What is whole milk: composition, benefits, harms

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What is whole milk: composition, benefits, harms
What is whole milk: composition, benefits, harms
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What is whole milk? The composition and calorie content of the product, the benefits and harms. Recipes for products based on high fat milk. Interesting Facts.

Whole milk is a product with high fat content and sweetish taste, which does not undergo thermal and additional chemical processing, does not pass through the separator, thus preserving numerous useful substances. Let's consider in more detail its key characteristics, composition and properties.

What is whole milk?

How whole milk is obtained

The photo shows how whole cow's milk is obtained.

Whole milk is a product that does not undergo any changes, is not passed through a separator in order to reduce its fat content, retaining a large amount of useful substances in its composition. Ideally, this is milk from a cow, strained to mechanically remove possible impurities that have got into the milk during milking. Such a product is stored for no more than 2 days.

To obtain milk yield in an industrial environment, automatic closed-type milking machines are used. Since the product undergoes minimal pre-sale preparation, at the stage of development, attention to milk yield is increased. Protection against the growth of bacteria is carried out through careful sanitization of the equipment. To remove foreign matter in the product, mechanical filtration is practiced.

Whole milk from under the cow comes out aseptic, but in the external environment it almost immediately comes into contact with bacteria, many of which are potentially pathogenic. To avoid bacteriological contamination of the product, the container is thoroughly sanitized for further spillage. By the way, the product is bottled exclusively in plastic or glass bottles, and the product specification is mandatory on the packaging.

Thanks to the industrial control system for bacteriological contamination, whole drinking milk does not turn sour after 2 days, like homemade milk, but the process of destabilization of the product will begin within 7-10 days.

Whole cow's milk

Whole milk photo

The key characteristic of whole milk and its main difference from normalized and skim milk is the fat content of the product. The indicator can vary depending on many factors. GOST 31450-2013 takes into account the specifics of such a product, therefore, during sampling and analysis, it is not the exact value of the fat content of whole milk that is determined, but the range. Also, the exact percentage of fat is indicated on the packaging of the goods, but this range: most often, you can buy whole milk from 8 to 9%.

Density is another distinguishing characteristic of the product. The indicator is measured at 20 ° C and is 1.027-1.033 g per cm3… If you add water to whole milk, its density and viscosity decrease.

The acidity of whole milk is on average 16-18 ° T (Turner's degrees), but not lower than 15 and not higher than 20. The indicator, like the density, is determined in laboratory conditions, but is not required to be indicated on the product packaging.

Composition and calorie content of whole milk

High fat whole milk

Whole milk is a product that goes through fewer stages of technological preparation, therefore it has a rich composition of nutrients. It contains numerous vitamins and minerals. In addition, whole milk differs from other dairy products in its rich composition of essential amino acids.

The calorie content of whole milk per 100 g of product ranges from 50 to 69 kcal (209-290 kJ), of which:

  • Proteins - 3, 15 g;
  • Fats - 8-9.5 g;
  • Carbohydrates - 4, 8 g;
  • Water - 88, 13 g.

Note! The calorie content of whole milk in accordance with GOST on the package is indicated in a range, and not in the form of an exact value.

Vitamins per 100 g:

  • Vitamin A - 46 mcg;
  • Vitamin D - 1.3 mcg;
  • Vitamin E - 0.07 mcg;
  • Vitamin K - 0.3 mcg;
  • Vitamin B1 - 0.05 mcg;
  • Vitamin B2 - 0.17 mcg;
  • Vitamin B4 - 14.3 mcg;
  • Vitamin B5 - 0.37 mcg;
  • Vitamin B6 - 0.04 mcg;
  • Vitamin B9 - 3 mcg;
  • Vitamin B12 - 0.43 mcg;
  • Vitamin PP - 1.31 mcg.

The most significant are indicators of vitamin D, cobalamin and riboflavin in whole milk. 100 ml of the product will cover a person's daily need for these vitamins by 12, 12 and 9%, respectively.

Minerals per 100 g:

  • Potassium - 132 mg;
  • Calcium - 113 mg;
  • Magnesium - 10 mg;
  • Phosphorus - 84 mg;
  • Iron - 0.03 mg;
  • Copper - 0.03 mg;
  • Selenium - 3.7 mg;
  • Zinc - 0.37 mg.

100 ml of the whole product covers the daily requirement of the body for potassium and phosphorus by 11%.

Whole cow's milk contains 10 mg of cholesterol, which is 3% of the daily value, a number of mono- and polyunsaturated fats.

Essential amino acids per 100 g:

  • Valine - 0.19 g (10%);
  • Histidine - 0.07 g (6%);
  • Isoleucine - 0.16 g (11%);
  • Leucine - 0.26 g (8%);
  • Lysine - 0.14 g (5%);
  • Methionine, cysteine ​​- 0.09 g (6%);
  • Threonine - 0.14 g (9%);
  • Tryptophan - 0.07 g (18%);
  • Phenylalanine - 0.29 g (10%).

Whole milk contains 5.0 g of sugar per 100 g of product, and more depending on the cow's diet. This figure is about 10% of the estimated daily consumption.

Note! The percentage of the daily consumption of the product is calculated based on the norms of human physiological needs, developed and adopted in the Russian Federation in December 2008. The norm is adopted for an adult, a woman engaged primarily in mental work, whose daily calorie requirement does not exceed 2000 kcal.

Whole Milk Benefits

Girl drinking whole milk

The benefits of whole milk are due to its unique composition. To obtain a healing effect, you must consume at least three servings of the product a day. Its beneficial effect affects most vital systems:

  • Musculoskeletal… Calcium present in whole milk not only strengthens bones, but also takes part in the processes of blood clotting, hormonal secretion, transmission of nerve impulses to muscle fibers.
  • Immune… Vitamin D in the composition of the product contributes to the complete absorption of calcium, but also affects the synthesis of certain hormones, stimulates the bone marrow to produce monocytes (immunostimulating cells). Takes part in the production of serotonin.
  • Cardiovascular… Potassium from whole milk helps to normalize the acid-base balance of the body, the transmission of nerve impulses, and as a result, the normalization of the processes of vasoconstriction and expansion (normalization of blood pressure).
  • Muscular… Milk protein, casein and whey protein are excellent materials for muscle growth. If your goal is to strengthen your muscles, then raw whole milk is best drunk after exercising.

In addition, the product improves the condition of the skin. Vitamin A, contained in whole milk, stimulates the production of hyaluronic acid, and as a result, increases skin tone.

In addition, foods made from whole milk and milk itself can help normalize sleep. The mechanism of this effect is not fully understood, but researchers tend to argue that the reason for the beneficial effect is the stimulation of the production of melatonin, a hormone of circadian rhythms.

Contraindications and harm of whole milk

Lactase deficiency as a contraindication to the use of whole milk

A direct contraindication to the consumption of the product is a predisposition to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

Whole milk has a high fat content, so it is not recommended to give it to children in large quantities. Otherwise, it will result in a state of heaviness in the stomach, and possibly heartburn.

The harm of whole milk is also noticeable in the following cases:

  • Casein allergy… In the presence of such a pathology, incomplete protein digestion occurs. The remains of this substance enter the bloodstream and act as antigens that the immune system fights against.If the first signs of allergy are ignored, a complete rejection of dairy products can develop.
  • Lactase deficiency in adults… Nature does not imply the ingress of lactose into the body of an adult, therefore, the process of its splitting into glucose and galactose does not occur completely. If whole milk products are processed, then glucose takes part in further metabolism, and galactose can be deposited in subcutaneous fat, provoking the development of cellulite.
  • An imbalance in an acidic environment… The harm from whole milk in this context is only possible when consuming large doses of the product. The fact is that its excessive consumption increases the acidity of the internal environment. To compensate for the resulting imbalance, the body is forced to release alkaline compounds, an element of which is calcium. Thus, instead of strengthening the musculoskeletal system, it can be washed out.

To minimize the harm and potential danger from consuming whole milk, choose the correct dosage and pre-process the product.

Whole Milk Recipes

Whole milk cottage cheese

Whole milk is nutritious and tasty in itself. The drink has a sweetish taste, but actively absorbs the surrounding aromas, which can also affect the taste. However, dishes prepared on its basis are no less appetizing:

  1. Whole milk with sugar… Homemade dessert is like purchased condensed milk, and many like it even better, and it only takes 15 minutes of your time to prepare it. For 4 servings, take 200 mm of selected whole milk, 200 g icing sugar, 1 tsp. butter, vanillin if desired. To get a fragrant sweetness, just mix the ingredients together and heat over low heat, stirring constantly. As soon as the mass boils, increase the heat to medium level and, stirring, boil for 8-10 minutes until compacted. Pour the finished dish into another container and let it cool in the refrigerator. Condensed milk is served in sockets or on homemade cookies.
  2. Whole milk cottage cheese… A homemade product is no less tasty than a store product. To obtain 400 g of cottage cheese, at least 2 liters of milk will take, but its fat content and softness will be much higher than that of the purchased one. To prepare cottage cheese from whole milk, you must wait until the natural product sours. For store-bought milk, it will take a few days, leave it open in a warm place. The resulting mass thickened with uneven flakes should be placed on a slow fire and heated for 10-15 minutes, but not boiled. In a warm mass, you can add 1 tbsp with a thin stream. lemon juice, it will begin to curl almost immediately. When large curd flakes begin to form in the pan, discard the contents onto cheesecloth and let the whey drain.
  3. Whole milk cheese… It is made by analogy with cottage cheese, however, in this case, a fresh product is used as a base. 0.5 tsp is added to 5 liters of fresh milk. pepsin and stir quickly. When the mass begins to curl, knead it with your hands and wait 15 minutes for the protein to settle to the bottom. Throw the mass onto cheesecloth, squeeze it out and leave it under oppression overnight. If you do not use oppression, then the cheese will not be compressed. Sprinkle the finished product with salt and leave in the refrigerator.
  4. Whole milk cream… They are a great addition to sweet desserts or a base for meat sauces, but some gourmets also love the pure taste of the product. To obtain cream, it is enough to pour the purchased high-fat whole milk into a bowl with a wide bottom. The product must be left in a dark place for 12 hours (it may take up to 24 hours in winter). The cream will collect on the surface of the pot by itself after the specified time. Take the resulting layer into a separate dish using a spoon, leave the mass in the refrigerator. Such cream will be 20-25% fat.
  5. Whole milk yogurt… A dairy product will be a great addition to breakfast or a snack. To get homemade yogurt, you need whole milk and natural yogurt with bifidobacteria, without preservatives and starters. To get 6 servings, you need to take 1 liter of milk, bring to a boil, removing the resulting film, then cool the milk to 38 ° C and add natural yogurt. Close the well-mixed mixture tightly and, after carefully wrapping it, leave it in a warm place for 5-10 hours. We pack ready-made whole milk yoghurt in jars. It can be stored in the refrigerator for up to 5 days.
  6. Whole milk porridge… It is also considered the ideal hearty breakfast. To prepare 1 portion, you need 1.5 cups of milk, the same amount of water, half a glass of oatmeal and the same amount of Hercules porridge, 2 tbsp. sugar and a pinch of salt. For the dish, it is enough to mix water with milk, bring to a boil, and then add the remaining ingredients. Porridge can be seasoned with jam or jam.

Whole milk recipes are prized not only for their good taste, but also for their quick preparation. In most cases, this will not require the long-term involvement of the chef.

Interesting facts about whole milk

Drinking whole milk

Drinking whole milk is the most widespread drink in the world, it is consumed not only by humans, but also by animals. Up to 714 million tons of this drink are drunk a year.

Initially, only infants had the ability to digest milk. However, in the course of evolution, some adults in Northern Europe were left with the same opportunity. Presumably, this is due to the lack of calcium and vitamin D in the body of adults. Individuals that are able to obtain these elements from milk are more viable and healthy, like their children.

Until the middle of the 19th century. Whole milk, despite its nutritional value, was the cause of the spread of many diseases, since it was not pasteurized and was consumed only fresh. It was with pasteurization that research and industrial processes for the normalization (reduction of fat content) of milk began, and many city dwellers have forgotten that this is whole milk. But today modern technologies help to bring back the taste of "cow's milk".

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