Characteristics of the stefanandra plant, agricultural planting and care techniques in the backyard, how to reproduce, how to protect against diseases and pests, interesting facts, species.
According to the botanical classification, Stephanandra belongs to the order Rosaceae (Rosales) of the family of the same name Rosaceae. This family includes dicotyledonous representatives of the flora, which have two cotyledons in the embryo, located opposite each other. There are only four species in the genus, the natural habitat of which falls on the lands of East Asia, but most of these plantings are found in the Japanese and Korean regions.
|Family name||Pink or Rosaceae|
|Breeds||By seeds or vegetatively (dividing the bush, cuttings, rooting of cuttings)|
|Open ground transplant terms||In the spring, when return frosts recede|
|Landing rules||The distance between seedlings is not less than 1.5-2 m|
|Priming||Light and fertile, drainage required|
|Soil acidity values, pH||6, 5-7 (normal)|
|Illumination level||Sunny location or partial shade|
|Humidity level||Watering regularly, especially during dry periods|
|Special care rules||Need wind protection, pruning and winter shelter|
|Height options||Up to 2.5 m|
|Flowering period||All summer months|
|Type of inflorescences or flowers||Panicle inflorescences of different densities|
|Color of flowers||With white or greenish petals and a yellow core|
|Fruit type||Oblong leaflets|
|The timing of fruit ripening||September October|
|Application in landscape design||Singly or in group plantings, for the formation of hedges, on the banks of reservoirs|
The plant got its scientific name due to the combination of two words in Greek "stephanos" and "aner" or "and-ros", which translate as "wreath" and "man", respectively, which gives us a "male wreath". All because of how the stamens are located in the corolla of the flower.
Stefanandra species are shrubs with a wide crown formed by spreading branches. Its height reaches 2.5 meters, however, such parameters are inherent only in adult specimens (over 30 years old), and the annual growth of plants is not too great. So young bushes stretch only one and a half meters in height. The crown owes its grace to the branches, which have a high decorative effect. Its diameter is measured in the range of 2–2, 2 m. Stefanandra's shoots are characterized by arcuate outlines, as they tend to bend under their own weight. The color of the bark on young branches has a reddish-brown color, over time, grayish-brown or brown tones appear. The surface of the bark is glossy, bare.
InterestingThe plant tends to freeze over with shoots almost to snow cover in winters, characterized by especially harsh conditions. But, despite this, with the arrival of spring, a rapid recovery occurs, but then there may be no flowering at all.
Stefanandra's carved leaf plates are attached to the branches with short petioles. Their location is next. The foliage has an oval or ovoid outline, with a pointed tip at the top. The leaf edge is smooth or has rare teeth. There are varieties in which the leaf plates are distinguished by a rather strong dissection, serration, or the presence of small blades.Stipules serrate, ovoid, small in size. The length of the leaves of Stephanandra is 2–4, 5 cm. The color of the deciduous mass gives the bush brightness, since in the spring-summer period it is light green, and with the arrival of autumn, yellow, pinkish, orange and even reddish-brown colors begin to appear.
As soon as the end of May or the beginning of June approaches, Stephanandra begins to bloom abundantly, which stretches throughout the summer months. Inflorescences are formed at the tops of the shoots. They have panicle outlines and are composed of small bisexual flowers. The density of the inflorescences is different. The diameter of the flowers at opening reaches a maximum of 5 mm. The petals in the corolla of the stefanandra flower have pointed tops. The color of the flowers is white, but the middle is distinguished by a spherical shape and a yellow color scheme. Spectacular stamens can be seen inside, there are up to 10 of them. In length, they are about 1/2 the length of the petals. It is the circular arrangement of the stamens in the corolla of the flower that is the reason for the name of the plant. During flowering, a slight pleasant aroma is heard, hovering over the bushes.
In the period September-October, when pollination is completed, the fruits of Stephanandra, represented by elongated leaflets, begin to ripen. Their size is small, brownish color. When the ripening process is fully completed, the fruits are taken to open in the lower part, opening access to small seeds. The shape of the seeds is spherical, their color is reddish brown. Usually, each ovary forms a single or a pair of seeds.
The plant can become a real decoration of the garden, and besides, it does not differ in whimsical care and even a gardener who does not have sufficient experience can cope with it. It is only important not to violate the recommendations below.
Agrotechnology of planting and caring for stefanadra in the open field
- Landing place Plants "male wreath" should be in a location well-lit by sunlight, but partial shade may also work. However, it was noticed that in a lighted flower bed, the development of Stephanandra will be much better. Protection against wind gusts must be provided.
- Soil for Stephanandra should be light, fresh and rich in nutrients. It is recommended that the composition of the substrate contains the following parts: leaf soil, peat compost and river sand, in a ratio of 2: 1: 1. Preferred acidity values should be in the range of 6, 5-7 pH, that is, be neutral. If the soil on the site is very heavy and clayey, then drainage should be used.
- Stefanandra's landing held in the spring. Pits for seedlings should be located no closer than one and a half to two meters from each other, all due to the fact that over time the bushes tend to grow strongly. In a pit with heavy soil, it is recommended to put a drainage layer, the thickness of which will reach almost 15 cm. Coarse-grained sand, expanded clay, large crushed stone or broken brick can act as such drainage. The seedling of the "male wreath" is located in the hole in such a way that its root collar is flush with the soil on the site. When planting, it is recommended to apply mineral fertilizers in each hole, such as superphosphate, of which 40-60 grams should fall on each instance of Stefanandra, or use complex mineral preparations (for example, Kemiru-Universal). They contain nitrogen, phosphate and potassium - 50–70 grams of such an agent is taken for each bush.
- Fertilizers when growing stefanandra, it is recommended to apply annually. So in the first year after planting with the arrival of spring, while the foliage has not yet turned around, you need to use ammonium nitrate, urea and semi-decomposed mullein. These funds are dissolved in a 10 liter bucket of water, while the first drug is taken 15 grams, and the second 10 grams and 1 kg of the third.Each adult specimen that has stepped over 10 years of growth will require 10-12 liters of the specified solution.
- Watering when caring for Stefanandra, it is carried out regularly, especially if the summer is dry and hot, then in a week you should moisten the soil 2-3 times. Each bush should have 2 buckets of water. Watering is done every other day, but it is important to make sure that the soil between them has time to dry out. In rainy weather, watering should be reduced so that the substrate does not become waterlogged. If there is not enough moisture, then the leaves will begin to wither and dry out.
- General advice when leaving. Particular attention should be paid to young and newly planted "male wreath" plants. It is imperative to carry out weeding from weeds and loosen the soil in the near-trunk circle. It will also be good to mulch the stefanandra bushes using peat chips or wood chips. A layer of mulch is poured 5–7 cm. If too dense growth is formed next to the bush, it should be removed so that the plant does not grow and does not capture the adjacent territory.
- Pruning overgrown shrubs are recommended to be carried out annually with the arrival of spring. All shriveled, frostbitten or broken branches are cut out from Stephanandra, and old shoots are also disposed of. It is recommended to coat all places of cuts with garden varnish. It is also worth getting rid of the branches growing deeper into the crown, since when it is thickened, there will be no light enough and the leaves from the shoots will begin to fly around, which will negatively affect the decorative effect of the entire plant.
- Wintering bushes of the "male wreath" are not a problem, even despite the fact that in severe winters the branches freeze almost to the level of snow cover. But when spring comes, all the affected shoots are quickly restored. To avoid damage to the root system, you need to cover the bases of the stefanandra bushes with a layer of dry foliage or peat chips. With the arrival of spring, in order to avoid damping out, the root collar must be freed from the layer covering it. When the plants are still young, their branches can be gently bent to the surface of the ground, and a snow "cap" can be poured on top, and in a snowless winter, spruce branches can be used for shelter.
- The use of Stephanandra in landscape design. The plant looks very impressive thanks to its graceful shoots and delicate foliage. Therefore, it is customary to plant it as a tapeworm or in group plantings. Specimens of the "male wreath" look good against the background of conifers of representatives of the flora of a dark shade and shrubs with evergreen foliage. You can plant Stefanandra bushes under trees, the crown of which gives an openwork shade. Such plants look good in rockeries or on retaining walls. If a low-growing variety is grown, then it is used as a ground cover crop, and with the help of tall ones, a hedge can be formed. The latter option is especially attractive if there is a busy highway nearby and it is required to absorb not only noise, but also harmful emissions from cars. All types of stefanandra will be an excellent decoration for city and park areas, serving as landscaping, they will be a great addition to mixborders when located in the foreground. Long shoots of shrubs that form a crown with weeping outlines can be planted against the backdrop of an artificial or natural reservoir.
See also recommendations for keeping russelia at home and in the garden.
How to breed Stefanandra?
To obtain a young plant "male wreath", you can use both seed and vegetative propagation methods. In the latter case, it is a cuttings, dividing a bush or rooting cuttings.
- Reproduction of Stefanandra by layering. This method is the simplest and always gives a positive result.This is because, even when branches grow in nature, they easily take root in contact with the ground. Therefore, in spring, a healthy and fully ripe shoot is selected, which is bent to the soil surface and in the place where it touches the surface of the substrate, it is required to fix it. To do this, you can use a stiff wire, hairpin or wooden slingshot. You may not even sleep on the layers with soil, but still, for the speed of root formation at the attachment point, a little soil is poured over so that the tip of the shoot remains always free. Stefanandra's cut is looked after in the same way as for the mother bush (watered and fed). After a short period of time, the cuttings form their own roots and next spring, the seedling is separated from the parent bush with the help of a pruner. The transplant is performed immediately so that the roots do not have time to dry out.
- Propagation of stefanandra by cuttings. For this, both green and semi-lignified branches are suitable, from which blanks will be cut. Cuttings are cut in the summer. The length of the cuttings should not be less than 10 cm. You may not even process the sections of the blanks, but immediately plant them in the open ground. After that, you will need watering and for the first time shading from direct sunlight. It was noticed that 100% of the planted cuttings are rooting. If the planting was carried out in a school, and not in a permanent place in the garden, then after the buds begin to bloom on the cuttings and they get stronger, you can transplant to a more suitable location.
- Reproduction of Stefanandra by dividing the bush. The plant tends to grow rapidly, rooting on its own with the help of branches, especially if it is a stunted variety. You can plant already well-developed specimens by digging them up from the mother bush in the spring. To do this, you can cut the root system with a pointed shovel and remove the cut from the soil. For the prevention of diseases and disinfection, it is recommended to sprinkle the sections with charcoal powder, and then quickly plant a part of the "male wreath" in a new place prepared for it. This method is somewhat similar to reproduction using layering.
- Reproduction of stefanandra using seeds. This method is longer than all the previous ones, but also gives good results. Seeds do not need to be stratified before sowing. They try to maintain the distance between the pits for sowing at least one and a half meters, since over time the plants tend to grow, it will be necessary to thin out the seedlings. The seeds are buried a little in the soil and irrigated.
Some gardeners are engaged in growing seedlings of the "male wreath", then the seedlings can be moved into open ground when they reach six months of age. This will allow the root processes to grow strong enough and normally adapt to the new place.
How to protect Stefanandra from diseases and pests in gardening?
If we talk about the resistance of shrubs "male wreath", then they are practically not susceptible to attacks by pests and diseases. Only if the rules of agricultural technology are regularly violated, then we can expect the appearance of problems of fungal origin:
- Powdery mildew, which is called linen or ashtray. The disease is manifested by the appearance of whitish stains on the foliage, which gradually begin to cover the entire surface of the leaf plate. Such a plaque, reminiscent of hardened lime, becomes the reason for the cessation of photosynthesis, and the foliage gradually begins to die off. If no action is taken for treatment, then Stefanandra will simply die.
- Rust, also having a fungal etymology and is well defined due to the fact that cushion-shaped growths are formed on the leaves, which, scattering, cover everything around with red dust (which is why the name of the disease has gone).Stefanandra's leaves also lose their color and without even waiting for autumn they turn yellow and fly around.
- Gray rot a disease from the same group is generated by fungal spores. At the same time, the stems become soft, the foliage becomes covered with a fluffy grayish bloom, turns yellow and falls off, the buds, if they appear, have a deformed shape, the stems in the root zone of the stephanandra bush have a circular grayish coating and soften.
All of the above problems arise from too dense soil that does not dry out from moisture, improper irrigation regime, frequent rains at high ambient temperatures. For treatment, it is recommended to remove all damaged parts of the "male wreath" shrub and then treat the plant with fungicidal preparations such as Fundazol, Topsin or Bordeaux liquid.
A lack of moisture is also a problem when growing Stephanandra, then the deciduous mass acquires an out-of-season yellow color, but this sign is also inherent in stagnation of water in the soil. Then the root system is affected - it rots, the leaves of the bush turn yellow and it dies. If the damage is too severe, it is recommended to remove the diseased plant from the soil and burn it. The soil where it grew is treated with a strong solution of potassium permanganate.
Read also about Jacobinia diseases and dangerous pests
Interesting notes for gardeners about Stephanander
The Stephanandra bush is very similar in shape and flowering to the Spiraea, which is a member of the same Rosaceae family. However, the flowering of the latter is more lush and fragrant. As a decorative and landscape gardening culture, the "male wreath" began to be grown in Europe and the United States only at the end of the 19th century. The plant, with its simplicity and spectacular crown, quickly won the hearts of gardeners, and it became not such a rarity in our lands.
Description of species and varieties of Stefanandra
Among a small number of varieties, only two are most often found, on the basis of which varietal forms were derived:
Stephanandra incisawith a bush-like shape, the crown height varies within 150-200 cm, with a width of about 200-250 cm. The growth rate of the shoots is very slow and the plant reaches its maximum height only by the age of 25-30. Thanks to the foliage, the outline of the crown becomes delicate. Sheet plates with deep dissection, which gives even more decorative effect. The edge of the foliage is serrated. The shape of the leaves is ovoid, there is a strong sharpening at the top, and the base is heart-shaped. The outlines of the stipules are ovoid or lanceolate, with rare denticles on the edge.
The length of leaves of stephanandra incised leaf is 2–4, 5 cm. They are located on thin branches in the same plane in the next order, resembling a feather of a bird or fern frond. Leaf plates are attached to the shoot by means of short petioles, which do not exceed 3-4 mm in length. The color of usually deciduous mass is light green by autumn acquires reddish-brown shades, with a slight admixture of orange color. There is pubescence along the veins on the reverse side.
From the end of May until September, the branches of Stephanandra notched-leaved begin to decorate with dense inflorescences that take the form of a panicle. The length of the inflorescence can vary within 2-6 cm. The inflorescences are composed of small flowers that exude a pleasant aroma. The petals are painted in a greenish tone, they are not particularly beautiful, but serve as a delicate decoration for the bush. By the fall, when bisexual flowers are pollinated, elongated fruits that look like leaflets ripen. They are filled with 1–2 spherical seeds. When the leaflets are fully ripe, the seeds fall out through the opening holes in the lower part of the fruit.
The most popular is the stefanandra incised-leaved variety Crispa. Since the height of the bush does not exceed the limits of 50–80 cm, with a crown diameter of about 150–200 m, the plant is considered dwarf. When landing on a personal plot, this representative of the flora takes the form of a thick green and fluffy pillow or a medium-sized ottoman. Due to the fact that the shoots have outlines bent into an arc and a dense weave, the crown is formed solid and completely impervious to light. When in contact with the ground, the branches of this stefanandra variety can take root, and thus the formation of new specimens occurs, which helps the spread of the shrub over large areas in natural conditions. In the garden, it is recommended to carry out work to limit the capture of nearby areas. It is used as a ground cover crop.
The foliage of Stephanandra Crispa is highly decorative. The leaf plates are characterized by an even greater dissection than the base view. In this case, the structure of the sheet has a folding or wavy surface. With the arrival of autumn, green leaves acquire yellow tints, while the color becomes heterogeneous, and the presence of bright yellow, orange or reddish-brown spots can also be noted there. Flowers and inflorescences are the same as in the base variety, but the color is more whitish-green.
There is also a hybrid variation of the Crispa cultivar - Oro Verde, obtained by crossing the specified plant with Stephanandra Tanaka. The height of such a bush does not exceed one meter. The color of the petals in the flowers is cream, the leaf plates are characterized by larger sizes, which compares favorably with other varieties.
Stephanandra tanakaemay occur under the name Stefanandra Tanake. The size of an adult bush reaches a height of 250 cm with a crown diameter of about 200 cm. In this species, the leaf plates are larger than in the incised-leaved stefanadra. The branches of the first year of life are characterized by a brownish-burgundy color of the bark, which subsequently becomes grayish or light brown. The petioles, with which the leaves are attached to the shoots, reach a length of 1.5 cm. The length of the leaf itself can be 10 cm. The foliage is double-serrate along the edge. The outlines of the leaves are cordate at the base, with a sharp point at the apex. On the reverse side, there is a rare pubescence on the veins. Although in summer the deciduous mass has a green color, but with the arrival of autumn, it pleases the eye with the appearance of burgundy, crimson and brownish shades.
During the summer, flowering occurs, in which the tops of the branches are decorated with dense panicle inflorescences. The inflorescences of Stephanandra Tanaka are also larger, their length can be 10 cm, while the parameters of an individual flower reach 5 mm in diameter. The difference is the flowering period, which is slightly shifted, and the buds begin to bloom only in July. Flowering ends by September. The flower petals have a creamy greenish tint, the center of the corolla is bright yellow. Inside the ring are stamens that cover the entire bush, resembling a veil.
The fruits ripening on the Stephanandra Tanaka bush during September-October also look like leaflets, which then open from below. Inside each leaflet contains 1–2 spherical seeds. This species began to be cultivated in America only with the arrival of 1893, and later it began to be bred in the countries of East Asia and in European territory. Our plant is still a rare guest in our gardens.
Stephanandra chinensisis a rare species on our lands. It is of Chinese origin, as the name suggests. The height of the shrub is no more than one and a half meters. The buds are reddish brown, pubescent at the edges. The length of the petiole, by which the leaves are attached to the branches, is 6–8 mm. Leaves are ovate or oblong-ovate, with parameters 5-7x2-3 cm.The surface is bare or may be pubescent on the reverse side with veins. On the sides there are 7–10 pairs of veins.
Flowering in Stefanandra chinensis begins in mid-late May, while the branches are decorated with paniculate inflorescences with a diameter of 2–3 cm. The peduncle is naked. Bracts lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, their apex is obtuse. Flowers with a diameter of 4–5 mm; the pedicel reaches a length of 3–6 mm. Sepals are erect, triangular-ovoid, about 2 mm long. Petals are ovoid, rarely oblong, their length is 2 mm. There are about 10 stamens in a flower, they are 1/2 the length of the petals. The diameter of the ripening leaflet fruit is 2 mm. On its surface there is a rare pubescence. Inside there is one egg-shaped seed. Fruiting occurs in July-August. When the fruit is fully ripe, it cracks at the bottom and the seed falls out onto the ground.
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Video about growing Stefanandra on a personal plot:
Photos of Stephanandra: