream to the desired consistency.
- With a bodyag… To prepare the product, mix 1 tsp. pharmacy algae powder with the same amount of black or white clay. Then dilute the dry ingredients with water and you can use the age spots body mask as directed.
- With dandelions… Seasonal mask with whitening properties for 3 weeks. To prepare a bleaching agent to remove age spots, pour 100 g of dandelion flowers with 30 ml of refined olive oil, add the same amount of castor oil and steam for 3 hours. Keep the heat low and keep the mixture from boiling. After the specified time, cool it, strain and add 50 ml of liquid honey to the liquid.
- With rice flour… You can use a ready-made store product or, before removing age spots at home, grind the cereals in a coffee grinder. Add 30 ml of lemon juice to 50 g of powder, mix thoroughly, and can be used as directed.
- With lemon… Strong action, so it is important to use it carefully! Dilute 30 g of yeast with 15 ml of milk, which should be at room temperature, and leave for 30 minutes. After the indicated time, add 1 tsp. freshly squeezed lemon juice.
- With celandine… A very strong remedy with whitening and anti-inflammatory properties. Against age spots, a gruel made from celandine leaves is used, to which crushed chamomile flowers and a little lemon juice are added. The last ingredient can be replaced with rubbing alcohol. After preparation, the product is left for 10 minutes and then squeezed out.
- With clay… White cosmetic clay will help to remove age spots at home, but if it is not at hand, you can do with black, but its lightening properties are lower. To prepare the product, dilute 30 g of kaolin with fresh cucumber juice, which will need 15 ml.
- With sour cream… Another remedy for age spots on the face, characterized by good whitening properties. To prepare the mask, mix 1 to 1 turmeric with sour cream, which softens the effects of the first ingredient and prevents yellowing of the face.
- With aloe vera… Before making a remedy for age spots, you need to grind the leaf of the plant into gruel. Mix the agave pulp with honey in a 1 to 1 ratio.
- With askorutin… A drug that eliminates the lack of ascorbic acid and vitamin P, therefore, it helps to quickly remove various types of age spots on the face - freckles, chloasma, lentigo. To prepare the mask, grind 1 tablet to a powder state and mix with 10 g of buckwheat flour. Pour 15 ml of liquid honey over the dry ingredients, which must be warmed up a little.
- With pepper… Any sweet pepper, regardless of its color, will help remove age spots. To do this, grind the vegetable using a fine grater and apply immediately to your face.
- With soap… Another recipe for a mask with hydrogen peroxide that will help you quickly remove age spots. To prepare the product, grind the white soap using a fine grater. Pour the resulting crumb with the peroxide solution to make a thick gruel, and add a couple of drops of ammonia to it.
- With almonds… To get rid of age spots on the face, pour 100 g of almonds with boiling water and grind after 10-15 minutes. Pour the resulting mass with fresh juice from half a lemon.
- With vinegar… A product with strong whitening properties. To prepare it, combine liquid honey, lemon and table vinegar in equal amounts to get a homogeneous mixture. Before applying the mask to your face, be sure to steam your skin.
- With starch… A remedy made from 1 tbsp will help to remove age spots on the face. starch and lemon juice, mixed until the consistency of thick sour cream.
- With cucumber… To get rid of hyperpigmentation at home, you can use a finely chopped cucumber mixed with oatmeal to the consistency of a thick gruel.
- With curdled milk… Gauze dipped in yogurt will help whiten age spots. It should be applied to areas affected by hyperpigmentation for 30 minutes. The dairy product is washed off with water at room temperature.
- With red currant… To prepare a whitening mask, 5 tbsp. l. Crush fresh berries until puree, pour boiling water (200 ml) and leave the mixture for 3 hours to infuse. In the finished cooled infusion, soak a gauze napkin, apply a compress on the area with an accumulation of age spots and soak it for 20 minutes.
Important! Most age spot masks have a drying effect, so apply a moisturizer to your face after using them.
Features of home removal of age spots on the face
Homemade masks are not inferior to cardinal methods of removing hyperpigmentation in aggressiveness.If you do not take into account possible contraindications, change the proportions of ingredients at your discretion, overexpose the product, you can cause irreparable harm to the skin.
It is forbidden to use brightening masks if there are fresh wounds, injuries, micro cuts, papillomas, acne, acne, inflamed areas on the face. Contraindications to their use are dermatitis, impetigo, rosacea, keratosis, recent cosmetic procedures in the salon. Such masks are not suitable for owners of dry, thin and sensitive skin.
It is recommended to prepare funds manually, without using a blender, otherwise the mass will turn out to be too liquid and will drain from the face, complicating the procedure. Honey, fermented milk products should be heated by building a water bath. This also applies to oils, with the exception of essential oils.
Before you start using the product, it is important to test it to eliminate the risk of allergies. To do this, apply a little of the composition on the wrist and after 20 minutes assess the reaction of the skin. If there are no undesirable sensations, itching, redness, rashes, you can use it as directed.
Pre-steam the skin to open the pores. To do this, you can make a steam bath with pharmacy chamomile or based on other herbs. You can also use a warm towel for this purpose.
Distribute the mixture along the massage lines if the pigmentation has spread over the entire face, or apply only to the affected areas, where there are most age spots. Withstand 10 minutes, unless otherwise indicated in the recipe.
Wash off the brightening mask with warm water. Also, according to reviews about age spots, you can use a lemon solution, milk or a decoction prepared on the basis of chamomile to enhance the whitening effect of the composition.
Since masks aimed at eliminating pigmentation have a drying effect on the skin, after applying them, it is important to apply a moisturizer to the face.
Note! Mild flushing and swelling is a normal skin reaction. These phenomena disappear after 2-3 hours.
How to get rid of age spots - watch the video:
As a rule, the effect of ultraviolet radiation intensifies in summer, as a result of which numerous age spots appear on the face or the existing ones become bright. To prevent their occurrence, it is important to pay attention to preventive measures and protect the skin from the sun. To do this, you should use care products that have a high SPF level, even at home, in a car, cloudy weather, because UV rays can penetrate through clouds or windows. For prevention, before going outside, wear glasses and a hat that covers your face.