Susak: how to plant and groom in open ground

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Susak: how to plant and groom in open ground
Susak: how to plant and groom in open ground
Anonim

Description of the susak plant, recommendations for planting and care when growing on a garden plot or in a pond, tips for reproduction, possible difficulties in growing, interesting notes, species.

Susak (Butomus) is a special monocotyledonous plant, that is, there is only one cotyledon in the embryo. This representative of the flora is attributed to the family Susakovye (Butomaceae), while the genus is oligotypic, that is, it includes a very small number of species (namely, two). In nature, the distribution falls on European regions, they can settle in Asian regions with a non-tropical climate, with the exception of the Arctic regions. Susak plantings are found on the North American continent, where the plant was introduced and successfully naturalized in the southeastern Canadian regions and the northeastern regions of the United States.

Family name Susakovye
Growing period Perennial
Vegetation form Herbaceous
Breeds Vegetatively (by dividing the bush) by buds and rhizomes or occasionally by seeds
Open ground transplant terms In the springtime
Landing rules To a depth of 9-10 cm
Priming Nutrient silty substrate
Soil acidity values, pH 5, 5 for soft water, for hard about 8
Illumination level Well lit by the sun location
Humidity level High, when grown in soil, frequent and abundant watering
Special care rules It is recommended to limit the growth of the rhizome
Height options 0.4–1.5 m
Flowering period Throughout the summer months
Type of inflorescences or flowers Simple umbrella inflorescence
Color of flowers Light pink or whitish pink
Fruit type Multileaf
The timing of fruit ripening Stretched out like bloom in time
Decorative period Summer-autumn
Application in landscape design To decorate coastal areas of water bodies
USDA zone 3–8

Susak got its scientific name due to the fusion of words in the ancient Greek language "vous", which has the translation "cow, ox" and "tamno", which means "to cut". This is due to the fact that the sharp edges of the leaf plates could, as was believed, cut the mouth of livestock.

Susak owes its name in Russian to words of Turkic origin, but this version has not been finally confirmed. If we talk about the word “cecke” in the Bashkir language, then it has the translation “flower”, and in Tatar the same term means “water plant”. In Turkish, "susak" means "bucket", "bucket" or "thirsty", since the "su" part is translated as "water". The names of wolf grass and baker, marsh flower and bread box, slingshot and sieve color, as well as wolf beans are popular synonyms for susak.

Susak is a perennial plant characterized by a herbaceous form of growth, which has a rather large size. The height of the stems can vary within the range of 0, 4–1, 5 m. Its rhizome is elongated and thick, usually reaches 1.5–2 m in length. It is located in the horizontal plane and has a monopodial type, that is, it grows at the apex and directed parallel to the soil surface. Ground shoots originate from the lateral buds of the rhizome. A large number of root processes grow from the bottom of the rhizome of the susak, while the upper one carries two rows of leaf plates.

The leaves of wolf grass are linear in shape with three edges on the surface.Vegetative buds originate from the leaf sinuses, through which young rhizomes are formed. From the same buds, the legs of the inflorescences, devoid of foliage, will be formed in the susak. The place of occurrence of peduncles is often the sinus of each 9th leaf, even if it has already died out. Usually such sinuses are located at a distance of 4-7 cm from one another. For all summer months, the formation of 1-3 inflorescences occurs.

It often happens that the buds on the lateral parts of the rhizome can lose connection with the mother plant and give rise to new bushes of the mongrel. At the base of the leaf plates are open sheaths, characterized by excellent development. Their sinuses contain a large number of colorless intravaginal scales, which is typical for many plants growing in water or swamps. Scales are the place where there are glands through which mucus is secreted. This substance most likely protects the plant from all kinds of pests. At the same time, it is noted that only the roots of the susak have vessels.

The flower-bearing stem of the mongrel, which grows during the summer months, has a cylindrical cross-section. The peduncle is crowned with a simple umbrella-shaped inflorescence. The inflorescence has a wrapper composed of bracts. Flowers in the inflorescence are bisexual and actinomorphic (with several planes of symmetry drawn through the center). They are composed of three pairs of segments in a circular arrangement in two rows. Their color is pinkish-whitish or light pinkish. In this case, the outer segments (sepals) are slightly inferior in size to the inner ones.

Interesting

The difference between the susak is that even after the ripening of the fruit, all the segments that make up the perianth are preserved.

There are 9 stamens in the flower, of which three pairs of outer ones grow in pairs in front of the outer perianth segments, and the other three inner ones are each in front of the inner segment.

The shape of the stamen takes on the shape of expanded ribbon-like threads. Flowers have nectaries growing in crevices formed by the lower parts of the carpels. The nectar is very abundant and tends to accumulate in the crevices outside between the carpels. Because of this, the plant is considered an excellent honey plant. Pollination of flowers occurs due to small insects, which are flies or bugs. The fruit of the susak is a multileaf, which opens (each of the leaflets) along the seam on the carpel. The seeds are small in size and shaped like a shortened cylinder. Seed material is thrown out of the fruit of the susak due to the swaying of the wind or when animals pass by.

It is easy to grow such a marsh plant, especially if there are too humid places where other representatives of the flora cannot grow - a natural or artificial reservoir, you just need to familiarize yourself with the general rules presented below.

Recommendations for planting and caring for the grouse in the open field or pond

Susak blooms
  1. Landing place marsh beauty is selected well-lit, so that there is a lot of moisture nearby. That is, directly in the reservoir itself or in its coastal part. Growing in water, the plant will only be if it is not contaminated with organic particles and impurities.
  2. Acidity of water does not play a role in the cultivation of the mongrel, however, its performance will directly depend on its rigidity. So, the acidity of the water in the reservoir for the normal cultivation of wolf beans, it is recommended that the pH is 5, 5 for soft water, for hard water - about 8.
  3. Ground for the gopher must be nutritious and silted. When grown directly in a substrate on land, it is composed of river sand, clay and river silt.
  4. Water when cultivating susak bushes, it is preferable to be fresh or slightly brackish.
  5. Planting the Susak performed in the spring.The immersion depth should be 9–10 cm, or a hole is dug out of the same depth for planting parts of the rhizome or buds. When planting, it is recommended to limit the growth of the root system. So you can land in a plastic bucket without a bottom, which is completely dug into the ground. When landing in a pond, the planting depth should be no more than 30 cm.
  6. Watering when cultivated in the coastal zone of the reservoir or in a pot, it should be abundant and regular if the plant is constantly in the ground, and not in the water. In this case, the "bread box" can spend some time without moisture, but provided there is sufficient moisture.
  7. Care tips. Once every three years, the rhizome of the susak should be divided, since over time the quality of flowering is greatly reduced. During wintering, the plant does not need shelter, it perfectly tolerates our cold, but this does not apply to the bred varieties.
  8. Blank It is recommended to carry out raw materials for cultivation of the susak in spring or late autumn, when these parts of the plant are most saturated with starch, as well as protein. Harvested rhizomes of the species of Umbelliferae (Butomus umbellatus). They are removed from soil or water. Cut lengthwise into pieces, and then even across. Light drying is carried out and after that it is completely dried at a temperature of 80 degrees. For this, you can use a special drying or oven. Fully dried roots break easily and emit a ringing sound when knocking. You can store the roots of the "bread-bread" in closed glass or wooden containers.
  9. The use of a susak in landscape design. If the site has a natural or artificial reservoir, some kind of swampy place, then the marsh krasotsvet is perfect for landscaping them. Especially if the depth there is no more than 20 cm.

See also the rules for growing Azolla.

Breeding Tips for a Susak

Susak in the water

Mainly used for reproduction of wolf beans, sowing seeds, as well as the vegetative method - planting buds or parts of the rhizome.

  1. Susak propagation by seeds practically not carried out, but the plant copes well with this on its own, since the fruits of the marsh bloom have air voids and, while ripening, simply float on the surface of the water. The seeds from them fall out and are carried both by the current and by animals. But you can collect seeds in the autumn and sow immediately. Susak seed is placed in containers filled with a soil mixture from a marsh meadow substrate, combined with a small volume of clay. Pots with crops should be placed in the reservoir in such a way that the water slightly covers its upper part. When susak sprouts appear, they can be planted directly into the ground. You can sow susak seeds directly into the soil, near the reservoir.
  2. Susak propagation by kidneys. These parts of the plant are formed on the roots and are able to separate themselves from the root system. The rhizome forms a great variety of such parts at the "breadbox". Rooting takes place very quickly after planting in a suitable place near water or in pots, which will then be placed in a pond.
  3. Susak propagation by dividing the rhizome. To do this, you should choose the time in the spring or at the very beginning of summer. The plant is removed from the soil or reservoir and the root system is divided with a sharpened knife. Then the landing is carried out according to the general rules. It is recommended that division be carried out every three years. Rhizome strips are planted to a depth of no more than 10 cm.

Important

If varieties of susak are grown, then there is no way to propagate them differently than vegetatively (by pieces of rhizomes). But at the same time, the coefficient obtained by young plants will be very large.

Potential Difficulties in Growing Susak

Susak grows

The marsh krasotsvet plant practically does not suffer from diseases and harmful insects. In all likelihood, nature itself took care of this.Since the mucus produced on the scales in the vaginas serves as some protection.

And only in rare cases, small green bugs can be seen on the stems and foliage of the susak, which suck out nutritious cell juices, which leads to yellowing of the leaf plates. It is recommended in such cases to treat the bushes of wolf beans with insecticidal preparations, of which there are a lot in specialized stores today. Gardeners have heard the following drugs that have already proven themselves well - Aktara and Aktellik, Karbofos and Decis.

Interesting notes about the susak plant

Blooming Susak

The plant was popularly called "bread" or "bread box" for a reason. This is because the thickened rhizomes contain a large amount of starch and therefore can be used for food. The roots are dried and then ground into flour that is suitable for baking bread. Also, these parts of the sushak can be baked and steamed, using, for example, with lard. Scientists have found that even dried wolf grass rhizomes contain fat, protein and carbohydrates in a percentage ratio of 4:14:60. It also includes vitamin C, fiber and sugars (which explains the sweetish taste at the roots), as well as gum and saponins.

However, parts of the sushik are not only suitable for food. For example, folk craftsmen make baskets from sheet plates and weave matting, foliage is useful in order to make mats and mats and many other wicker things.

Also, for a long time, folk healers knew about the medicinal properties of the marsh beauty. It possessed emollient, diuretic, laxative or expectorant properties, the ability to resist inflammation of a different nature, both the roots and the seeds of the susak were used for this. Due to the presence of vitamin C, such agents have anti-febrile and anti-inflammatory effects. Physicians based on freshly squeezed juice from foliage made lotions, curing vitiligo, lichen and various manifestations of dermatitis. A decoction based on the roots of the susak will help with edema and ascites as a diuretic, and also works as a laxative. Such a remedy is suitable for getting rid of a dry cough or lingering bronchitis.

There are a number of contraindications for the use of the plant, among which are:

  • any period of pregnancy;
  • menorrhagia, since the susak is able to increase the bleeding;
  • diarrhea due to pronounced laxative properties.

It is curious that the indigenous peoples living in Siberia used the sushak for household needs. The dried and ground roots were even sold at fairs. The value of flour from the "bread box" was comparable to that of wheat. Beekeepers used the plant as a honey plant.

Susak species

In the photo Susak sitnikovy

Sitnik sage (Butomus junceus)

is a herbaceous perennial. It is characterized by thin stems with a cylindrical section. Their height can vary in the range of 20-60 cm. The diameter of the rhizome reaches 0.5 cm. The root processes are filiform, painted in a yellowish color. The foliage of the plant has a bluish-green tint. Moreover, if the bush grows in the coastal zone, in the aquatic environment or on the soil surface, then its leaf plates are located straight, have a narrow-linear shape and a width of about 3 mm, there is a pointed deadrise at the top. If the specimen of the common sage-mongrel is deep-sea, then its leaves are floating, with a soft surface, not keeled.

When flowering, which is stretched throughout June-July, a small number of flowers are formed, forming an umbrella inflorescence. It has from five to fifteen buds. The diameter of the flower in the opening is 1.5 cm. The color of the sepals is purple. Their size is much smaller than the petals in the flower. The latter are characterized by a pale pinkish tint. The length of the petal of the flowers of the susak varies from 6 to 8 mm.The shape of the stigmas is straight, there is no border on the edge. Fruiting occurs in the same period as flowering.

A widespread species of the sushnik sushnik in Central Asia and in the eastern Siberian regions, it is found in Mongolia and in the southwestern Chinese lands. Prefers coastal areas of waterways and reservoirs (rivers, lakes and swamps) for growing in nature, while it can grow in water or in damp meadows.

In the photo, the Umbrella Susak

Umbelliferae (Butomus umbellatus)

has a Eurasian distribution. It can be found in nature in swamps, in reservoirs with stagnant or flowing water, prefers swampy coastal areas of rivers and lakes. Grows in areas with temperate and warm climates, lost in reed or reed thickets. In the Russian open spaces it grows everywhere, excluding the territory of the Far North and the northeastern regions.

In many areas of the world, the Umbelliferae was introduced and naturalized, in some regions it is grown as a crop. There are some US states in which the plant is recognized as invasive - forcibly or accidentally brought in.

The plant is easily identified by a large inflorescence in the form of a simple umbrella at the top of the flowering stem. It is a herbaceous representative of the flora that prefers to grow in coastal areas. The height of the stems can vary in the range of 0.5–1.5 m. The rhizome of the umbelliferae is located in the horizontal plane, is juicy and thick. The leaves grow erect, their length is about 1 m, their shape is flat and narrowed - the diameter is measured up to 1 cm. Only at the base of the leaf plate of the umbelliferae are faces. Leaves begin to branch off from the base of the stem.

The surface of the straight flowering stem is leafless, it rises above the foliage, and has a rounded section. Its top is decorated with an umbrella inflorescence composed of large flowers. The color of the petals in them is pinkish-whitish. When opened, the diameter of the flower reaches 2.5 cm. The shape of the flowers is correct, the perianth is composed of three pairs of leaflets. Inside there are 9 stamens and three pairs of pistils. Umbelliferae flowering occurs in the middle of summer.

To date, breeders have bred a couple of varieties, characterized by a variegative color of leaves and a double structure of flowers, painted in a white or bright pink shade. Their winter hardiness is low, so it will not be possible to grow them on our territory.

Related article: Recommendations for breeding and caring for Ammania

Video about the sage and its cultivation on a personal plot:

Susak photos:

Susak Photos 1 Susak Photos 2 Susak Photos 3 Susak Photos 4 Susak Photos 5

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