Description of the primrose plant, recommendations for planting and caring for primrose in the backyard, breeding rules, combating possible diseases and pests, interesting notes, species and varieties.
Primula (Primula) can also be found under the name Primrose. Botanists include the plant in the Primulaceae family and the Ericales order. Most of the varieties are small flowering grasses. The genus includes about 390 species, which mainly grow in nature on lands with a temperate climate. But according to some other information, this number varies in the range of 450-550 units.
All these representatives of flora prefer to choose rather humid areas for life, such as coastal areas of large and small waterways (rivers, streams) or even very wet meadows.
|Growing period||Annuals or perennials|
|Breeding method||Seeds (sowing in the ground or growing seedlings) or vegetatively (dividing a bush, cuttings)|
|Landing period in open ground||End of May or beginning of September|
|Landing rules||The distance between the seedlings is 20-30 cm (for large species) and 10-15 cm (for small ones)|
|Priming||Nutritious, lightweight, loose, moisture permeable|
|Soil acidity values, pH||6, 5-7 (neutral)|
|Lighting degree||Depends on the variety|
|Humidity parameters||Watered in the summer in the heat|
|Special care rules||Fertilizers are applied before and during flowering|
|Height values||About 25 cm|
|Inflorescence shape or type of flowers||Flowers can grow singly at the ends of the stems or gather in racemose or umbellate inflorescences|
|Flower color||Various colors and shades|
|Flowering time||From early April to late spring and again throughout the summer|
|The timing of fruit ripening||From late July or August|
|Application in landscape design||Flower beds, mixborders, decoration of borders and along paths|
This representative of the flora bears its name thanks to the Latin term "primus", which translates as "first". This is because many species of this genus bloom their flowers at the beginning of spring, even before the soil is completely free of snow cover. Yes, and in Russian, "primrose" means the same thing, but among the people you can hear such nicknames as "keys" or "rams".
All varieties of primroses are perennials, rarely having a two-year or one-year life cycle. However, in our gardens, plants are grown as annuals. The form of vegetation in the primrose is herbaceous, the height of the stems does not exceed 25 cm. The rhizome with roots is located under the soil surface. The leaf plates take on solid outlines, but are dissected, mostly elongated-oval lanceolate. Through the leaves, a root rosette is formed. Leaves are either sessile or endowed with petioles. The surface of the foliage is wrinkled and covered with hairs or leathery and dense. The color of the leaves is a rich green or greenish-gray (the surface is like a waxy) color.
In the process of flowering, five-membered flowers are revealed, characterized by regular outlines. Flower petals come in a variety of colors and tones.Flowers are crowned with flowering stems both singly and are collected in racemose or umbellate inflorescences. There are species, the shape of the inflorescences of which takes the shape of a ball or pyramid, tiers or pads, and there are in the form of bells (flowers drooping in the inflorescence). Elongated peduncles of leaves are deprived. The shape of the corolla of the flower has a tubular beginning and a funnel-shaped or flat limb. Flowering occurs in early April and lasts until the end of spring. Then the plant goes into a dormant state, which lasts from 7 to 14 days, and after that a second wave of flowering is possible. The second period will cover all summer months.
After the insects pollinate the primrose flowers, the fruits ripen in the form of a seed capsule (achenes) with a shape in the form of a ball or cylinder. The ripening period begins in the last week of July or with the arrival of August.
The plant is quite easy to care for and in our gardens you can find both annual and perennial representatives of the genus. They are often even grown as a room culture.
Planting and caring for primrose outdoors
- Landing place. It is best for such a primrose to choose an angle on a personal plot, depending on the variety. Since some need partial shade and closeness to water, others prefer mountain meadows, and still others prefer rocky crevices. However, as practice shows, most of the garden species of primroses prefer locations with light shading. You can pick up a place under the crown of trees, while the shadow is there, in the springtime is not very deep. If planting is carried out in too strong shade and a damp place, then the plants can become a victim of slugs. A sunny and southern location is most suitable for alpine primrose varieties if cultivation is carried out in the northern regions.
- Priming picking up for primrose is not a problem, since the plants do not express any requirements for the composition of the soil mixture, but shows the best growth on a moist, loose and nutritious substrate. Do not plant primrose in heavy, clayey or sandy soil. If the composition of the soil on the site is exactly the same, then it is recommended to mix river sand into it, which provides looseness and compost for enrichment with nutrients. Manure is introduced into sandy soil to increase fertility. This is due to the fact that the root system of the primrose does not differ in the depth of germination, therefore it is important to replace the surface layer of the substrate, approximately 20 cm deep. Moisture in such soil should be absorbed quickly, but not stagnate for a long time, since waterlogging will negatively affect the root system.
- Planting primrose carried out in spring days (the last week of May), while the soil is still saturated with moisture or already with the onset of autumn. Two-year-old bushes are selected for planting. The distance between the seedlings is maintained at 20-30 cm (if the species is large) and 10-15 cm (for compact primrose bushes). When planting primrose seedlings, it is worth remembering that plants do not like fragmentation and large voids between them, therefore, growing, leaf rosettes should close.
- Watering when growing primrose, it is not particularly troublesome, since with the arrival of spring, the soil is still quite saturated with moisture after the snow cover has melted. Only in the summer period are regular soil moistening recommended (once a week). It is this condition that will guarantee the formation of a large number of leaf rosettes, and besides, the bushes will grow magnificently in a substrate well-saturated with moisture. Watering will be especially needed if the summer period is hot and dry, or the bushes are planted in a sandy substrate - then they are moistened twice a week. Water is taken at the rate of 3 liters for each 1m2. Watering is required when growing primrose in a high flower bed or in a rock garden, if there is not enough moisture in the soil, then flowering will end very quickly.When cultivating a primrose, you should pay attention to the foliage of the plant: if it is fleshy and hard, then moisture can be reduced when the leaves become wrinkled and very delicate - there is not enough moisture for the primrose.
- Fertilizer when caring for primrose, it is recommended to use it in accordance with the variety and variety of the plant being grown, since there are species that prefer to grow on depleted rocky soil, while others (for example, fine-toothed primrose, Florinda and Japanese) grow well in a fertile substrate. However, as practice shows, it is best to grow garden primroses on soil enriched with nutrients and having sufficient friability. Only in this case the rams will delight with splendor and abundant flowering. In order for the flowering process to please with a large number of opening flowers in the spring, it is recommended to make phosphorus and potassium mineral dressings (superphosphate or potassium magnesium). To stimulate the formation of new leaf rosettes at the end of flowering, nitrogen preparations (for example, urea) should be added. For perennial plants, feeding is carried out once a week, starting from the appearance of the first young leaves and ending after flowering. Some flower growers use complex mineral preparations (for example, Kemiru-Universal), but the dosage is halved from that indicated by the manufacturer. You should not be zealous with nitrogen fertilizers, otherwise next year the leaf outlet will grow to the detriment of flowering.
- General advice on care. After each watering, the soil should be carefully loosened. You should also harrow the soil after flowering is complete. Rosette leaves are not removed, as they will protect the root system from frost. You can cut off last year's wilted leaves only with the arrival of a new spring.
- Wintering primrose. If a harsh winter is expected, then it is recommended to cover the primrose bush with straw, spruce branches or dried foliage. The height of such a layer should be within 7-10 cm. However, there are varieties that do not need shelter, for example, Julia's primrose. When the winter turned out to be snowy, then such a snow cover will become an excellent protection for plantings of primrose and without additional devices. It is important with the arrival of spring to ensure that the snow melts and does not turn into an ice crust. Such a layer must be destroyed immediately so that the leaf outlets do not evaporate under it.
- Transfer primrose is carried out after several years of uninterrupted growing season in one place. This is due to the fact that in some varieties, after two years, flowers and foliage begin to shrink, although there is flowering, it is very weak, therefore, the decorativeness of such plantings is steadily falling. If the florist does nothing about it, then such an extensive leafy cap can cause diseases. When transplanting, it is necessary with great care to remove the primrose bush from the soil and carefully separate its root system into parts with your hands. This process will not be difficult, since each of the deciduous rosettes has its own root shoots. Some growers simply divide the bush into several parts with a sharp knife, the main thing is that they are not too small, otherwise this will complicate subsequent rooting. After this procedure, a quick planting is recommended in a previously prepared place in the flower bed.
- The use of primrose in landscape design. Since the flowering of the primrose occurs in early spring, it occupies a significant place in horticultural floriculture. The best neighbors for such plantings are representatives of bulbous plants, primroses are also planted along garden paths or curbs, as well as in groups. Since the height of the shoots is small, the plant looks good in the glades among the stones of the rock garden, rockery or nearby with a natural or artificial reservoir.It is in stone gardens that you can create unique phytocompositions by arranging various varieties and varieties of primroses nearby. You can also use various varietal variations to create the impression of a continuously blooming flower bed, dotted with primrose bushes, since flowering will stretch from spring days to July, and if you choose various garden forms of delicate irises and bright chrysanthemums as companions, then flowering will become a decoration of the garden until stable frosts. Since leaf rosettes in some species and varieties of rams do not lose their color even after flowering and even in winter, not very attractive garden places can be decorated with such bushes.
See also the rules for planting a straw and growing outdoors.
Rules for breeding primrose at home
In order to have such an early flowering plant on the site, it is recommended to use the seed or vegetative method. Seeds can be sown both in a flower bed and seedlings, and the vegetative method is by cutting or dividing an oversized bush.
Propagation of primrose seedsThe most successful is the seedling method. Since seed germination is lost quickly, it is recommended to sow them immediately after collection. The best time for sowing is February. A seedling box is used, which is filled with a composition of sod and leaf substrate, and river sand in a ratio of 2: 1: 1. The seeds are spread over the surface of the soil mixture and are slightly pressed into it. There should be no more than 5 seeds per 1 cm2. After sowing, the container is wrapped in a transparent plastic wrap and placed in the freezer, where the temperature will not be more than -10 degrees. There the seed is kept for 20-30 days.
After cold stratification, the boxes, without removing them from the polyethylene, are placed on the windowsill, where good lighting will be provided, but at the same time protection from direct sunlight. When leaving, it is important to ensure that the soil is always slightly damp. The germination temperature is maintained within 16-18 degrees.
ImportantSeeds of common primrose (Primula vulgaris) and fine-toothed primrose (Primula denticulata) are not subjected to freezing.
You will have to wait a long time for seedlings, but if they appear, then you should open the polyethylene for a couple of minutes, gradually accustoming the primrose seedlings to the air. This time needs to be gradually increased, and when 15 days pass in this mode, then the shelter is removed altogether.
The growth rate of seedlings of primrose seedlings is very slow. When 2-3 true leaves unfold on the plants, a pick is made into another container. It is better to use tweezers for this procedure. Subsequent care of the seedlings will include regular and timely watering of the soil. Subsequent picks are performed as the seedlings grow. But as the experience of experienced florists shows, such plants can be transplanted into open ground only after a couple of years, from the moment the sprouts appear.
Propagation of primrose by dividing the bushThis manipulation is carried out during the 1st or 2nd week of September. For this, plants are selected for 4-5 years. Before removing the bush from the ground, it is recommended to water it well, then this can be done easily. After digging, the residues of the substrate are removed from the roots and they are thoroughly washed in a basin with water. Division is carried out with a well-sharpened knife. Each of the primrose divisions must contain more than one renewal bud. All cuts are immediately sprinkled with charcoal powder and then the parts are planted in a prepared place. After planting, abundant watering is required.
Propagation of primrose by cuttingsThis method is used when the bush is characterized by a weakened root system, and it has only a single outlet. In this case, the axillary stems serve as cuttings.To obtain a cutting, the leaf must be separated with a petiole and a bud, while capturing part of the stem. The leaf plate is cut in half and planted in a pot of soil. Then the seedling is placed in a place with good lighting, shading it from the direct rays of the sun. It is best to root primrose cuttings at a temperature of 16-18 degrees. The soil should be consistently moderately moist. Only when 3-4 young leaf plates appear from the bud can be transplanted into a new pot with a diameter of 7-9 cm. Only in the spring are transplanted into the garden.
Fight against possible diseases and pests when growing primrose in the garden
A plant in flower beds is often exposed to fungal diseases, which can be triggered by waterlogging of the soil, high humidity with prolonged precipitation and a low ambient temperature (18–20 degrees). Among them are:
- Rust manifested by cushion formations on the back of the leaves and the raining of red powder from them, the foliage over time also becomes a reddish-brown color.
- Powdery mildew well distinguishable due to the whitish coating of foliage and stems, reminiscent of a lime-dried solution, the leaves are then deformed, turn yellow and fly around.
- Gray rot striking foliage and shoots, and clearly visible due to plaque, which is somewhat similar to a short fluffy gray pile. Soon, such plaque is replaced by slimy spots, and parts of the plant die off.
To cope with such fungal diseases, all affected parts of the primrose should be torn off and then the remaining bush should be treated with fungicidal agents such as Fundazole at a concentration of 2%, copper oxychloride at 1% or the same concentration with Bordeaux liquid.
It becomes especially dangerous when caring for any garden plant, as well as primrose diseases caused by viruses. Among them are:
- Jaundice virus, which is characterized by the coloring of foliage in a pale green tone, often the shoots take the same color. This also includes their too strong branching, the formation of numerous buds, which, opening, turn into flowers with deformed outlines. The petals in the flowers become green in color, some parts of the flowers acquire an irregular shape, which more and more resembles an ordinary leaf plate. Seed material from a primrose bush, affected by jaundice, does not ripen.
- Bacterial spot symptoms of which are spots with or without a bright yellow color scheme, the color of the spots is brownish, dark brown or black.
- Anthracnose, manifested on all above-ground parts, especially on foliage. A spot of brown color with a darker edging is formed, gradually such spots take on a dark brown hue.
- Cucumber Mosaic Virus, under the influence of which the foliage begins to wrinkle, and the edge can curl downward. A mosaic pattern also appears, in which there is an alternation of dark green and pale green tones, often the spots are clearly visible in the light.
There is no cure for viral diseases today, and therefore, if the above symptoms coincide, it is recommended to dig up and burn all affected bushes. At the same time, it is important for the prevention of diseases with viral etiology to carry out timely control of sucking insect pests (for example, aphids), which act as carriers of infection. You should also regularly weed plantings of primrose and not violate the rules of agricultural technology.
Pests that cause significant harm to the plantings of primrose can be considered:
- Slugeating foliage. The fight against them is carried out either manually or using metaldehyde agents (for example, Meta Groza).
- Weevils, aphids and spider mite, and Zhukov and fleassucking nutritious juices from the leaves. It is recommended to treat with systemic insecticides, such as, for example, Corbofos, Aktara or Actellik.
- Nematodes, small worms that spoil the root system of plants. For destruction, soaking the root system of the extracted primrose bushes in hot water (about 45-50 degrees) or Rogor treatment helps for several hours.
See also steps for breeding cortuza at home.
Interesting notes about the primrose flower
The medicinal properties of primrose have been known for a long time. For example, even in the days of Ancient Greece, primrose was called "the flower of Olympus" - the flower of the twelve gods. This is because in Greece there is a legend that the early flowers of the plant served as the keys of spring, belonging to the goddess of fertility Freya. It was she who opened springtime with such keys. In Germany, it was believed that primrose was the key to a successful marriage. Not a single drink of the Celts and Gauls could do without primrose in its composition.
According to the legend that exists in Denmark, it was in the primrose that the elven princess turned because of her love for a mere mortal. Following the ancient Greek legend about the young man Paralysos, his death came from love, and the gods, taking pity on the lover, turned him into a delicate spring flower. According to this, Primula had the ability to cope with any disease, even paralysis, so people can often hear how primrose is called "paralytic grass."
The cultivation of primrose as an ornamental culture in European lands began to be dealt with from the 16th century. The most popular in this business is primrose in the territory of Foggy Albion (in England). In this country, clubs for lovers of primrose auricle are organized, obtained by crossing species such as primrose auricula (Primula Auricula) and hard-haired (Primula hirsuta). Although it has been noticed that the popularity of the plant either weakens or increases, it never disappears altogether. In the same place in the UK, exhibitions of these primroses are annually held, where you can admire the most diverse shades and shapes.
If we talk about the medicinal characteristics of primrose, then any of its parts has a very high content of manganese salts. The rhizome itself contains not only essential oils, but also saponins with glycosides, but the part growing above the surface of the soil is full of vitamins. Primrose foliage is usually used in cooking, introducing it into soups, salads and other dishes. The best time for such an application is the spring period, since it is this time that saturates the leaves with carotene and ascorbic acid. If you prepare the roots and leaf plates by drying for future use, then a powder is made of them, which serves as a raw material for medicines.
Even folk healers noted the ability of primrose to work as an expectorant if the patient suffered from respiratory diseases. The foliage is suitable for making decoctions, and the root shoots are suitable for tinctures. Rheumatic pains disappear due to the analgesic effect of primrose preparations. The same drugs have a diuretic effect, so they are prescribed for renal diseases and the bladder. There is a pronounced antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory and calming effect, so primrose is suitable for colds, throat problems, tonsillitis, as well as neuroses, headaches and sleep disorders. If there are external marks on the skin from hemorrhages, it is recommended to use an infused solution on the roots of the primrose.
It is important to remember that there are contraindications for taking preparations from primrose, namely: individual intolerance of the patient, pregnancy in the first trimester.
Types and varieties of primrose
Since there are a large number of varieties and varieties of primrose, therefore, botanists have divided into 30 sections, but here are the most common ones:
Common primrose (Primula vulgaris)may occur under the name Primula stemless… The native area of growth falls on the territory of the central and southern European regions. Most often, such plants are found on the edges of forests, in meadows in the alpine belt, where there are melting snows nearby. A shortened rhizome, has thick root processes that resemble shoelaces. The lanceolate leaf plates reach 25 cm in length and no more than 6 cm in width. During the winter months, foliage may partially remain in its original state.
When flowering, beginning in March, flowering stems are formed, which can vary in height in the range of 6–20 cm. Single buds crown their top. When the flowers open, the petals are characterized by a pale yellow or snow-white color scheme, while the pharynx has a purple tone. The petals are of considerable width, divided into a couple of lobes. When blooming, such a bush is somewhat similar to a bouquet for a holiday. Occasionally, a second wave of flowering occurs in September. The cultivation of the species began in the 16th century.
The most popular among florists are the following varieties:
- Virginia - characterized by flowers with petals of a snow-white tone and a throat of a pale yellow color scheme.
- Giga White has a snow-white color of flowers.
- Cerulea blue flowers flaunt with a yellowish pharynx.
The species has a high growth rate and can form a compacted cushion. Today there is a very large number of forms not only with a simple, but also with a terry broom structure. Easily tolerates the winter period, does not need special care.
Primula high (Primula elatior)mainly distributed in the Carpathians, and also includes Western Europe (its southern and northern regions). This perennial has oval-shaped leaf blades with small teeth on the edge. The leaf does not exceed 5–20 cm in length and about 2–7 cm in width. The leaf has a sharp narrowing towards the petiole. On the upper side of the vein is distinguished by a strong depression, the opposite in these places, respectively, has a bulge.
When blooming, which starts with the arrival of April and stretches for 50-60 days, fragrant flowers open up. They form umbellate inflorescences, numbering 5-15 buds. When fully opened, the diameter of the flower is measured 2 cm. The color of the petals in them is pale yellow, although there are specks of bright canary yellow at the base. Peduncle height varies within 10–35 cm. Its surface is characterized by slight pubescence.
Today, through the efforts of breeders, hybrid varieties have been bred with flowers of a larger diameter, the color of the petals in them can take on a snow-white, red, cream, yellow and lilac hue. There are specimens, both with a monochromatic color of the petals, and those that stand out with a border or an eye of a different color.
The most decorative varieties are characterized by:
- Duplex characterized by the disclosure of flowers up to a diameter of 2.5 cm, the petals are cherry hue, but the throat of the corolla is of a dark yellow color.
- Rosea - a name that speaks for itself, so the flower has a rich dark pink color, but there is a bright yellow eye.
- Gell Faben (Gelle Farben) they are decorated with flowers, open to a diameter of 3.5 cm, the petals in them are delicate purple, and the throat has a yellowish tint.
- Goldgrand - flowers with brownish petals are able to open up to a diameter of 2.5 cm, but they have decoration in the form of a golden border and a yellow throat.
The variety is also characterized by the presence of hybrid forms, which differ from the base in more elongated flowering stems, and the size of the flowers is larger. They can be grown not only to decorate the garden landscape, but also for cutting. Among them stand out:
- Curiosity or Curiosity, the owner of flowers of brownish-yellow color.
- Golden Dream, Goldentraum or Golden Dreams blooms in a rich yellow or golden color.
- Olga Menden has a delicate red tint in flowers.
Primula Siebold (Primula sieboldii)during flowering, which occurs at the beginning of summer, loose umbellate inflorescences form on the tops of the peduncles. They are made up of flowers of a wide variety of shades of pink or lilac color scheme. After the flowering process is completed, the ephemeroid (a plant with a very short growing season) loses its leaves - they die off.
Spring primrose (Primula veris)often found under the name Primrose officinalis… The native habitat is in European territories. The leaf plates have a wrinkled surface and ovoid outlines. The length of the leaf reaches 20 cm with a width of approximately 6 cm. On the front side of the leaves, depressed veins are distinguished, which look convex on the back side. Also, the back of the leaf is characterized by pubescence.
Flowering is marked by the opening of yellow flowers, decorated with a speck of bright orange color at the base of the petals. However, the garden forms of this variety have very varied tones. Corollas, both simple and terry structures, are colored with one or two shades. The most abundant flowering is observed from mid-spring to June. The fruits are set due to the pubescence of flowers by insects, self-pollination was not noted. The fruit is a box with seeds, which has an ovoid shape.
Video about growing primrose in the garden: