Antivitamins and vitamins - what is it

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Antivitamins and vitamins - what is it
Antivitamins and vitamins - what is it
Anonim

Find out why you need products such as antivitamins and vitamins, which are the most popular antivitamins and when you should use them. Vitamins are essential for the body. Some substances of this group can be synthesized, but mostly they come from outside. A person can consider himself healthy only if a sufficient amount of micronutrients is present in his diet. Otherwise, various problems are possible. Not all people know what vitamins antivitamins are. Today we will answer this question.

Antivitamins vitamins: what are they?

Fresh fruits and medical capsules

Antivitamins are substances that have inherent properties that impede the work of vitamins. Note that some antivitamins are almost analogous to vitamins in terms of molecular structure. Actually, thanks to this feature, they are able to displace useful substances from chemical compounds. But these substances do not have any effect on metabolism.

It should probably be recalled why the body needs vitamins. They are part of all enzymes, the main task of which is to accelerate biochemical reactions. Of course, vitamins have a large number of positive properties, but many scientists consider their participation in the work of the enzymatic system to be the main one.

As mentioned above, antivitamins are able to integrate into enzyme molecules, displacing useful substances from the compound. This process is irreversible and leads to a loss of enzyme activity. The situation is similar to that observed as a result of vitamin deficiency. It is quite obvious that with a high concentration of antivitamins, the same symptoms are observed, then with hypovitaminosis.

However, there are enough vitamins in the body, they just are not able to start working, since they were replaced in the enzyme molecules. We have now considered the first version of the work of this group of substances, which scientists call competitive. In other cases of the work of antivitamins, the similarity of their structure with vitamins no longer matters.

Moreover, they can be large, belong to different groups and differ in the mechanism of their work. In any case, antivitamins make it difficult for vitamins to do their job. Let's note some types of "activity" of antivitamins:

  1. They block the absorption of nutrients in the intestinal tract.
  2. Exclude vitamins from metabolic processes.
  3. Bind micronutrients.
  4. Violate the process of synthesis of vitamins by the microflora of the intestinal tract.
  5. Accelerate the processes of utilization of micronutrients.
  6. Destroy vitamins.

It should be noted that some antivitamins can work in several ways at once. In any case, with their high concentration, symptoms of vitamin deficiency (hypovitaminosis) are observed. Knowing what anti-vitamins are vitamins, you should find out the ways of their penetration into the body. Today, scientists know for sure that these substances can be artificial and natural. They often enter the body with food. Even healthy foods may contain a certain amount of antivitamins.

This is a normal situation, and so far scientists cannot say why antivitamins are needed at all. It is possible that their anti-vitamin effects are secondary and they are intended to be useful. Scientists are now unable to give an intelligible answer to this question. As we have already said, the content of antivitamins in food is often low. However, with a monotonous diet, problems are possible. We have already figured out what vitamins antivitamins are.Let's take a closer look at the most studied substances in this group.

Thiaminase

Chemical structure of thiaminase

You probably already understood from the name of the substance that it is associated with the vitamin thiamine (B1). The ending -ase tells us that this substance belongs to the group of enzymes. Thiaminase is capable of destroying vitamin B1 molecules. Scientists have found this enzyme in some species of sea and river fish. It is known that the substance is contained in some fish species of the smelt, carp and herring families.

Getting rid of thiaminase is easy enough. All enzymes are protein compounds and have the ability to fold when exposed to high temperatures. Thus, after heat treatment of the fish, the anti-vitamin will lose its activity. It is logical to assume that the frequent use of the above products in their raw form can lead to the development of hypovitaminosis of thiamine. There are known cases of massive vitamin deficiency in Thailand, since the inhabitants of this state often eat raw fish.

Recently, raw food has become popular in many countries around the world. Note that there is also a plant type of thiaminase contained in rice, potatoes, spinach, cherries, etc. However, the concentration of this substance in foods is low and, in theory, can only be dangerous for fans of raw food. Among the symptoms of thiamine hypovitaminosis, radiculitis and neuritis should be distinguished. If you suffer from these ailments, it's time to reconsider your diet, because the whole thing may lie in a large amount of thiaminase.

Another substance that can be called thiamine antivitamin is oxyamine. It uses a competitive route of action, and appears in the process of prolonged boiling of sour fruits and berries. However, scientists have found oxythiamine in raw sour fruits with berries. Thus, if you prepare fruit and berry stocks for the winter in the summer, then you should not subject them to prolonged heat treatment. Surely this fact is not paid attention to in the food industry.

Avidin

Chemical structure of avidin

This substance is an anti-vitamin against biotin. Recall that this is the second name of vitamin H. Avidin is able to bind molecules of a useful substance and accelerate its utilization. The substance is part of the egg white and is destroyed by temperature. Today, most people are afraid of salmonellosis and raw eggs are practically not consumed.

Recently, however, quail eggs have been very popular, which in their raw form may be useful for the immune system. There is no exact scientific evidence for this fact, then many people trust everything that they write on the network. Of course, this is a personal choice of each person, but we do not recommend doing so often. Otherwise, you simply won't get your vitamin H from this product.

During heat treatment, biotin fully retains its activity, in contrast to avidin, which is destroyed. Although vitamin H is synthesized by the microflora of the intestinal tract, it is important to ensure its supply from the outside. This is because many bowel problems are asymptomatic and you cannot be sure that you are completely healthy. Among the symptoms of biotin hypovitaminosis, we note dry and unhealthy skin color, hypotension, muscle weakness, and deterioration in hair quality.

Ascorbinase

Multicolored medications

You already understood that this substance is an antivitamin of ascorbic acid. The substance is present in almost all fruits and vegetables. The main sources of ascorbinase include courgettes, cucumbers and cauliflower. Also, chlorophyll should be counted among the antivitamins of ascorbic acid. Recall that this is a pigment that gives green color to plants.

Both of the antivitamins we are considering accelerate the oxidative reactions of ascorbic acid, which will lead to a complete loss of vitamin activity.However, ascorbinase can cause the main harm when cellular structures are damaged. If fruits or vegetables were damaged during transportation, were damaged in a fall, were cut, etc.

For example, if you cook a salad that has been at room temperature for four to six hours, approximately 50 percent of the ascorbic acid will be lost. This suggests that fruits and vegetables should be cut just before consumption. The same should be done when squeezing juice.

If you cooked black currants with sugar for the winter, then the product will not lose ascorbic acid as a result. Tomato salad can stand for a while without losing nutritional value. You must remember that vitamin C is more resistant to high temperatures than ascorbinase. Snakes at 100 degrees, antivitamin is completely destroyed.

Among the symptoms of hypovitaminosis of ascorbic acid, we note bleeding of the gums, swelling and bruising on the skin, unsteadiness of the teeth. Surely you know the positive properties of ascorbic acid. This vitamin was the first that scientists have actively studied. In the modern environmental situation, it is very valuable, as it provides protection against intoxication and slows down the development of allergic reactions.

Antivitamin A

Graphic representation of four capsules running

With respect to retinol, hydrogenated and overheated fats may have anti-vitamin properties. This suggests that the use of margarine should be abandoned. An excellent source of vitamin A is fish, which does not need to be cooked for a long time. To get the most out of the seafood, bake the fish rather than fry it.

Antivitamin E

Fruit instead of pills

Today, many people know that vegetable oils are good for the body. However, scientists have found that the polyunsaturated fats they contain have anti-vitamin properties against tocopherol. Do not consume large quantities of vegetable oil and there will be no problems.

Caffeine

The chemical structure of caffeine

More recently, it was found that caffeine negatively affects the absorption of vitamins B and C. If you want to drink tea or coffee, then do it one and a half or two hours after the meal.

Synthetic Antivitamins

Medicines in a hamburger

We talked about what vitamins antivitamins are. In addition, today you got acquainted with the main substances that negatively affect the work of the most important vitamins. All substances discussed above are natural. However, do not forget that medications can also have an anti-vitamin effect on the body.

For the first time this became known back in the forties, when scientists studied sulfonamides. In addition to these drugs, antibiotics are the most dangerous from the point of view of anti-vitamin effects. They slow down the absorption of vitamins K and group B. Also, almost all antibiotics cause the death of the microflora of the intestinal tract, which synthesizes some vitamins.

First of all, this applies to substances of group B. Drugs intended for the treatment of tuberculosis, for example, cycloserine, have very strong antivitamin properties. It is capable of disrupting the absorption of several B vitamins, as well as PP. This is just a small part of all medications that interfere with micronutrients from doing their job, and we haven't talked about household chemicals yet. However, we do not want to urge you to stop using these substances. We just advise you to be very careful.

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