General description of the animal, the version of the appearance of the Chinese dog Chongqing, its use, reduction in the number of the breed, popularization of the species and its current position. The content of the article:
- Appearance versions
- Reducing livestock
- Current situation
The Chinese Chongqing dog or Chinese Chongqing dog is divided into three categories according to body size (small, medium large) and has a single standard. The three strains of dogs differ in height, skeleton, head and mouth shape, because these pets are mountain hunters and their physical characteristics depend on the local climate, topography, different prey and certain factors of natural selection.
The Medium-sized Chinese Chongqing dog is strong, compact, lean, muscular and very aggressive. The structure of the muzzle is brachycephalic. She is furious, confident, alert and elegant. Fearless behavior, demonstrates courage and loyalty.
Versions of the appearance of the Chinese dog Chongqing
Although these dogs are very often depicted in Chinese art, they are rarely mentioned in Chinese literature. Until recently, there was little interest in canine historical research on canines in China. Therefore, due to the lack of reliable evidence, it is almost impossible to state anything definitively about the origin of the chinese chongqing dog before the 1980s. But, there are some facts that at least slightly reveal the pedigree of the breed.
It is clear for sure that the Chinese dog Chongqing was bred in China many centuries ago and that it has always been associated with the city and province of Sichuan of the same name. Based on a number of physical and temperamental characteristics such as a solid blue-black tongue and wrinkled snout, the variety is likely closely related to two other native breeds: Chow Chow and Shar Pei.
Whether the dog was the first domestic animal in China, or one of the first two, along with the pig, is unclear. It is also unclear what kind it is based on. There are three competing theories about this. Some argue that the local dogs are the descendants of a small number of indigenous wolves. Others say that such canines were first domesticated in Tibet, India or the Middle East, and then spread to Chinese lands through trade and military conquest. Still others believe that these animals were domesticated simultaneously in China and elsewhere in Asia, and the two groups eventually merged.
Despite this, the ancestors of the Chinese dog Chongqing have been present in China ever since civilization existed on these lands.
The canines were definitely kept by early indigenous farmers, and almost certainly by nomadic hunter-gatherers. These animals probably performed the same roles as their counterparts elsewhere in the ancient world, namely, they were guardians, hunters, companions, and sources of food.
It is unclear what they originally looked like, but most experts agree that the dogs' physical appearance and temperament were nearly identical to a number of primitive breeds found around the world, including the Australian Dingo, the New Guinea Singing Dog, and the US Caroline Dog. Canids, which can be classified as dingoes, are still found throughout southern China.
It is likely that these species, the early ancestors of the Chinese dog Chongqing, descended from the smaller, less aggressive wolves of southern Asia and were better adapted to life in tropical and subtropical climates.To adapt to the cold conditions found in mountainous regions and northern China, the dogs almost certainly crossed paths with the larger, heavily woolly wolves found in these regions. Individuals resulting from crossing are known in the West as Spitz.
A little later, as a result of the intersection of the early canids with the Tibetan wolves, the people of Tibet developed two varieties, which are the progenitors of the Chinese dog Chongqing. One of them was a large and powerful protective species, which later became known as the Tibetan mastiff. The other is a small and affectionate companion animal. Both were brachycephalic. This means that they had short, sunken and wrinkled muzzles. Trade and conquest eventually introduced both breeds to China, where they became established. These four types, the primitive dingo, spitz and mastiff (similar to pugs), crossed regularly, leading to the formation of today's varieties in the area.
At some point, the Chinese developed a unique line of dogs (the predecessors of the Chinese dog Chongqing), probably crossing all four types of canines strongly. The resulting breed was typically loose, wrinkled skin, of medium size, curled tail, short stocky body and blue-black tongue. Although it is unclear exactly, but most likely they were almost certainly used as a multipurpose, namely for hunting, protecting property and as a source of food.
This new type had established itself very well throughout China by the time of the Han Dynasty (approximately 206 to 220 AD). Such canines are very common in Chinese art of the period, especially figurines, and are known as "Han dogs". It shows animals that are remarkably similar, if not identical, to modern Chow Chow, Shar Pei and Chongqing Chinese dogs.
There is substantial controversy among fans of all three breeds as to which of these species the Khan Dog represents, but the full truth is likely to remain a mystery forever. According to many experts, the Han dog exhibits the characteristics of all three types and is in fact a common ancestor that will later develop into a number of new varieties.
Application of the Chinese dog Chongqing
Until 1997, Chongqing City and its immediate surroundings were part of the ancient Chinese province of Sichuan, which for a long time served as the eastern border of Tibet. This area is famous for its mountainous landscape, unique culture, cuisine and speech with a unique dialect. A rare breed of dog developed around Chongqing, which is considered one of the most important, wealthy and powerful cities in China. This breed was different from all other native species for a number of reasons, including having a straight, hairless tail, referred to as bamboo.
Each valley and municipality had a unique name for the breed. The Chinese dog Chongqing has been called by dozens of different names over the centuries. She was not deliberately bred, although some indirect selection was carried out (only those individuals that were considered the most preferred were bred). This meant that such canines were mostly the result of natural pressure, and were significantly less inbred (derived from crosses with close relatives).
Farmers in Chongqing and Sichuan lived very hard and often did not have enough food to feed their families. People couldn't afford to keep a dog if it didn't serve multiple purposes. The Chongqing Chinese dog was mainly used to hunt most of the region's game species, including deer, rabbits, antelopes, wild goats, wild boars, land birds, and even tigers. Unlike most breeds, which hunt alone or in a pack, these dogs can work in different ways.
The Chinese dog Chongqing not only helped provide its owners with meat and skins, but also destroyed and chased away predators that could kill valuable livestock.During the night period, these canines were used as guard animals, protecting their home and family from wild animals and malevolent people. The breed also served as a pet for local families, providing them with companionship and affection. Those representatives who were not qualified for the various tasks assigned to them were usually eaten, providing people with a valuable and rare source of protein.
The Chinese dog Chongqing has become very famous near and in the city of Chongqing itself, as well as in Eastern Sichuan. However, the species remained virtually unknown outside of its homeland, and even in the rest of China. Representatives of the species have hardly changed their appearance and disposition over the centuries, continuing to serve in their native land as multipurpose working dogs.
Reducing the number of Chinese dog Chongqing
The introduction of modern technologies and agricultural practices in the late 19th and early 20th centuries led to a massive and growing boom. By the middle of the 20th century, the population of Sichuan was growing rapidly, and at some point exceeded 100 million people. Such a mass of people began to need huge areas of agricultural land in order to feed themselves. Most of the remaining wilderness in the area has been cleared to make way for cultivation and harvesting. After such changes, there is very little land left for hunting with the Chinese dog Chongqing. Therefore, they began to be kept primarily as watchdogs and companions.
After a long and bloody civil war, which was interrupted by World War II, communist rebels led by Mao Zedong took control of mainland China. Local communists officially expressed the idea that dogs are useless toys for rich categories of people and their maintenance is an unnecessary waste of resources. Local party officials have passed a law banning the keeping of domesticated dogs throughout Chinese territory. Due to these changes, millions of breeds were deliberately killed.
Canine pets, including the Chinese Chongqing dogs, have all but disappeared from China's cities and vast rural areas. This cleanup led to the partial and complete extinction of most of the bedrock. Many of the surviving varieties were Chow Chows and Pekingese, who had taken root in the West before that sad incident, and Tibetan Mastiffs, who were specially protected in the autonomous region of Tibet.
Only two breeds are believed to have survived in mainland China. One of them is a Shar Pei who was rescued by breeders from Hong Kong who lived in British territory. The other is the Chinese dog Chongqing. The preservation of the species was due to a combination of two factors. The first was that the majority of the livestock were located in a remote mountainous region, where government control was relatively weak. The second meant keeping them as working animals and therefore protected them from destruction. A small number of owners in the remote Sichuan valleys continued to breed these ancient canines, although they were fully preserved as human helpers.
Popularization of the Chinese dog Chongqing
By the late 1980s, Mao Zedong had died, and China's new leadership had slightly different ideologies. The country initiated a series of reforms aimed at creating a more efficient and free market economy. Keeping pets allowed again after more than 30 years of ban. The Chinese have also begun to conduct more research into the historical past of their homeland. Numerous statues of the Han dogs were found during archaeological excavations in the Sichuan province.
Several researchers noticed that the canines of the region were different from other Chinese breeds, and were almost identical to the statues of the Han dogs. By the early 1990s, pet ownership had become very popular in Chinese cities.Since the village was the only source of canines at the time, many were imported from rural areas. The Chinese dog Chongqing became more and more popular in its hometown, and the number of herds began to grow for the first time in decades. Some individuals were crossed with other varieties, which may have introduced a new black color to the breed.
In 1997, the Chinese government decided that Sichuan had become too populous to serve as a unified province. Chongqing City and adjacent parts of Eastern Sichuan were divided. The Chongqing Pet Association has shown great interest in the region's only indigenous breed. To put an end to the name confusion, the association officially named the dog Chongqing the Chinese dog in 2000, and in 2001 established a committee to promote the species.
The goal of the group is to popularize the Chinese Chongqing dogs and increase their number throughout China and around the world. The amateur group met with Western experts to develop a written standard, which was officially published in 2001 on the group's website. This Internet resource allowed for the first time to present the variety in the rest of the world and significantly increase global interest in it. The Chinese Chongqing dog advertising committee has carefully selected breeders in the United States, the European Union and Canada to export their breed. In addition, many of the representatives were purchased by amateurs all over China.
The current position of the Chinese dog Chongqing
The Chinese Chongqing dog began to show signs of "recovery" until a catastrophe in the country hit them again. In 2003, an outbreak of SARS (SARS) disease spread throughout China. To combat the deadly disease, the Chinese government killed most of the canine populations in Chongqing, including most of Chongqing's Chinese dogs.
This latest purge has resulted in the nearly complete extinction of the species. Today, this breed is considered one of the rarest in the world. The total global population of this species is low and growing slowly. It is believed that there are fewer purebred Chinese Chongqing dogs on earth than giant pandas, another creature that has survived to this day thanks to living deep in the Sichuan and Chongqing mountains.
Currently, fewer than 2,000 purebred dogs remain, the vast majority of which are owned by a small number of breeders and hobbyists in Chongqing and its suburbs. Although breed numbers remain very low, the future of the Chinese Chongqing dog looks brighter. In addition to the increased interest around the world, there is significant and growing attention for the variety throughout China. This interest is closely related to the fact that the Chinese are proud of their native breeds. Dog owners across the country are leaning towards indigenous purebreds - symbols of the national culture.
In 2006, the Chinese Chongqing dog breeding center (CCDBC) was established in Beijing, the capital of China, and collected the best available specimens from around Chongqing for use in its breeding program. Fortunately for the Chinese dog Chongqing, it now has four separate organizations dedicated to protecting and promoting the breed around the world, CCDBC, Chongqing pet association, Chongqing kennel club and Chinese Chongqing dog promotional committee. Although this species does not yet have a large number of amateurs and owners, the owners of such dogs are very attached to them. It is hoped that in the near future, the number of the species will increase dramatically and spread throughout the world.
Until recently, the Chongqing Chinese dog was kept exclusively as a working animal, especially during the period that lasted from 1949 to the late 1980s. Until the 1950s, the main role of the breed was in the hunting field, and few individuals are used for this purpose today. Modern representatives perform two main functions - they are excellent companions and guards.
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