General description of the dog, the progenitors of the Boston Terrier and their purpose, the development of the breed, the work of promoting and recognizing the variety, the distribution and current state of the animal. The content of the article:
- Origin and progenitors and their purpose
- The history of development
- Promotion and recognition of the dog
- Distribution and its current state
The Boston Terrier, or Boston Terrier, is named after its hometown of Boston, Massachusetts. Originating in the United States, this companion has the distinction of being the first breed developed in America to focus on communication, not work. Originally bred as war dogs, the manifestations of modern representatives bear little resemblance to the temperament of their ancestors.
Today such pets are known for their energetic and friendly nature, and are considered one of the greatest "clowns" in the world of dogs. The variety has long been in great demand in America, although it is no longer as popular as in the early years of the 20th century. The animals are also known by other names: boston bulldog, boston bull terrier, boston bulls, roundheads, boxwoods, and american gentleman.
The Boston Terrier is perhaps best described like this: the head of a bulldog on the body of a terrier that wears a tuxedo. This breed is quite small without being miniature. For demonstration in the show ring, representatives of the variety are divided into three classes: less than 6, 8 kg, from 7 to 9 kg, and from 9, 5 to 11 kg. They are sturdy dogs that should never look stocky.
The perfect Boston Terrier is muscular and athletic, not fat. Young dogs tend to be quite lean, but take on shape by the age of three. The square format is an important characteristic of this breed. The Boston Terrier's tail is naturally short.
The head is brachycephalic, which means with a depressed muzzle, which is short and flat. Severely undershot teeth. Large, round and dark eyes are far apart. The triangular erect ears are quite long and exceptionally wide for the size of the dog. The Boston Terrier "coat" is short, smooth, bright, perfectly smooth to the touch in black and white, brindle and white colors.
The origin and progenitors of the Boston Terrier and their purpose
The species is a relatively modern creature. The early breeders of which made very painstaking records of their breeding. As a result of diligently keeping stud books, much more facts are known about the origin of this breed than about almost any other species of canine. Although the Boston Terrier is clearly an American creation, its ancestry can be traced directly to two events in the history of the English dog.
The first is the preservation of organized herd books by English foxhound breeders. This process began in the late 1700s, when breeders of this variety in the UK began keeping notes of their pets' genealogies. Breeders of other breeds, the progenitors of the Boston Terrier, will adopt and follow this practice by adding to them the participation of their wards in show competitions. This, in turn, led to the massive development of dog contests and kennels. By the 1860s, show events had become incredibly popular in the United Kingdom and soon spread to the East Coast of the United States of America.
The second event was the English adoption of the "Cruelty to Animals Act" of 1835, which banned the sport of baiting bears and bulls.In the early period, such bulbaiting activities were considered one of the most demanded popular forms of gambling and a peculiar form of recreation in the UK.
The prohibition of bull-baiting has created a void, both in terms of where gambling takes place and as a way to satisfy the public's desire to engage in bloody sports. This would lead to a rapid rise in the popularity of dog fighting. As such entertainment became more widespread, more and more money was allocated to breed lines of fighting dogs, the forerunners of the Boston Terrier. Amateurs quickly realized that there are two varieties that are most suitable for competition in a battle pit. The first of these was the Terrier, which at this time was more of a type rather than a specific breed. Terriers of this era were renowned for possessing enough aggression to fight other brethren until death, and for their extremely fast-paced and exciting fighting style. The second is the Bulldogs, which were considered illegal. They were still used in clandestine bullfighting matches. The Bulldog, the ancestors of the Boston Terriers, who on the outside seemed like the best fighting dogs, were larger and more impressive than terriers, and were also endowed by nature with strong jaws and sturdy necks. But they, as a rule, showed sufficient "lethargy" and did not need the necessary aggression to fight the "cousins" to the bitter end. This led English breeders to cross-breed Bulldogs and Terriers to create the "ultimate" fighting breed that is commonly known as the Bull and Terrier.
Bull and Terriers, the ancestors of the Boston Terrier, eventually gave birth to the current generation. Subsequently, several different separate lines have been developed. The two most common eventually became known as the Bull Terrier and the Staffordshire Bull Terrier. Their popularity as war dogs led to their importation into the United States, a process that began in the early 19th century. It was there that they would eventually become known as Pit Bull Terriers.
Once in America, this species would have experienced a fairly rapid increase in demand, especially in the large eastern cities, where they have earned the nickname "yankee terriers". Despite the presence of true breeding types of bull terriers, bulldogs and terriers usually still crossed to create bull and terriers. During that period, these canines, the progenitors of the Boston Terrier, showed significantly greater variation than they do today. Some had the elongated head of a modern Bull Terrier, others had a massive round head similar to the English Bulldog, and still others had the intermediate appearance of an American Pit Bull Terrier.
Boston Terrier development history
Bull and terriers were especially popular in the city of Boston. For many decades, breeders in this area focused almost entirely on the working ability of the Boston Terrier's predecessors, which meant being able to fight in a combat arena. This began to change around 1865. Around the same time, a Boston resident named Mr. Robert S. Hooper acquired a pet named "Judge" from local Mr. William O'Brien.
It is generally accepted that this dog was exported from England and was the result of a cross between an English Bulldog and the now extinct English White Terrier. The Judge, better known as the Hooper’s Judge, was brindle with a white stripe on the forehead. It weighed roughly 32 pounds as it was relatively leggy. Its head was large and strong, and its muzzle was with the almost even mouth of a modern Boston Terrier. He was born by a white English bulldog named "Burnett's Gyp" owned by Edward Burnett of Southborough, Massachusetts. One of the resulting puppies became known as "Well's Eph" - a short, uniformly colored brindle dog, the ancestor of the Boston Terrier. Then "Eph" was mated to "Tobin's Kate".The pedigree of virtually all modern Boston Terriers can be traced directly to these four dogs.
The descendants of the "Hooper's Judge" were notable for their rounded heads, which were much more like those of a bulldog than of a terrier. These individuals became very popular throughout the city of Boston and were in high demand among the fighting dogs. Very quickly, breeders not interested in dog fighting began to take an interest in these animals, which at that time became known as the Boston Bull Terrier or Round Head. These breeders were more interested in creating a standardized dog, a future Boston Terrier, with a unique appearance than in performance.
They started a breeding program based on the descendants of the Hooper's Judge. These dogs were highly inbred and also crossed with other canines. Such crosses were made to balance the appearance. Puppies too similar to a bulldog, crossed with terriers, and most often with a pit bull terrier. Offspring, which were too terrier, were mixed with bulldogs.
Initially English Bulldogs were preferred, but their place was quickly taken over by the French Bulldog. French Bulldogs were smaller than their English "cousins" and possessed the erect ears preferred by Boston breeders. Many of the early Boston Terrier breeders were regular workers and transport drivers. These people borrowed the bulldogs and terriers pedigree practice from their employers and clients to create their own thoroughbred pets.
Boston Terrier promotion and recognition work
In 1888, the Boston Bull Terrier first appeared at the canine show. He was exhibited in the "for round-headed Bull Terriers" class at the New England Kennel Club Dog Show in Boston. By 1891, there was sufficient interest in this species. Then Mr. Charles Leland organized a meeting of breeders to form the American Bull Terrier Club. These breeders compiled a breed book of 75 dogs that could be traced back to at least three generations. These individuals formed the basis of the modern Boston Terrier breed.
The group also published the original breed standard. The club's leading goal was to get a new dog to be recognized by the newly formed American Kennel Club (AKC). Initially, some obstacles formed, due to which, perhaps, the greatest opposition of Bull Terrier breeders, objected to the name of the variety. The AKC also did not feel that the name "Roundhead" was appropriate. But, subsequently, they reached a compromise, and gave the new canines the official name "Boston Terrier", by which they are known in all corners of the world.
In 1893, the AKC officially recognized the Boston Terrier introduced by the newly renamed Boston Terrier Club of America (BTCA). This marked several stages. The Boston Terrier is the first breed created in America to receive official recognition from the AKC. Likewise, the variety was the original and only named after an American city.
The Boston Terrier is also widely recognized as the earliest canine that was bred in America for uniform appearance, not for work. It remained that way until the last few decades. Finally, the BTCA has become not only one of the start-up breed clubs associated with the AKC, but also leading the breed native to the United States.
Although originally bred by hairdressers and transport drivers, the Boston Terrier quickly became popular with the American upper class. Towards the end of the 19th century, the variety was beginning to replace Toy Spaniels and Pugs, which were previously preferred. The Boston Terrier also enjoyed resounding success in the show ring and by 1900, four of the species (Topsy, Spider, Montey and Tansey) were already competing in championships.
Monty the dog and his father Buster have had a greater influence on the breed than any dog other than the Hooper’s Judge. These two were bled in more than 20% of all Boston Terriers registered with the ASK before 1900. The earliest members of the variety were quite changeable in appearance, but by 1910 had become standardized and displayed modern coloration and markings. Popular in all grades, adorable looks and playful, sweet nature won many fans and helped the Boston Terrier quickly spread throughout the United States of America. In 1914, the breed was registered with the United Kennel Club (UKC), becoming one of the first companion dogs to be entered on a typical registry.
Distribution of the Boston Terrier and its current state
In the years since World War I, the American economy has grown tremendously. The boom in the Roaring Twenties, coupled with the strong nationalist sentiment that accompanied the American victory over the Central Powers, sparked a strong desire in many locals to own an American dog. The Boston Terrier was an overwhelmingly popular choice.
During the 1920s, the breed was one of the most sought after dogs in America and in all likelihood became the most widespread purebred breed during that decade. Pets were considered ideal canine companions, as they were small enough to live in the city, but also showed extreme playfulness and affectionate disposition with children.
Because of its great popularity, the Boston Terrier has been used almost universally in advertisements, and images of these animals have appeared wherever possible, from cigarettes to playing cards. Beginning in 1922, Boston University adopted a boston terrier named "Rhett" as its official mascot.
The Great Depression of the 1930s exacerbated interest in dogs in general, and during the events of World War II - in the emergence of new breeds. As a result, the Boston Terrier has supplanted the popularity of other canines. However, the variety was supported by a large number of loyal fans. While she never regained the popularity she enjoyed in the 1920s, the demand for these dogs has never gone far from the top of the AKC registration rankings either.
From 1900 to 1950, the AKC registered more Boston Terriers than any other breed. Since the 1920s, the Boston Terrier has consistently ranked fifth and twenty-fifth on the AKC list of registrations. In 2010, they entered the twentieth place. During the 20th century, the Boston Terrier was exported to all corners of the world. However, in other countries, the breed did not gain such rapid popularity, which it enjoys in its homeland.
In 1979, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts named the Boston Terrier the official state dog. He became the fourth breed to receive this honor and one of eleven. The Boston Terrier, being developed as a companion and show dog, is a frequent and successful participant in numerous sports, including obedience and agility tests. These pets are repeatedly used as therapeutic and service animals.
Despite their ability to perform wonderfully on other tasks, the vast majority of Boston Terriers are companion dogs, as always. The incredibly charming appearance and gentle nature of this breed, together with its relatively low maintenance requirements, make it the best among all canines to live as a companion animal. While popularity will almost certainly change from year to year, all signs indicate that the Boston Terrier will remain the American favorite for the foreseeable future.