Description of the thigh plant, advice on growing in a personal plot, how to reproduce, possible pests and diseases in gardening, interesting notes, application, types.
The thighbone (Pimpinella) is a plant that is part of the Apiaceae family. The genus unites a fairly significant number of these flora representatives, the number of which, according to the information provided by The Plant List database, reaches 106 units, while the status of more than three hundred species has not been fully determined (as of autumn 2016).
The natural area of distribution of the beetle species covers territories characterized by a tropical, subtropical and temperate climate, which includes European and Asian lands, regions of the African continent, as well as several species of the genus can be found in America. If we talk about Russia and neighboring countries, then there are botanists about 25 species, most of which grow in the Caucasus. The most common species of the genus is the Saxifraga Bedrenets (Pimpinella saxifraga), which is used for medicinal purposes. Plants prefer meadows and forest edges, and grow in abundance framing fields and roads.
|Growing period||Perennial, two- or one-year|
|Breeds||By seeds or by dividing the bush|
|Open ground transplant terms||March, April|
|Landing rules||Distance between plants 20 cm|
|Priming||Lightweight, loose, well-drained nutritional value is unimportant|
|Soil acidity values, pH||6, 5-7 (neutral) or 5-6 (slightly acidic)|
|Illumination level||South, southwest, west, southeast or east location|
|Humidity level||Drought-resistant, air humidity is preferable over 35%|
|Special care rules||Undemanding, grows without regular feeding|
|Height options||0.3-0.6 m|
|Type of inflorescences or flowers||Complex umbellate inflorescences|
|Color of flowers||Snow white, pink or purple|
|Fruit type||Seed pods|
|The timing of fruit ripening||From July, but massively in August|
|Application in landscape design||For the decoration of borders, in flower beds, as a medicinal plant|
The thighbone bears its name in Latin thanks to the terms "bipinella" and "bipinulla", which directly correspond to the shape of the leaf plates - pinnately dissected. Some species are capable of destroying stones formed in the kidneys or gall and bladder, so the people can hear the term - saxifrage.
There are perennials among the beetle species; in rare cases, plants have a two- or one-year growing season. The short roots have a fusiform shape, can reach a length of 20 cm, a thickness of no more than 1.5 cm. The color of the roots is brown. Stems at the base can sometimes be lignified, their surface with thin ribs, it is bare or pubescent. The stems grow erect and branched, they are rounded in cross section, their interior is hollow. The shoots are mainly painted green, and towards the top, its shade brightens. The height of the stems varies in the range of 30-60 cm.
In the root zone, a rosette is formed from the leaves, while the foliage is mainly concentrated in the lower part, and the top practically remains leafless. The leaves of the plant, justifying their name, grow simple or double- or thrice-pinnate.The length of the lower leaf plates at the thigh reaches 10–20 cm. There are up to 4 pairs of shares in the leaf plate. They have an ovoid, rounded ovoid shape, a blunt apex, an edge with large teeth. On the stems in the middle part, the leaves are characterized by a deeper dissection, at the base of their lobes are wedge-shaped. At the tops, the leaf plates are greatly reduced and their lobes are very narrow. Foliage color is usually not bright, greenish gray.
The thighbone has a flowering period that extends throughout the summer months. Bisexual flowers gather in complex umbellate inflorescences devoid of wrappers. In such umbrellas there are 6–21 rays. Their diameter reaches 6–8 cm. The petals in the flowers are equal in length, their surface is bare, the color is snow-white, sometimes taking on a pink or crimson hue. The sepals of flowers are invisible, the petals in them are obovate, while the central lobe is curved.
After flowering, the time comes for the ripening of the fruits, which in the thigh have the form of seed bolls. They begin to ripen from the end of July or at the beginning of the last summer month, and mass ripening falls just in August. The capsules are characterized by an ovoid-spherical or oblong-ovoid shape. It often happens that there is compression on the sides, and threadlike ribs are on the surface. The seeds filling the fruit have a short-ovoid contour. Their length varies within 2–2.5 mm, with a width of about 1–1.5 mm.
Although the plant is often considered a "inhabitant" of fields and meadows, it can also be grown on a personal plot, not only becoming its decoration, but also for collecting medicinal raw materials. Moreover, the gardener will not have to make a lot of effort when leaving.
Thighbump: Growing Tips, Planting, and Outdoor Care
- Landing place should be considered carefully based on the natural preferences of the plant. That is, they try to pick up a flower bed or garden bed open from all sides to the sun's rays. It is advisable to set aside a southern, south-western, or southeastern location for the thigh, but places where the bushes will get at least a few hours of direct sunlight per day (east or west) may be suitable. In full shade, the stems will begin to stretch, flowering will become scarce or even stop altogether. You should not plant in lowlands or near close-lying groundwater, as this can provoke fungal diseases.
- Priming when growing a thigh, it is recommended to select a well-drained and nutritious one. This can be loam or sandy loam substrates. Although it is said that nutritional value does not play a role for this plant, plantings on humus-rich lands show the best growth. It is not worth planting on heavy, clayey and sandy soils; salt licks will not work either. Before planting, it is recommended to dig up the soil, clean it of plant residues and slightly fertilize it with full mineral complexes (for example, Kemira).
- Thigh landing carried out in the case when it is necessary to move the seedlings into open ground or a seedling after dividing the bush. The planting time is chosen in the spring. The hole is dug in such a way that an earthen ball surrounding the root system of the plant can easily fit into it. Then a seedling is placed in the recess and the soil is poured around it. After planting, abundant watering is recommended. The distance that should remain between the seedlings should not exceed 20-30 cm.
- Watering when caring for a thigh, it is practically not required, since it is drought-resistant, and natural precipitation will be enough. If the weather is very dry and hot, you can moisten the soil with warm water once a week.
- Fertilizers when growing a thigh, it is not necessary to make it, since it has enough nutrients from the soil. Only in spring can the root zone of the plant be mulched with organic matter (peat or compost).Such feeding will stimulate the growth of the nutritious mass of the saxifrage.
- Harvesting of the thigh. Usually the root is used for medicinal purposes. Digging should be done after the end of the flowering process in September-October. They use a pitchfork or a shovel. It is better to choose larger specimens for harvesting, since they have a more developed root system. The roots of the thigh must be uprooted and thoroughly rinsed in running water to remove soil residues. After that, all the collected material is laid out on a clean canvas under a canopy. Drying should not be carried out in direct sunlight, since the medicinal material of any plant will lose most of the nutrients. The roots of the saxifrage are characterized by a rather expressive spicy-sweet taste and a very pungent aroma. When completely dry, they become brittle. After drying, the material is stored in glass containers. Chop the roots just before using them. Such raw materials do not lose their useful properties over a 3-year period. In order not to lose the planting of the thighbone and to have new developed shoots next year, it is recommended to leave 10-15% of the bushes intact in the area where the harvesting is carried out. Saxifrage stems and foliage should be harvested before flowering begins - in May. Drying is carried out according to the above rules for a week. Then the leaves take on a darker color, and it is possible to grind them to a powdery state. Salting of leaves is also carried out, which are then suitable for food. Harvesting seeds of the thighbone is carried out in early autumn, when they are fully ripe and have acquired a light brown color. The umbrellas should then be cut, dried and then shaken out of the seed material. It is best to cut the inflorescences on the peduncles, which are tied in bunches and hung over a clean cloth, where the seeds will spill out when drying. They are stored for no more than two years in the dark, in containers that must be glass or porcelain.
- General rules of care. Like any undemanding garden plant, the thighworm will need care, which will include regular weeding and periodic loosening of the soil around it. Harvest time comes in the second half of August. To resist unplanned self-seeding, wilting inflorescences should be removed in a timely manner. If desired, it is possible to plant medium-sized pieces of thigh rhizomes in pots filled with peat-sandy soil (light and nutritious), this will make it possible to get fresh fragrant greens during the autumn-winter months. A pot with such a plant is placed on the southern windowsill. The saxifrage will be grateful during this period for providing it with lights (both conventional and special (phyto) lamps are suitable).
- Winter hardiness. The plant has excellent frost resistance properties even in our regions, so no shelter is required.
- Where to get saxifrage thigh seeds. Such material can be easily purchased at a flower shop or bought through an online store, if possible, ask friends or collect it in the forest or in the meadow. When the seeds are fully ripe, they are easily shaken out of the umbrella inflorescences. Seed material should be collected in nature until the end of the second decade of September. Ripe thigh seeds are brown in color, dry and rather tough to the touch, strongly resembling dill seeds. Also in garden centers or nurseries there is an opportunity to purchase ready-made rooted thighs in containers. When buying, it is important to inspect the selected specimen for the absence of rot, pests or any other damage on it.
- Application in landscape design. If you want to create a phytocomposition in a natural or country style, then this plant will come in handy.Such plantings will look good when decorating borders.
See also guidelines for growing heteropanax.
How to breed a thigh
In order to grow this medicinal and ornamental culture on their site, they are usually engaged in sowing seeds or dividing an overgrown bush.
Propagation of thighs using seedsSowing is recommended to be carried out in spring time directly on a prepared bed in advance, when the ground dries slightly after the snow melts and warms up a little. All due to the fact that the seedlings are not afraid of frost. The soil in the selected place is dug up, the remnants of the roots of other plants are removed. After that, a shallow groove is dug into which the seed is evenly distributed (at a distance of 20 cm from each other). Then the crops are lightly sprinkled with the same substrate and gently watered. You can use a watering can with a sprinkler head to avoid washing the seeds out of the soil. When seedlings appear (after about 7-10 days) and then grow well, thinning can be performed so that the root system of the seedlings has enough space. You should not be engaged in transplanting the remaining thigh seedlings from thinning to another place, as they do not take root well.
They will please with a good result, and podzimny crops in late autumn. Then the saxifrage seeds will undergo natural stratification and sprout after a little warming up of the soil. Flowering and fruiting can be expected in the same year.
Also, some gardeners practice growing thigh seedlings. Then the seeds should be sown in seedling containers filled with peat-sandy substrate. The best time for this will be the end of winter or the first week of March. But here you will have to imitate natural stratification and place the seedling container on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator. When this time has passed, the seedlings are placed on a windowsill, with good lighting, but shading at noon from direct sunlight. When leaving, it is important not to overmoisten the soil, since the plant tolerates drying much easier. At the end of May, the grown beetle seedlings should be transplanted by the transshipment method (without destroying the earthen lump that will surround the root system) into open ground. Usually by this time several pairs of leaves will unfold on them and the movement is transferred by them normally.
Propagation of the thigh by dividing the bushThis method will give a faster result. Division should be done in early spring, when vegetative activity has not yet begun. With the help of a sharpened shovel, part of the bush is cut off and pulled out of the soil. It is important not to make the division very shallow, so that the adaptation is faster. Sections of the cut can be sprinkled with charcoal powder or just ash for disinfection and the cut can be planted in a previously prepared place. When planting, the distance between seedlings is also maintained at about 20-30 cm, the planting depth should be in the range of 5-8 cm.
Potential pests and diseases of the thigh when gardening
Despite the rather high resistance to diseases and pests, this representative of the flora can suffer from the attack of the umbrella moth (horsefly) or aphids. The latter, moreover, can act as a carrier of viral diseases, and then the affected specimen must be immediately destroyed. In any case, due to such attacks, the yield of seed material decreases and therefore appropriate measures must be taken immediately. For pest control, insecticidal preparations with a wide spectrum of action are used (for example, Aktara, Actellik or Karbofos).
High humidity of the environment, coupled with fluctuations in day and night temperatures, can cause fungal diseases. The main one is downy mildew. Symptoms of the disease are the formation of spotting, which takes on a black, brown or whitish color. In this case, the spots are distributed unevenly over the sheet surface.
In this case, preventive measures become an important matter when growing a thighbone: weeding with weeds; removal of plant residues outside the personal plot, as they become an excellent breeding ground for pathogens of fungal infections. Well, in the spring, it is recommended to treat all plantings with fungicides, among which Fuedazol, Topaz or Tiram have proven themselves well. The concentration indicated by the manufacturer should not be violated.
If the symptoms of fungal diseases described earlier are detected, all affected parts of the thigh are cut off and burned. And also processing is carried out with appropriate fungicidal preparations.
Interesting notes about thigh
Since the plant is very similar to its "brothers" in the umbrella family, you should be very careful when harvesting roots with rhizomes. This is because many members of the family are poisonous. Root digging should be carried out in an area that was previously marked during the flowering of the thighbone.
ImportantDo not confuse the roots of the beetle with the common hogweed (Heracleum sphondylium), since the latter is poisonous, the taste of the roots is pungent and bitter. Another similar, but poisonous plant is spotted hemlock (Conium maculatum).
Also, the roots of Pimpinella are often confused with the roots of parsnip (Pastinaca sativa), which have an even shape, differ in fleshiness and are similar in smell and taste to parsley.
The same "green relative" with which the species Pimpinella saxifraga is confused is the red deer (Peucedanum cervaria). However, its leaves are wrapped and feature a double-pinnate shape.
Application of the thigh plant
For a long time, people were aware of the multiple uses of this representative of the flora, such as medicine, cooking, and the like. The grass of the thigh was used in pastures as fodder for livestock. Such a species as anise thigh (Pimpinella anisum), familiar to many by the name anise, was used to extract essential oil from its seeds. All species in the genus are excellent honey plants.
The most famous in medicine is the saxifraga femur (Pimpinella saxifraga) or saxifraga femur. Drugs based on it were prescribed by folk medicine men for angina (hoarse voice) or bronchial asthma and helped to fight diseases of the bronchi. In this case, only the underground part of the plant (rhizomes and roots) is used. If you prepare a decoction on their basis, then it is he who has an expectorant effect with prolonged bouts of coughing. Also, such a remedy is used to treat acute catarrh of the upper respiratory tract or an advanced form of bronchitis.
When the rhizome tincture was taken internally, it improved the digestion processes and helped with stomach ailments (ulcers, colitis or gastritis). The same drug has a diuretic, diaphoretic effect, and also helps to eliminate pain symptoms. The same alcohol-based remedy helps to eliminate spasms of the biliary tract, dilates blood vessels. If the patient suffers from rhinitis or sinusitis (runny nose), then thigh juice is perfect for treatment.
Individual intolerance, which can provoke an allergic reaction, acts as a contraindication for the use of funds based on this plant. Then a rash, runny nose, or even swelling and shortness of breath may appear. When such symptoms appear, it is recommended to immediately stop using the drugs on the thigh renewal. If the dosage is violated to a larger side of funds based on this plant, then contact dermatitis or photodermatitis can be provoked.
Important! Do not violate the dosage
The thighbone was also used in cooking, since the young foliage of the species Pimpinella saxifraga is characterized by a taste that contains bitter, tart and spicy notes, but at the same time its aroma is the most delicate.If the roots are dried, they will have a bitter-spicy taste, resembling cucumbers, the smell will be slightly pungent, which is why they are introduced into the composition of seasonings. Young umbrellas have a distinct aniseed aroma and taste. When the seed material is fully ripe, the aniseed notes in the aroma are replaced by carrot-vegetable ones, and therefore the seeds are usually introduced into vegetable stews (eggplant and zucchini). At the same time, the aroma (like anise) is at first barely caught, but then it becomes more and more distinct.
Deciduous mass and stems, flowers and seed material of saxifrage thighs are usually used as a perfume in the manufacture of drinks, which then acquire a golden hue and a pleasant aroma. When pickling cucumbers, tomatoes and other garden gifts, put umbrella inflorescences in the brine. For the preparation of salads, soups and vinaigrettes, culinary experts use roots and young foliage. These same parts flavor cheeses and sausages well, as well as beer and soft drinks.
Quite often the thigh saxifrage serves as a substitute for caraway seeds and regular anise, which are used for meat dishes, eggs and cheese, seafood, fish and rice with vegetables. Also, dishes based on tomatoes and kohlrabi cabbage, various sauces, come out well with the addition of such a spicy herb. The seeds can be added to baked goods and confectionery products, as well as used in cheese production.
The essential oil obtained from saxifrage thighs is usually used in perfumery when making creams or toothpastes and powders.
Such plantings are very loved by livestock, so they are used by mixing them into hay, which serves to increase appetite and milk yield.
Types of thigh
Anise thigh (Pimpinella anisum)may occur under the name Anise ordinary… It is a herbaceous annual, used as a spice. The native area of natural distribution is not precisely defined, but presumably it falls on the territory of the Mediterranean or the Middle East. In order to obtain seeds, it is cultivated on the lands of all southern Europe, as well as in Asia Minor, Egypt and Mexico. On the territory of Russia, the species is grown as a culture.
Aniseed thigh has thin and short standing stems with a pubescent surface. The root has a fusiform and rod-like shape, thin. The height of the stems reaches 0.6 m, while the width of the bush can be measured at 0.45 cm. The stems grow erect and rounded in section, there are grooves on the surface. Branching is present in the upper part of the shoots.
Leaves in the basal and lower part of the aniseed thigh are attached to the stems with long petioles. Such foliage grows whole, notched-toothed or lobed. The leaves are composed of lobes with a rounded heart-shaped shape, while a couple of them have short petioles, and the central one with a longer one. On the stems, the leaves have leaves on the sides with two lobes and a three-lobed terminal lobe. They grow on long petioles. In the upper part, the leaves are devoid of petioles, 2- or 3-pinnate. Their shares are linear-lanceolate.
From the beginning of summer, complex umbellate inflorescences are formed on the tops of the stems. Flowers in them are small, with five petals. The diameter of the inflorescences reaches 2.5–6 cm. They are located on 7–15 scattered shortened rays with short pubescence. Flower petals are painted in a cream color scheme. Fruiting begins in August. The color of the seed capsule is greenish or brownish gray. As it matures, the color changes to completely gray. The form is broad, heart-ovate, ovoid or obverse-pear-shaped. The achenes are 3-5 mm long. There are many seeds in the fruits, their size is small, so a thousand pieces weigh only 2-3, 6 grams. The seeds have a characteristic aroma. The plant is used in cooking (fruits and feathery foliage).
Big thigh (Pimpinella major)is a perennial with a herbaceous vegetative form.It is distinguished from the saxifraga species (Pimpinella saxifraga) by a larger stem with a faceted furrowed bare surface. The plant is found almost everywhere in European lands, excluding the southern regions. In Russia, it is not uncommon in the western and southwestern regions, rather rarely in the central ones. Preference is given to forests and shrubs, dry meadows.
Branched roots are fusiform, odor at the roots is unpleasant. The stalks of the great femur vary in height within 0.4–1 m. They grow straight, the interior is hollow, the surface is deeply grooved, there is no pubescence. There is a slight bifurcation in the upper part. In the part at the base there are rosettes made up of lateral leaves. The lower foliage with petioles has a simple feathery shape. It consists of 4–8 leaf lobes. Their outlines are ovoid or oblong, they can grow pointed, the base is wedge-shaped, rounded or in the form of a heart. Irregular sharp or notched teeth run along the edge. The size of the leaflets is large - 2.5–7 cm long and 1–4 cm wide.
Leaves in the middle and upper part of the stalks of the thighbone grow sessile, have an enlarged sheath. The leaf lobes are narrowed, the dissection is deeper, the edge is notched-serrate. At the very top, the leaves are small in size, with tripartite or reduced. During flowering, umbrellas are formed with a diameter of 5-8 cm, composed of 9-15 thin rays. No wrapper. Petals in flowers are white or pinkish. The outer length is 1.4 mm. The fruit is a two-seeded capsule of oblong-ovoid shape. Its length is 2.5–3.5 cm with a width of only 1.5–2 mm. The ribs on the back of the fetus are protruding. The species can be used for medicinal purposes.
Available grade thigh big "Rosea"blooming until mid-July. It is represented by a perennial of powerful outlines, on the tops of the stems of which spreading umbellate inflorescences are formed. Their diameter does not exceed 10 cm.The color of the petals in the flowers is pink, the foliage is feathery, resembling a fern frond. The plant reaches a height of 75–90 cm with a bush width of 45 cm.
Saxifrage thigh (Pimpinella saxifraga)may occur under the name Saxifrage thigh. Received the specific name due to the peculiarity of germinating even in rocky ground, and is also used to break stones in the kidneys, gall or bladder. Herbaceous perennial, common in all European territories, and also found in Russia and Asia, in regions with a temperate climate. It grows in meadows and steppes, in forests of various tree species, on hills and slopes overgrown with grass.
In femur, saxifrage rhizome has many heads, fusiform roots, with abundant branching. The roots are colored brown, their length does not exceed 20 cm with a width of 1.5 cm. The root collar of the plant is covered with the remnants of dead leaf plates in the form of fibers. The height of the branched stems is 15–80 cm. They grow upright, hollow inside, with a rounded section. There are thin ribs on the surface of the stems. The stems themselves are dense in the lower part, leafy only below, and the top is leafless. In the root zone, a rosette is formed. On it, as on the leaves, there is a short pubescence or bare stems.
The leaf plates are pinnate, the lower ones have petioles, about 10-20 cm long. The leaf lobes have ovoid or rounded ovate outlines. The apex is obtuse, with large denticles on the edge. Gradually, the size of the leaf lobes decreases towards the apex. The color of the leaves is grayish green.
During summer flowering, umbellate inflorescences are formed at the saxifrage, composed of 6–21 refined naked rays. The diameter of the corymbose rays is within 5–8 cm. They have neither envelopes nor envelopes. The calyx has five teeth, but they are not very pronounced. The color of the petals is whitish, occasionally takes on a pinkish tint. Their length is 1 mm.The outer surface has a bristly hairy pubescence. There are also five stamens in the flowers.
Ripening of seeds in the saxifrage occurs in the period beginning in late July or early August, and at the end of summer, ripening takes on a massive character. The surface of the seeds is bare, the shape is short-ovoid. The length of the seed is 2–2.5 mm and the width is about 1–1.5 mm.
Fragrant thigh (Pimpinella aromatica)is a two-year-old herbaceous representative of the flora. Native lands fall on the territory of Eastern Transcaucasia and Dagestan, while the plant is endemic to these places, that is, it is not possible to find it anywhere else in nature. Prefers slopes of clay and rocky soil, shrub thickets for growth. The root grows upright or ascending. Its thickness is no more than 5 mm. The stem does not go beyond 20–70 cm in height, it grows solitary, branching from the central part. Shoots are directed obliquely upward.
The shape of the leaves of the fragrant thigh in the root zone and the lower part of the stems is pinnate, they are attached with petioles. The leaflets are oblong. The length of the leaf lobes is 15–30 cm with a width of 1, 5–4 cm. The size of the leaf lobes gradually decreases towards the apex and the petioles disappear, making the leaves sessile.
Throughout June-August, the formation of umbellate inflorescences takes place, the diameter of which varies in the range of 2–4 cm. There are 5–10 aromatic thigh beams. Their length is almost equal, there is a densely hairy coating. There are no wrappers or wrappers. The petals are white, on the reverse side they are pubescent and on the top there is a notch.
Fruits, which begin to ripen at the end of July, are broadly ovate, the surface is covered with dense hairy pubescence. The fruit is 2.5 cm long and about 2 mm wide.