Information and information about the Sun that everyone should know: its size, temperature, surface, distance to the planet Earth. How long will the huge star last? The sun is the most common star. Its age is almost five billion years. The solar surface is heated to 5000 degrees, but in the center its temperature exceeds 13 million degrees. In the solar core, the process of converting hydrogen into helium takes place, during which a significant amount of energy is released. There are spots on the surface of the Sun, bright flares constantly occur.
The sun gives the Earth the light and warmth that support life on our planet. For plants, the sun's heat and light are the source of energy they need to grow.
For astronomers, the Sun is a special star, as it is located very close to the Earth (150 million km). That is why much more is known about him than about another star. The largest observatories have special telescopes designed to study this huge luminous star.
Scientists are confident that even the smallest changes in energy production will entail serious changes in the climate not only on the Sun, but also on Earth.
Numerous studies and observations have provided humanity with a lot of information. The sun is a ball of fire. Its diameter is 109 times greater than that of the Earth. This star's yellow light comes from the atmosphere. It has a thickness of 500 km and astronomers call it the photosphere. The transparent part of the outer atmosphere is located above the photosphere, and the inner regions of the Sun are located below it. Most of the energy that falls on the Earth comes from the photosphere, but is produced in the depths of the star. The photosphere temperature exceeds 5000 degrees.
The surface of the star is bubbly. Astronomers called these bubbles solar granularity, and it can only be seen through a special telescope. This blistering is very similar to the blisters that occur when meat broth or milk boils.
In the sixties, scientists discovered that the uppermost layer of the atmosphere rises and falls once every 5 minutes. That is why the sun vibrates a little, and by this vibration scientists are trying to find out the inner structure of the solar ball. It does not rotate like the Earth and other solid objects. The speed of rotation of different parts of the star is different. The equator makes rotations the fastest - it makes one revolution in 25 days. The speed decreases with distance from the equator - in the polar regions, one revolution can last up to 35 days. These differences are due to the fact that the Sun is a ball of gas.
The amount of sun spots changes over time. From 1989 to 1990, there were a lot of them - this is due to the increase in solar activity. The average number of sunspots reaches its maximum approximately every eleven years. The cycle of sunspot activity is directly related to the climate on our planet.
Thanks to a solar eclipse, you can see the outer layers of the atmosphere, which are located above the photosphere. When a total solar eclipse occurs, the solar corona or white halo around the sun can be seen. Near the Sun itself, its temperature can reach 2 million degrees, and it extends over a distance of several star radii. The corona emits a minimum of light, but it emits X-rays of enormous power.
All scientists are wondering how long the sun has existed?
It is clear that this star will not exist forever, but it still has a long "life" ahead of it. It is currently in middle age. In the future tense, this star will warm up and grow in size at a very slow rate. When all the hydrogen in the center of the core is used up, the Sun will triple and begin to die. This will lead to the fact that the entire World Ocean on Earth will boil away, and the planet itself will turn from solid rock into molten lava.