Description of the plant breakthrough, rules for planting and growing in a personal plot, how to properly reproduce, methods of pest and disease control, interesting notes, types.
The breach (Androsace) belongs to the representatives of the flora included in the Primroses family (Primulaceae), or as it is also called the Primrose. This genus combines plants with a one-year, two-year or perennial growing cycle. According to the information taken from The Plant List database, about 170 species are united in the genus today. Natural growth occurs in the Northern Hemisphere, where a temperate climate prevails. They prefer high-mountainous regions for life, mainly in Western European regions, the Caucasus and North American lands, and are found in China and Central Asia.
|Family name||Primroses or Primrose|
|Growing period||One-year, two-year or long-term|
|Breeds||Seeds or vegetatively (dividing a bush, rooting cuttings)|
|Open ground transplant terms||May and or early June|
|Landing rules||About 10-15 cm of indentation is left between the seedlings|
|Priming||Any poor, light and dry, sandy or gravelly will do|
|Soil acidity values, pH||6, 5-7 (neutral) or 7-8 (slightly alkaline) and above|
|Illumination level||Sunny location, light shading or full shade|
|Humidity level||Drought tolerant|
|Special care rules||No fertilizers required|
|Height options||In the range of 5–20 cm|
|Inflorescence type||Single flowers or umbellate inflorescences|
|Flower color options||Snow white, pinkish, yellow or crimson|
|Flowering period||From early spring to mid-summer|
|The timing of fruit ripening||Irregular, 2 months after the flower has been pollinated|
|Application in landscape design||Rockeries, stone gardens and rock gardens, mixborders and flower gardens, as a ground cover culture, serves as decoration of borders and paths|
The plant got its name from the word in Greek "androsakes", meaning a plant unknown to science, with corymbose-shaped anthers. According to another version, the term "aneriandros", translated as "man" in botany, has the meaning of "stamen", and "sakos" and "eos" when combined gave the word "shield". Thus, the famous flora taxonomist Karl Linnaeus used all these data for the name of the breach genus. Well, in Russian, the plant was named because of its "love" for growing in mountainous areas, as if thin stems pierced the rocks and sought sunlight.
All varieties of breakthrough are low-sized herbaceous plants, while they can form rather dense bushes with their stems. The root system is characterized by superficial growth, but rather abundant branching. The stems have a drooping or creeping form, in connection with this fact, the height of such thickets is never more than 20 cm, but occasionally it is about 5 cm.All parts (stems and leaf plates) are characterized by a bright green tint. If growing conditions are unfavorable, the leaves may acquire needle-like contours. But often their outlines are rounded or elliptical, linear or lanceolate.
Usually the foliage is dense and in some cases even fleshy, located close to the soil surface.This circumstance allows the plant to store moisture in case of an unforeseen drought. The length of the leaves rarely becomes more than 2–5 cm. By means of the foliage, a basal rosette is formed, while the deciduous mass can form compacted sod resembling pillows.
When the flowering period comes, shortened flowering stems are formed on the tops of the stems, on which single flowers open or buds can be combined into an umbrella inflorescence. The length of the peduncle is measured in the range of 5–25 cm. The calyx may have a bell-shaped or spherical shape. The corolla of each flower is composed of five petals and has a funnel-shaped or saucer-shaped shape. When fully expanded, the corolla can reach only 1 cm in diameter. However, there are so many flowers that they form a dense cover of the entire green pillow, which was formed by the deciduous mass. The petals are snow-white, pinkish, yellow or crimson. There are varieties in which the color of the petals smoothly passes from white to crimson with a shaded center.
The flowering process at the break can start right after the soil surface is free of snow and stretches until July or early August. When so many flowers open up near the bushes, everything around is filled with a delicate pleasant aroma. After flowering is completed, the fruits ripen, which are a seed capsule of rounded outlines. The seeds are very small in it. Since flowering does not have uniform dates, the ripening of the fruits is uneven, but this usually occurs 2 months after the flowers are pollinated.
Today, in botany, it is customary to divide the types of breakthroughs according to their external characteristics and growing regions. Following this it turned out:
- Jasmine (Chamaejasme) - varieties that grow in nature in mountainous areas and are most common when grown in culture. Here ground cover plants are combined, characterized by abundant flowering. When cultivating, it is required to select a place in partial shade and with fertile soil.
- Pseudoprimula (Pseudoprimula) has an eastern distribution in the lands of the Far East and Central Asia, therefore, mainly Asian species are collected here. They prefer shady or lightly shaded locations. Growing difficult.
- Aretia - a group of dwarf-sized plants from high-mountainous regions. For their cultivation, areas with rocky or sandy soil are suitable, while shading from the direct rays of the sun is necessary. Transplanting into the garden is extremely difficult for these plants.
- Andrapsis combines annual varieties that are easily propagated by seed.
Based on this, you should pay attention to which of the species is supposed to be grown on your personal plot and follow the rules of agricultural technology and reproduction given below.
Rules for planting a straw and growing in the open field
- Landing place. Since in nature this spring primrose prefers both locations with good lighting, it can feel great in partial shade or even full shade. Everything directly depends on the variety. Only one variety, white or milky (Androsace laciea), does not like direct sunlight.
- Breaking ground it will also not cause problems with the choice, since the native growing places fall on sandy and rocky substrates. It is best when the plants are planted in light and loose soil saturated with gravel, sand or coarse claydite. It is possible to use materials such as crushed stone, pebbles or broken brick of the appropriate size. It is best when the soil acidity is in the pH range of 6, 5–8, that is, the soil should be neutral or alkaline.If the substrate is acidic on the site, then it must be lime by mixing dolomite flour or slaked lime into it. At the same time, the soil is deeply and thoroughly cultivated.
- Planting a breakthrough should be carried out no earlier than May or even at the beginning of June, when return frosts will no longer harm young seedlings. Seedlings obtained by cuttings or cuttings, after dividing the bush, are planted from mid-summer until the end of the August days. Since the plant does not tolerate waterlogging of the soil at all, it is recommended to take care of high-quality drainage when planting - coarse-grain sand, pebbles, expanded clay or crushed brick into small parts. A planting hole is dug a little more than the root system of the seedling. A drainage layer must be laid on its bottom, which should be about 3-5 cm. Then a soil mixture is poured onto it so that all drainage is completely covered. Only then can a plant be installed in the hole. When the breakthrough is located in the planting pit, it is required to fill it up to the top with soil and water it. The distance when planting between seedlings should be kept 10-15 cm.
- Fertilizers when growing a breakthrough is not a vital requirement, since in nature this representative of the flora grows well on a very depleted substrate.
- Watering when caring for this representative of the flora, it will also not cause trouble for the gardener, since the plant is able to endure dry periods without losing its decorative effect. If there is a lot of moisture in the soil, then this will inevitably entail rotting of the root system. It is recommended to moisturize the soil moderately, but regularly.
- General advice on care. To prevent the breakthrough from suffering from fungal diseases, it is periodically required to remove dried leaf rosettes. After the flowering process is completed, the bush should be mulched, fallen foliage can act as such mulch. In this case, the root system of the plant will be supplied with all the necessary trace elements that appear during the decomposition of the deciduous layer. Mulching helps not only to saturate the soil with nutrition, but also protects the root system from freezing in winter.
- Wintering. Since an adult plant is resistant to strong gusts of wind or frost, it is not worth covering the breach by the time of the winter period, and a layer of leaves will serve as a sufficient preservation of the roots. In addition, the plants can withstand up to -28 degrees of frost.
- The use of a break in landscaping. Such bushes look pretty good in rockeries between stones or in cracks on stone vertical walls. A good place will be both rocky talus and slopes, following the natural preferences of this representative of the flora. If you want to decorate the garden with such deciduous "pillows" that will gradually dress up with flowers, then here the break will be the best, by the way, as an independent planting. It can also be used to decorate the foreground of a flower arrangement or green paths and borders.
Read also about planting and caring for primrose outdoors.
How to reproduce a breeding hole correctly?
This groundcover can be propagated both by seed and vegetative propagation. When choosing the latter method, it is recommended to divide a very overgrown bush or root cuttings.
Breeding propagation by cuttingsThis method is suitable for perennial species, and they begin to practice it with the arrival of July. To obtain cuttings, the upper parts of the stems are used, which have at least a couple of internodes. The cuttings are planted in the ground and watered, where they root successfully. Such seedlings will bloom next spring when the snow melts.
Breeding propagation by dividing the bushThe method is also suitable for perennials. The best time for such manipulation will be July-August.After flowering, the leaf rosette is very carefully removed from the substrate, the soil is carefully removed from the root system and separation is performed using a very sharp knife. There can be two or four parts. Do not divide into smaller bushes, as they will not be able to take root after planting. All sections are immediately sprinkled with charcoal, but if this is not the case, then you can grind the pharmacy activated powder into powder. The planting holes must be prepared in advance and the breaks are immediately planted in well-moistened soil. Once the seedlings adapt and begin to grow, then flowering can be expected by next year.
Propagation of a breakthrough using seedsTo do this, it can be carried out as sowing the harvested seed material "before winter" or immediately after harvesting. Seedlings are often grown. It should also be remembered that seeds very quickly lose their germinating properties and sowing should preferably be carried out immediately after receiving them or during the first year. This method allows you to get many seedlings for planting, but the parental characteristics of the grown bushes may be lost. For sowing on a flower bed, the soil must be well dug up and leveled, then let it settle for seven days. Seed material is spread over the surface of the bed and sprinkled with a small layer of the same substrate.
If sowing is carried out directly into the soil, then the seeds undergo natural cold stratification and appear only with the arrival of spring, but it happens that their germination can take 12 months. This is due to the fact that at first in young breaks, the rhizome grows, and only then the formation of the aboveground part. When seedlings appear in the spring, then after a couple of leaves have developed on them, you can start thinning. The distance between them should not be less than 10 cm. Otherwise, the plants will simply "kill" each other.
To plant seedlings, you need to stratify the seeds yourself. Seed material is placed in February in small containers with loose soil (peat-sandy). The pot is placed in the refrigerator on the lower shelf intended for vegetables, where the heat values will be kept in the range of 0-5 degrees. The seeds will spend time there for 6-8 weeks. It is interesting that the sprouts can be seen from such crops even in the refrigerator. However, they should not be transferred to heat, but only when the specified period of stratification is completed.
When the stratification comes to an end, the pots are transferred to a well-lit place, but shaded from the midday sun and room temperature (20-24 degrees). Broken straw seeds usually germinate within 60 days. When the seedlings get strong enough, and 3-4 real leaves unfold on them, you can dive into separate pots with the same soil and continue to grow them. To transplant seedlings to a flowerbed in a garden, it is recommended not earlier than the end of May or the beginning of June. In this case, the required distance between the plants is maintained at 10 cm.
Pest and disease control methods when cultivating a breakbreaker
Often, such spring-flowering plants suffer from waterlogged soil and high humidity. It is these factors that can provoke the development of fungal diseases (gray rot, powdery mildew, and the like). If spots on the leaves or plaque are noticed, then all affected parts are removed, and the remaining bush is treated with fungicidal preparations, such as Fundazol or Bordeaux liquid.
To avoid such diseases, it is recommended to regularly remove leaf sockets that have become unusable and died out, then the risk of the appearance of infectious diseases will be significantly reduced, and it is also important to monitor the condition of the soil, to prevent stagnation of moisture in it.
Plants are generally not affected by pests.
Interesting notes about the breach
Despite the fact that this spring flower is usually used as an ornamental plant, one should not forget about its medicinal properties. These features have been known to folk healers for a long time. For example, such a species as the northern breakthrough (Androsace septentrionalis) contains a large amount of coumarins, flavonoids and saponins. These substances are capable of exerting not only anticonvulsant, but also bactericidal effects. Usually, root processes are used for the preparation of medicines, but also stems and foliage. Such remedies are recommended for diseases of the genitourinary system (urolithiasis), pain in the heart and bleeding, drugs were used for epilepsy and served as an unsurpassed contraceptive.
In the latter case, the foliage was dried and ground into powder, on which tinctures and decoctions were then prepared. In addition, Androsace medications have been shown to increase appetite, sore throat and nerve problems.
Types of breach
Northern breakthrough (Androsace septentrionalis)is an annual representative of the flora, which is widespread in areas of the entire Northern Hemisphere with moderate temperatures. Natural preference is given to dry meadows and sandstones, and the plant is not uncommon on embankments near roads. It can be used as a ground cover because of the creeping stems, through which the formation of low clumps occurs - only 6–20 cm. The leaf plates have lanceolate outlines and form a basal rosette at the base. The surface of the leaves is either smooth or covered with short hairs.
When flowering, which falls in the period of April-July, smooth flowering stems, crowned with small inflorescences, stretch out. Each of the flowers in it has a short peduncle. The corolla of the flower is composed of 5 petals, characterized by a widely spaced arrangement. The color of the petals is white, but there is a yellow tint in the central part. Ripening of fruits is uneven, like flowering, and it occurs almost two months later.
Hairy breaker (Androsace villosa)can also occur under the name Prolomnik Kozopoljanskii (Androsace kosopoljanskii), although in some sources there is a division into two varieties. In its natural environment, it grows in the mountainous regions of Europe, which includes the alpine and subalpine belts. A perennial plant capable of forming cushion-shaped thickets. In this case, the height indicators can vary within 5-7 cm. The foliage is the most delicate to the touch, fluffy due to the villi. With the massive disclosure of flowers, a pleasant aroma spreads around. The color of the petals in them is pink, red or white-pinkish. Flowering occurs at the end of autumn.
For garden cultivation, it is recommended to select an eastern location, preferably a substrate with a high content of sand or stony, saturated with calcium (rockery or rock garden). Reproduction takes place by sowing seed on the beds "before winter". It is possible to carry out a very neat division of the bush at the end of summer and root the cuttings.
Young breakthrough (Androsace sempervivoides)Introduced in the Jasmine (Chamaejasme) and is a Himalayan variety. In nature, it grows on talus with a stony substrate at an absolute height of 3000-4000 meters. Extensive green carpets are formed from stems not exceeding 1–5 cm in height. A basal rosette is formed from the leaves, characterized by a smooth dark green surface, occasionally with a reddish tint. The edge of the leaves is ciliate.
When blooming, flowers with pink or crimson petals and a green center open up. Inflorescences are collected from the buds at the tops of the peduncles. The length of the flowering stem reaches 2-3 cm. Flowering occurs in the May period.For cultivation in culture, partial shade and rather wet gravel soil are recommended. Reproduction is carried out by cuttings in July, dividing the bush in August, or sowing seeds before winter.
Albanian breakthrough (Androsace albana)has a natural growth at an altitude of 3600 meters above sea level in the Caucasus mountains. The height of the stems is small and through them a continuous foliage carpet is formed. Above it, flowering stems are stretched, the parameters of which vary within 10–20 cm in height. Usually grows in culture for 1-2 years. The surface of leaves and stems is pubescent. Each of the flowers has its own short peduncle, gathering in an inflorescence that looks like an umbrella. There are 3-8 buds in it. The color of the petals in the corolla is snow-white or dusty-pinkish. Flowering is extended for the entire month of May until the beginning of summer.
Breakthrough purple-red (Androsace carnea)also has the following names Androsace brigantiaca, Androsace laggeri, Androsace rosea. However, if you follow the translation, the name will be more accurate. Fleshy breaker, since the flowers of this variety have a richer hue. The natural habitat falls on the territory of the Alps and Pyrenees. There, the plant prefers scree, and grows at an altitude of 1400–3100 meters above sea level.
It is a perennial bush with a height of 5–15 cm. The stems form a loose cushion. The color of the leaves is green, their outlines are linear, there is a sharpness at the top. The length of the sheet plate is no more than 10-15 mm. When blooming, buds open with petals of white or pink color. Flowers on stems form into loose inflorescences. The flowering process begins in early spring.
When growing, you should select a sunny location and a rich, nutritious, well-flavored soil with humus, characterized by drainage. You can sow seed before winter or immediately after harvest. In springtime, it is recommended to carefully divide the bush. This species reacts strongly to changes in climate and weather conditions, however, it takes root in rock gardens with great success.
Related article: Growing schizanthus in the open field
Video about growing a breakthrough in the open field:
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