The traditional Russian smoke sauna is famous for its healing effect and sterility. During its construction and operation, special rules must be adhered to, since it is fire hazardous, and non-observance of precautions can lead to carbon monoxide poisoning. Content:
- Features of the smoke sauna
- Construction technology
- Preparation for construction
- Foundation construction
- Roof arrangement
- Stove construction
- Internal and external finishing
- The first kindling of the stove
Such a bathhouse has been built in Russia for more than one century. Paying tribute to traditions, many people still prefer to build it on their site today. Its main feature is a stove without a chimney. Smoke and soot heat up the steam room and settle on the walls, ceiling, shelf, which turn black. Hence the characteristic name.
Features of the smoke sauna
Even taking into account the specifics of the firebox, the "black" bath is still popular. And not in vain, because it has many advantages:
- Fast warm-up… The steam room heats up completely two to three hours faster than a white sauna. The black tint of the walls improves the thermal properties of the steam room.
- Characteristic smell… The damp, heated, smoky wood depletes the traditional "bath" aroma. In addition, carbon black is effective in absorbing unpleasant odors (especially sweat).
- Simplicity of design… Thanks to the combination of a washroom and a steam room, as well as the absence of a separate rest room, a smoke sauna will cost you significantly less.
- Minimal heat loss… Due to the lack of a chimney, all the heat is used to warm up the room, and therefore less firewood is required for the firebox.
- Disinfection… The content of acetic acid, phenol and formaldehyde helps to kill pathogenic microbes and bacteria. Therefore, there is no fungus in such a steam room. In the old days in the "black" baths they even took delivery.
- Wellness effect… Acceptance of procedures in a smoke sauna has a good effect on blood circulation, has antidepressant, anti-aging and analgesic properties. This has been proven by centuries of use.
As for the shortcomings, they include:
- Great smoke… If the firebox is incorrect, you can get poisoned by carbon monoxide.
- Fire hazard… It is important to follow safety rules, as an open fire in a wooden structure can cause a fire.
- Limited heating methods… The steam room is heated only with wood, which is very laborious both in preparation and in operation.
If you properly equip the bath and take precautions, then such shortcomings will seem insignificant. At the same time, the smoke does not enter the lungs of a person and is eroded through the logs, and therefore the Russian bath in black does not need additional ventilation.
Smoke bath construction technology
To build a "black" bath yourself, you need to take into account many technological nuances. It is important not only to correctly calculate the load on the base and erect the walls, but also to correctly equip the furnace, to select materials suitable for this process.
Preparing to build a smoke sauna
First you need to familiarize yourself with the projects of baths in a black way. Often, the building is a five-walled structure (with one partition inside). The interior space is divided into two rooms. In the first, a steam room and a washing room are equipped, in the second - a dressing room, which plays the role of both locker rooms and a kind of rest room.
Before starting work, you need to decide on the type of foundation and the depth of its formation.It depends on the type of soil, the depth of its freezing and the level of groundwater.
Traditionally, the Russian smoke sauna is built in the form of a log house. Wood breathes, and therefore is able to let smoke through. There is no place for artificial materials. The logs must be free from defects and areas of insect damage. You need to choose a quality dried coniferous tree.
The best option is larch and cedar. However, in order to save money, even pine is often used. Jute or moss is placed between the rows as a heat insulator. The interior decoration of the steam room is not recommended.
Construction of the foundation for a smoke bath
If the weight of the building exceeds 20 tons, then you need to fill in a powerful reinforced concrete strip foundation. For lighter pairs, a columnar base is suitable.
To build a columnar foundation for a black bath, we adhere to the following sequence:
- We clear the area around the construction perimeter and remove the top fertile soil layer.
- We make markings on the ground according to the dimensions of the structure. The pillars must be placed at the corners of the building, under the load-bearing walls and partitions, as well as at the joints. The distance between them should be no more than 0.8 meters.
- We dig out meter holes with a diameter of 20-25 cm in the marked places. For this purpose, you can use a conventional drill.
- We fill up the sand-crushed stone pillow by 15 cm and carefully ram it.
- We insert asbestos pipes into the holes obtained. Fill the remaining space to the ground with a mixture of crushed stone and sand.
- We insert a reinforcing frame into the pipes and fill it with concrete to the top.
At this stage, you need to take care of pouring the foundation for the furnace:
- To do this, we select the place of construction and pull out a foundation pit of the corresponding dimensions with a depth of 0.5 meters.
- We fill in a mixture of sand and gravel and carefully tamp it.
- We fix it to the walls and lay construction polyethylene (more than 300 nanometers) or roofing felt on the bottom. We attach the material with an overlap of 15-20 cm.
- We insert the reinforcing grid into the recess and fill it with concrete.
After complete drying of the concrete in the pipes and the base of the furnace, we lay two layers of roofing material for high-quality waterproofing. It is more convenient and reliable to stick it using molten resin. We fix support rails from a bar to the pipes, fastening them with galvanized fasteners or spike joints, and also treat the wood of the support rails with antiseptic compounds and fire retardants.
When installing pipes and pouring the foundation for the furnace, be sure to use the hydraulic level. All pipes should be located strictly at the same level, and the base of the stove should be placed parallel to this plane.
Erecting the walls of the bath in black
Prepare insulation (jute, moss or tow) in advance in order to perform thermal insulation at this stage. We carry out work in the following sequence:
- We lay the first crown, check the evenness with a spirit level. The bars are securely connected to each other with metal pins. The first row may not be attached to the foundation, stability is formed due to the heavy weight of the structure.
- We blow out the gap between the base and the first crown with polyurethane foam for additional protection of the wood from negative factors.
- We lay a heat insulator around the perimeter of the lower crown.
- We make holes for fasteners along the edges of the logs.
- We install the rest of the rows according to the project. We leave openings for windows and doors. The optimum size of the material is 15x15 cm. Instead of galvanized pins, you can also use wooden pins.
- We mount floor beams.
It is not recommended to insert window systems and doors at this stage. The blockhouse will shrink and can deform the openings.
Rules for arranging the roof over the bathhouse in black
Usually a smoke sauna is equipped with a gable roof. The technology of its construction is standard and looks like this:
- We install a wooden Mauerlat around the perimeter of the walls.
- We collect the rafters on the ground and mount them on the roof, first along the edges, then in the middle.
- We attach the skateboard and additional jumpers.
- We trim the gables with slats.
- We fix the vapor barrier membrane with an overlap of 15-20 cm, glue the joints with metallized tape.
- We fill the crate and put the roll insulation between the boards.
- We lay the waterproofing with the same overlap and fill in the counter-lattice.
- We attach the topcoat, leaving a ventilation gap up to the insulation layers.
After installing the roof, the log house must be left for at least six months so that the logs shrink. Then the caulking is repeated.
The stove for the "black" bath is equipped without a chimney, therefore it is not required to leave a hole for it when constructing a roof.
Construction of a stove for a bath in black
We prepared the foundation for the stove in advance. For further work, you need to stock up on silicate refractory bricks and normal clay (not skinny and not greasy).
In the process, we adhere to the following order of actions:
- Lay two rows of bricks dry on the waterproofing layer, overlapping the seams of the previous one.
- We make clay mortar for masonry.
- We spread the firebox with a height of 0.5 meters with an open top. The walls should be 19-25 cm thick.
- On top of the structure, we install reinforcing bars with a step of 7 cm. You can use a ready-made production grid for this purpose.
- We put stones. Flattened cobblestones with a smooth surface without defects work well. An excellent option is sea pebbles and peridotite.
- Place large items (up to 15 cm in diameter) down. We put medium stones (7 cm) in the middle. We put the big ones on top again.
- On top we install a metal container for heating water.
The oven itself is not equipped with a water tank. In the old days, hot stones were thrown into a basin or barrel for heating.
Internal and external finishing of the bath in black
From the inside, the walls in the bathhouse are not finished in black. The natural look of the logs looks very relevant.
As for the rest of the surfaces, here we adhere to the following instructions:
- We insulate the flooring and mount a wooden floor on the support beams at a slope to the drain.
- Between the floor beams we lay a roll of insulation and sheathe it with wood.
- We mount the electrical wiring in a special corrugation, and for lighting we use heat and moisture resistant shades.
For high-quality air circulation, the room is not cluttered with unnecessary details. Slightly above the level of the furnace under the wall, we install shelves one meter wide and two meters long. We mount two benches made of planed boards: one near the shelf, the other under the window. On the third wall we fix a wooden shelf for bath accessories. In the corner near the front door we put a tub of cold water.
As for the dressing room, you can place a clothes hanger, a shoe cabinet, a table and chairs in it. After the procedures, you can drink tea or kvass here. Also, brooms and towels are usually kept in the dressing room.
When installing window openings after shrinkage, do not forget to fix the casing to prevent deformation of the systems.
The specifics of the first kindling of the stove in a smoke sauna
When choosing firewood, give preference to deciduous species (aspen, birch). Conifers contain resins that are released at elevated temperatures. Oak firewood burns for a very long time, therefore it is also not recommended to use them. Use well-dried, medium-sized logs.
The process itself is performed in the following sequence:
- We check the steam room and remove unnecessary things from it. We leave the door half open.
- We put paper or wood chips from bars in the oven, make a kind of "hut" around.
- We set fire to the crumpled paper and leave the room. As long as the door is open, combustion air will flow into the steam room.
- When the room warms up, close the door and wait for the fire to go out. Please note that it is not advisable to extinguish the oven yourself.
- We clean the fuel compartment from ash.
- We are waiting for the complete ventilation of the steam room, we leave the bath to brew for 25-30 minutes.Then we pour water over the walls, shelves and stones, creating the first steam, after which you can start the procedures.
How to build a smoke sauna - watch the video:
Thanks to the large number of stones, a do-it-yourself smoke sauna heats up quickly and keeps it warm for a long time. A steam room with dimensions of 2.5x3 meters can be warmed up in 1 hour and 20 minutes. In this case, the optimal temperature regime will be kept for about 3-5 hours. Instructions, a photo of a smoke sauna and construction recommendations will help you to independently carry out the work and equip a full-fledged steam room in the best Russian traditions.