Characteristics of the broom plant, recommendations for planting and care in a personal plot, breeding rules, the fight against possible diseases and pests during cultivation, facts, types and varieties.
The broom (Cytisus) belongs to the rather large family of legumes (Fabaceae). The plant can be represented by both a tall shrub and a low tree. The native habitat covers European territories, as well as northern regions of Africa and western regions of Asia. The genus of broomsticks, according to various sources, unites from 30 to 73 different species. In nature, it is distinguished by its photophilousness and preference for light, dry substrates, mainly sandy or sandy loam, in rare cases settling on limestone outcrops.
|Vegetation form||Shrub or tree|
|Breeds||Seed or vegetative (by cuttings, rooting of cuttings)|
|Open ground transplant terms||April May|
|Agrotechnics of planting||The distance between seedlings is not less than 30 cm|
|Priming||Light, sandy, into which humus is mixed|
|Soil acidity values, pH||6, 5-7 (neutral), 5-6, 5 (slightly acidic)|
|Illumination level||Open and well-lit area|
|Humidity level||Drought tolerant|
|Special care rules||Pruning and feeding|
|Height options||Up to 3 meters|
|Flowering period||May June|
|Type of inflorescences or flowers||Racemose or capitate|
|Color of flowers||Yellow, white, magenta, pinkish, or bi-colored|
|Fruit type||Seed-filled beans|
|Fruit color||Dark brown or black|
|The timing of fruit ripening||Aug. Sept|
|Decorative period||Spring-autumn sometimes year-round|
|Application in landscape design||For the formation of hedges, in single or group plantings, stone slides and growing in greenhouses|
The genus got its scientific name thanks to the Greek word "kytisos", which was the name of one of the varieties of alfalfa. Apparently, this was facilitated by the outlines of the flowers of this representative of the flora.
Basically, all types of broom have a shrub, occasionally tree-like shape, while the height they reach only sometimes exceeds three meters. With the arrival of autumn, the deciduous mass begins to fly around, but there are evergreen varieties in the genus, it happens that the branches are dotted with medium-sized thorns. The color of smooth branches and trunks has a green tint. There are specimens in which the bark is decorated with a pattern of peculiar streaks, and there is also a short pubescence. The branches retain their flexibility for a long time and are capable of dropping tops to the soil under the weight of flowers or fruits.
The foliage on the branches is arranged in a regular order. The outlines of the leaf plates are trifoliate, in rare cases, there is a decrease to one leaf. The length of the leaves is within 3-4 cm. Stipules are either very small or do not grow at all. The leaves are painted in a rich and bright green color scheme.
During flowering, in the broom, inflorescences are formed on the tops of branches or in the leaf axils, which have a racemose or capitate shape. The color of the petals in the flowers is white or yellow, but there are species that have bright crimson or pinkish shades, or the coloring is two-tone. The length of the flower is 2–3 cm. The outlines of the flowers are moth, the calyx takes on a tubular shape, it may look like a bell or a funnel.In width, it is significantly inferior to its length, which is 10–15 mm. There is a clear division into two lips, with the sail (upper petal) much longer than the wings and boat (side lobes and lower). The apex usually has a notch, on the keel there is pubescence, its shape is obtuse. Five pairs of stamens are spliced into a tube, the column has curved outlines, the stigma is oblique or capitate. The ovary is sessile, and occasionally forms on the peduncle.
Broom flowers are characterized by the property that when any insect sits on them, the stamens, which are in a bent state under the lid formed by the petals, sharply straighten and then hit the bee from below. It is at this moment that pollen clings to her underbelly, which is transferred by insects to another flower. The flowering process takes almost a month, starting in May-June. There are species in which the buds open much earlier than the leaves unfold. When blooming, a pleasant aroma spreads around.
After pollination, fruits are formed, represented by beans with linear outlines. At first, the pods are green in color, which gradually changes to dark brown or black. When they are fully ripe, they crack, opening access to 1–2 seeds, but it happens that their number in the bean is greater. The seeds have a kidney-shaped flat shape, their surface is glossy, there is a seed plant. They spill out of the open pod onto the soil under the bush, thereby facilitating reproduction.
ImportantDespite all the attractiveness of the broom, it is worth remembering that all its parts contain a poisonous substance in themselves - an alkaloid, which in large quantities provokes respiratory arrest. This must be taken into account when caring for the plant and when planting it in the garden, so that small children or pets do not have access to it.
The plant is quite beautiful, and with a little effort, you can decorate your garden with such a bush. Some non-resistant varieties are usually grown in cool rooms. Only after taking care that small children or pets cannot approach it.
Recommendations for planting and caring for broom outdoors
- Landing place Cytisus should be selected open to sunlight, but at the same time warm, protected from gusts of drafts and wind. An east or west orientation works well. Do not plant in lowlands or where groundwater is close. You should not plant such plants near water bodies, since all their parts contain toxic substances that can negatively affect the representatives of the aquatic fauna, getting into the water.
- Soil for broom light and sandy should be selected. It is desirable for acidity values to be within the pH range of 5–7 (that is, the soil should be neutral or slightly acidic). It is advisable to prepare the substrate before planting - mix the garden substrate with river coarse sand and humus, in a ratio of 1: 2: 1, or use sod soil, peat chips, compost and river sand in equal parts. If the soil on the site is very poor and scarce, and there are few nutrients in it, then complex mineral fertilizers can be added to it (for example, Kemiru-Universal).
- Planting broom performed in the period April-May. When planting, you should dig a hole in such a way that an earthen lump of the seedling can easily fit into it without destruction, that is, planting is carried out by the transshipment method. The distance between the pits is at least 30-50 cm. Many gardeners recommend purchasing seedlings with a closed root system for better adaptation. Before placing the plant in the planting hole, a good layer of drainage is laid on its bottom. The thickness of such a layer should be at least 10–20 cm. Pebbles, crushed stone or broken brick can act as a drainage material.The heavier and denser the substrate on the site, the larger the drainage layer will be. When a seedling is set in a hole, its root collar should be flush with the soil in the area. After planting, abundant watering and mulching of the near-trunk circle with peat chips is carried out. This protection will help to retain moisture in the substrate as well as inhibit weed growth.
- Watering when caring for a broom, it is performed only if there is dry and hot weather for a long time. This is because the plant has good drought resistance. Care must be taken to ensure that the soil is never waterlogged. If the precipitation is normal, then there is no need to water such plantings.
- General advice on care. Since the plant loves dry but well-drained soil, through which air and moisture can easily reach the root system, it is important to loosen the root circle after each sediment or watering. The soil surface should not be crusty. Loosening is performed only 10 cm so that there is no risk of injury to the root processes. Instead of loosening, it is recommended to mulch with peat chips, so that the mulch layer reaches 5 cm.
- Fertilizers when growing broom, they are necessary to accelerate the growth and lush development of shoots, inflorescences and fruits. It is best to carry out top dressing several times throughout the growing season. With the arrival of spring, it is recommended to use preparations that contain nitrogen (for example, urea), and in the summer, potassium-phosphorus mixtures are used to maintain flowering and subsequent fruiting. The dosage should be taken as indicated on the packaging by the manufacturer. Often, wood ash is used to stimulate growth. The broom responds well to organic matter - grass or dung humus. To obtain such a solution, the agent is diluted in water. Such dressings are enough 2-3 times per season.
- Pruning. Similar manipulations are needed when caring for the broom to form the crown of the plant. After flowering is completed, it is recommended to cut the branches to strong lateral branches, which are already lignified. This pruning will stimulate the development of even more young shoots.
- Wintering. When the broom is an adult, it is not at all afraid of frost and can tolerate a significant drop in temperature without damage, but this does not apply to young (up to 3 years old) seedlings. So that their branches do not freeze, then even before a steady cold snap, it is necessary to provide the plants with shelter. If the view is undersized, then fir spruce branches can act as a shelter for it, but if the height parameters are significant, then the branches are carefully pressed to the surface of the soil with the help of special brackets, and then a sufficient layer of dry fallen leaves is poured upward and spruce branches are also placed on top. A cover made of non-woven material (for example, spunbond) can be used.
- Container growing. Some varieties of broom are well suited for cultivation in pots or garden containers. Then, in the warm season, such specimens are taken out into the fresh air, and when winter comes, they are returned to the rooms again. But then it is necessary to keep such species with heat indicators of about 10-15 degrees.
- The use of broom in landscape design. The plant will look great both in group and single plantings. You can place similar bright flowering shrubs next to large boulders or in stone gardens. Conifers or heather are very good neighbors. Of the flowers, lavender and lilies of the valley, as well as antennae, will look good next to them. Some species are suitable for the formation of hedges. They can grow well next to perennial ground cover crops and junipers.
See also the rules for growing a bubble wort.
Broom breeding rules
Both seed and vegetative propagation methods are applicable.The latter includes rooting cuttings or layering.
Propagation of broom with seedsThis is a rather effective method, even without human intervention, you can see young shoots near the plant, which appeared through self-seeding. When the pods are fully ripe (become darker and brittle), then the seeds are removed from them for propagation. With the arrival of spring, the seeds are subject to soaking and warm water for a couple of days. After that, they can be placed in a container filled with sand and peat soil.
ImportantSome gardeners note that seed material that has undergone cold stratification for 2 months has the best germination.
Prepared seeds are covered by about 0.5-1 cm into the ground, the distance between them must be maintained about 4-6 cm. It is recommended to put the pot in the local area, where the heat indicators will be in the range of 18-21 degrees. Crop care consists in periodically moistening the soil so that it does not dry out. When the seedlings that have appeared grow up a little and a pair of real leaves unfold on them, then it is worth diving in separate pots, using the same soil mixture. It is better to immediately use pots of pressed peat with a diameter of about 7 cm for transplanting.
In order to get lush bushes in the future, it is necessary to periodically pinch the shoots. When June comes, a new transplant is performed, in pots with a large diameter. Only when the seedlings reach the age of 3 can be transplanted to a prepared place in the open field. Since the root system reacts painfully to transplantation, with this manipulation it is important to leave an earthen ball without destruction.
Propagation of broom by cuttingsThe best time for this procedure will be summer, when the flowering process is complete. It is recommended to cut blanks from semi-lignified shoots so that they have 2-3 healthy leaves. In this case, the leaf plates are shortened in half so that abundant evaporation of moisture does not occur from them. The cuttings are planted in a peat-sand composition, the container is placed in a place where the temperature will be maintained in the range of 18-21 degrees. Lighting should be bright, but diffuse. To preserve the necessary moisture, the cuttings are covered with a plastic bottle with a cut bottom. After 1–1, 5 months, the cuttings take root successfully and then the shelter can be removed. Until a new spring comes, such seedlings are to be grown indoors.
Reproduction of broom by layeringFor this, an adult specimen is suitable, on which healthy branches growing nearby the soil are selected. Such shoots are bent to the soil, and there they are carefully fixed, and then sprinkled with a layer of substrate, leaving the top on the surface. Layering care is carried out in the same way as for the mother plant. When the next spring comes, the layers will root well and can be separated from the parent bush and transplanted.
ImportantSince all parts of the broom are poisonous, it is worth observing precautions when performing any operations - use gloves and wash your hands thoroughly with soap at the end.
Fight against possible diseases and pests when growing broom
Among the pests that cause trouble when caring for Cytisus, botanists have highlighted:
- Broom moth, caterpillars of which damage the leaves. For control, spraying with chlorophos in 0.2% concentration is recommended, if only this pest is noted on the foliage for the first time.
- Broom moth characterized by the same damage to the plant. At the same time, it is important to timely carry out treatment with insecticides, such as bacterial or organophosphorus, or a solution from their mixture.
Diseases that can annoy the broom arise due to high humidity
- Powdery mildew, it is manifested by a bloom of a whitish shade on the leaves and branches, reminiscent of a frozen lime solution. For treatment, it is necessary to use copper sulfate at a concentration of 5% while the kidneys are still sleeping; in the summer period, regularly treat with such fungicidal preparations as Fundazol, colloidal sulfur at 0.8% concentration and copper-soap liquid alternately.
- Black spot well defined due to the formation of circular marks of black color on the sheet plates. It is recommended to use for treatment at the first stage the same as for powdery mildew, in the summer, in addition to Fundazol, use copper oxychloride (in 1% concentration), Bordeaux liquid (the same saturation), polycorbacin (concentration 0, 2–0, 4%) or similar drugs.
See also methods of combating diseases and pests when growing a shark fish.
Curious facts about broom
If we talk about the wood of this plant, then it has good mechanical characteristics, has a spectacular texture and colors. However, due to the fact that the size of the broom trunks is small, its wood is used only for the manufacture of small crafts.
Broom is recognized as an excellent honey plant, thanks to its properties, it has long been used in folk medicine. This mainly concerns the species of the Russian broom (Cytisus ruthenicus). The infusions prepared on its basis are recommended to be taken to get rid of severe cough and bronchial asthma (all due to the fact that the presence of the alkaloid cytisine provokes respiratory excitement and raises blood pressure). Since biologically active substances, acting on the human body, help stimulate the heart muscle, infusions and decoctions on the broom are recommended as cardiotonic agents.
Also, such drugs can be used to narrow blood vessels, which is suitable for patients suffering from varicose veins. Infusions on Russian broom have long been prescribed by folk healers for diarrhea and gout, helped to cure dropsy and relieve swelling of various origins. For headaches and the same manifestations in the chest and lumbar spine, drugs from this representative of the flora were used as an anesthetic.
Official medicine also included the Russian broom in the pharmacopoeial lists due to the presence of the aforementioned alkaloid, which is included in the Cytisin suspension of the same name, used to combat nicotine addiction.
Since the plant is still poisonous, there are a number of contraindications, among which patients are highlighted:
- women during pregnancy and lactation;
- patients under the age of 16;
- people suffering from hypertension;
- having diseases of renal and heart failure.
Before you start taking medications made on the basis of broom, it is recommended that you consult with your doctor and do not violate the indicated dosage. Symptoms of poisoning are: salivation, followed by nausea and vomiting, rapid breathing, convulsions and cyanosis. In case of poisoning, you should immediately contact a medical institution for help or call an ambulance, and in the meantime, start rinsing the stomach with a solution of baking soda with crushed activated carbon. After that, it is recommended that the patient with poisoning take a saline laxative.
Species and varieties of broom
Russian broom (Cytisus ruthenicus)is a shrub with a spreading crown. The branches reach the height of one and a half meters. Shoots are upright or slightly curved. On the branches, small-sized leaves of a grayish-green hue unfold, the shape of the leaves is trifoliate, while the leaf lobes are characterized by lanceolate and oval outlines. All leaf plates have thorns at the tops. In the axils of the leaves, 3-5 buds are formed on the branches.Opening, they transform into large-sized flowers, petals in flowers of bright yellow color.
Corona broom (Cytisus scoparius)has a shrub shape, shoots are extended to a height of 3 m. The branches are characterized by thin outlines, the bark on them is green, pubescence is present in youth. The foliage on the shoots is located alternately, attached to the branches with the help of petioles. The outlines of the leaf blades are trifoliate, they are composed of leaflets with oval or oblong-lanceolate outlines. The tops of the leaf lobes are obtuse, the edge is solid. The upper leaves are often composed of a single leaf.
When blooming, flowers open, measuring 2 cm in length. Their outlines are irregular. The buds are located in pairs or singly in the leaf axils. The color of the petals is pale yellowish. The calyx and pedicel have pubescence. The fruit after pollination is a pod, characterized by narrow-oblong outlines and flattened valves. A couple or more seeds are usually formed inside.
Foliage tends to fly around early enough and signals that the branches have begun to prepare for the winter period. It is noted that this shrub can safely tolerate a decrease in temperature to -20 degrees below zero. This species is quite widespread in European territory, where the climate is relatively mild. It is used for growing large rock gardens or as tapeworms in sunlit glades. It is recommended to combine with chubushniks and weigells, actions will look good next to them. It can be planted to form a front row in front of birch plantations, pines, looks good placed next to heather.
To date, a large number of forms have been deduced, characterized by decorative outlines:
- Burkwoodii has a bright bloom, which reveals flowers with scarlet petals, decorated with a narrow yellow border.
- Andreanus Splendens flowers are characterized by patterns of yellowish-red streaks.
- Lena a rather spectacular form, when flowering on the petals of flowers of a scarlet hue, a longitudinally drawn dark golden line flaunts.
Early broom (Cytisus praecox)represented by an unpretentious plant with a shrub form of growth. Its height is 1–1, 5 m. The spreading, dense and dense crown is formed by thin branches with an arched bend. The length of the leaf plates, which unfold on the shoots, is 2 cm. The outlines of the leaf plates are narrowed, lanceolate. The foliage is painted in a light green shade. The root system is superficial. In May, a large number of bright yellow flowers with a pungent aroma begin to open.
Prefers a light and sandy substrate with a slightly acidic or neutral reaction. Differs in frost resistance. It is used for landscaping and strengthening sand slopes, curbs and protective plantings. Can be grown both singly and in group plantings.
The species became the basis for breeding the following highly decorative varieties:
- Allgold begins to bloom even before the leaves unfold. The color of the petals in the flowers is bright yellow.
- Boskoop Ruby has a very wide popularity. The bush is formed by upright branches, which are distinguished by good branching. The crown takes spherical outlines from such shoots, reaching a height of 1.5 m. The leaf plates are characterized by an oblong-lanceolate shape. Foliage color is light green. The flowers are characterized by a spectacular coloring - the outer part of the petals is colored with a ruby tint, and the inner part is mauve.
Related article: Tips for planting and caring for Pueraria or Ku-zu.