Drip irrigation: price, device, installation, reviews

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Drip irrigation: price, device, installation, reviews
Drip irrigation: price, device, installation, reviews
Anonim

Purpose and device of the drip irrigation system, advantages and disadvantages. Assembly features, installation instructions. Drip irrigation price.

Drip irrigation is the most economical way to irrigate an area, in which water is supplied through hoses directly to the root system of the plant. Thanks to this technique, the yield of crops increases many times, and the costs of maintaining the adjacent territory are reduced. Let's talk about the drip irrigation device and its assembly in more detail.

Drip irrigation system device

Drip irrigation in the greenhouse

In the photo, the drip irrigation system

Drip irrigation is intended for irrigation of row vegetable and berry crops, ornamental plants, flowers. The system has proven itself well in greenhouses, greenhouses, for watering pots and containers. This method is not suitable for wetting large areas such as lawns. it is necessary to create a complex ramified structure.

Drip irrigation is a system of pipes with a large number of micro-nozzles through which water flows out. The range of products is quite large, but they all consist of the following elements:

  • Storage capacity… It stores water for irrigation. For these purposes, any tank can be used, fixed 1-2 m above the ground. From it, the liquid flows through hoses to the plants by gravity or with a small pump. Water is pumped into the tank from a well, reservoir or supplied from the central highway.
  • Distribution pipeline… Hole sleeves are attached to it. The product is placed perpendicular to the beds. It is made of rigid plastic pipes (PE or PVC) with a diameter of at least 32 m. The material should not transmit light so that vegetation does not appear inside.
  • Flexible lines for supplying liquid to plants… They are available in two types: in the form of tubes or belts with droppers. The hoses are laid on the ground or slightly buried parallel to each other at a distance of 10 cm to 1 m. Usually the spacing between them is determined by the distance between the beds. Products are sold in bays.
  • Filters… Designed for water purification before feeding into hoses. In their absence, the nozzles quickly clog.
  • Fitting… Products for connecting elements into a single system. These include elbows, tees, adapters, etc. It is not recommended to use ferrous metal parts. Over time, they corrode and rust clogs the holes.
  • Cranes… They are used to manually turn on water.
  • Drip irrigation pumps… They are used in devices assembled from thick-walled tubes.

To create an automatic drip irrigation system that functions without the presence of a person, additional mechanisms are needed:

  • Humidity sensors… The devices turn off the liquid supply if the humidity reaches the set parameter.
  • Rain sensors… Elements of an automatic circuit that shuts off water if there is enough natural precipitation.
  • Automatic switch-on system… Products allow you to turn on and off the fluid supply at a given time. For the operation of the machines, no power supply is required, a battery is enough. In addition, the operation of the device can be controlled via a computer. It must be remembered that when using automation for drip irrigation, the costs of the system will increase significantly.

Advantages and disadvantages of drip irrigation

Drip irrigation

Drip irrigation is popular due to the following advantages:

  • Work at night. The time of watering greatly affects the productivity and vital activity of plants. In summer, it is best to moisten the soil at night or early in the morning, before sunrise. Having installed such a device in the country, it is easy to organize the supply of water at any time of the day.The volume of the container should be such that it lasts at least 1 night. You can open and close the tap on the barrel manually or with the help of a special device that is turned on by the clock mechanism.
  • Ease of installation. Drip irrigation systems come on sale in sets. For installation, it is only necessary to connect the parts into a single whole in accordance with the attached instructions.
  • Saving water. The liquid is fed through hoses to the roots, moistening the soil only next to the plant. After installing a drip irrigation system, water consumption can be reduced by 60% compared to sprinkling a garden.
  • Increased productivity. The use of the device increases the yield of vegetables by 50-80%, garden crops and vineyards - by 20-40%. Fruits can be harvested 5-10 days earlier than usual.
  • The low pressure in the pipes protects the plants from being damaged by the high water pressure.
  • With drip irrigation, the liquid does not fall below the roots, so the site does not become waterlogged. It does not come into contact with ground, highly mineralized water layers, so there is no danger of soil salinization.
  • Drip irrigation does not compact the soil and maintains its loose structure.
  • Anaerobic conditions are not created in the soil, under which the root system rots.
  • Water enters the roots at a low rate and is absorbed by 95%.
  • This method of watering eliminates the need for traditional spraying or spraying, which is detrimental if you work on a hot day. Drops remain on the leaves, which, under the influence of direct sunlight, acquire the properties of lenses. They focus the rays of the sun and burn out areas of the leaves. The damaged areas become black-brown or dry and light-colored.
  • Low system pressure. In summer, the garden is watered mainly on weekends, so the pressure in the main line is insufficient for watering the plants due to the large number of users. For traditional irrigation, there should be a pressure of 1-1.6 atm in the sleeve, which can only be provided by a pump. In our case, it is easy to do drip irrigation with your own hands with a pressure of 0, 2-0, 3 atm., Which is created if there is a barrel in the line raised above the ground.
  • Warm irrigation water. The system always has a container in which the liquid is heated during the day to the ambient temperature. It is known that heated water is easily absorbed by plants.
  • Watering can be organized without paying attention to external conditions, which allows you to choose the optimal time and modes of water supply.
  • Drip irrigation is very convenient if the site is located on slopes. In this case, you do not need to build terraces.
  • Improving the efficiency of fertilizers. In the case of adding fertilizers to the liquid, their efficiency increases to 60%. It does this by feeding the chemicals directly to the roots. Cost savings reach up to 50%.
  • It provides intensive development of the root system due to a balanced water and nutritional regime and good aeration of the topsoil.
  • With drip irrigation, the leaves and stems remain dry, which reduces the risk of spreading disease and infection.
  • Reduces the number of weeds in the aisles.
  • All plant care work can be carried out at any time of watering.
  • Reduced physical labor costs: all efforts are spent only on opening and closing the tap.

This method of soil moistening has a number of disadvantages that users should be aware of:

  • Drip irrigation systems are not cheap, but the costs quickly pay off thanks to water savings and high yields.
  • Hoses quickly clog up and fail. To prevent dirt from entering the pipes, a fine filter must be installed at the inlet to the line.
  • The tape walls are very thin and have a short lifespan. They are often damaged during plant maintenance.

The main elements of the drip irrigation system

In order for the system to function correctly, study the properties and characteristics of all its elements in advance.

Drip Irrigation Tubes

Drip Irrigation Tubes

The feature of the drip tubes is their thick walls, which provide rigidity to the product.Such sleeves are indispensable for watering perennial plants, in areas with difficult terrain, during capital watering.

The use of tubing depends on the way the droppers are connected. Products with built-in emitters are used in landscaping, artificial landscaping and gardens. The sleeves with integrated drippers are used in industrial greenhouses, nurseries, vertical landscaping, etc. The products have little elasticity, so they can be stacked between plants.

The household uses products with a diameter of 12, 16, 20 mm with a wall thickness of 0, 2-1, 5 mm. A diameter of 16 mm is considered optimal for drip irrigation. Long branches require 20 mm tubing.

Thick-walled products are used on stony soils and in conditions where they are easily damaged. For example, they need to be installed if there are dogs in the house that can bite it.

For operation in normal conditions, products with walls of medium thickness are used. Thin wall drip hoses are for temporary irrigation system.

Drip tubes are divided into two types:

  • The blind… Sold without holes and are used if the distance between plants is different. Drippers are sold separately for them, which must be installed independently. Products are used for watering gardens, shrubs and flower beds. They are available with wall thicknesses of 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 mm and are sold in coils of 100, 200 and 300 m.
  • With built-in droppers (emitters)… In such products, the pitch of the holes is the same along the entire length and ranges from 0.1 m to 1 m. The most widespread are tubes with a pitch of holes of 20, 33, 50 cm. The distance between them is chosen depending on their application. In gardening, it is recommended to use products with a diameter of 16 mm with a step of 33 cm and a water consumption of 2 l / hour. In some cases, an outflow of 4 or 8 l / h is allowed.

Irrigation tubes are divided into two types - with compensated and uncompensated drippers. Systems of the first type are longer (up to 20 m), and the flow rate through the holes from the beginning to the end of the product is equal. They can operate at a pressure in the branch of at least 1 atm., At which the compensation effect is manifested. Constant pressure is provided by special built-in mechanisms. They are a kind of silicone membrane that overlaps the flow area of ​​the pipe with increasing pressure and acts as a pressure reducer. Products with non-compensated drippers are short and the flow rate decreases towards the end of the product. They function at any pressure.

Comparative characteristics of drip tubes:

Item type Diameter, mm Hole pitch, cm Water outflow at 1.0 atm., L / hour Length, m Service life, years
Blind 16 Optional 2-4 100, 200, 300 5-10
Emitter 16 20, 30, 50, 100 2-4 100, 200, 400 5-10

Drip irrigation tape

Drip irrigation tape

Irrigation drip tapes are made of thin plastic, so they are less durable and break when bent. Therefore, when using them, it must be borne in mind that they are recommended to be laid only in a straight line.

For the normal functioning of the system, water must be supplied to the belts under a low pressure. The minimum allowable pressure is 0.2-0.5 bar, the maximum is 0.7-1 bar. Too much flow can break the sleeve.

The labyrinths of drip tapes are narrow, so the liquid must be carefully filtered. A clogged sleeve is very difficult to clean, and in most cases is thrown away after the watering season. But when using water with low hardness and low mineralization, the service life can reach 3 years.

Drip tapes are used for watering household and summer cottages, large fields, in greenhouses and greenhouses with soil cultivation. They have very thin walls, so they are cheaper than drip tubes.

There are several types of similar products:

  • Labyrinth drip tape… It got its name from the shape of the channel, due to which the flow rate decreases and the water temperature rises. The labyrinth is made directly on the surface of the tape material, which creates a number of problems during its operation.In such products, it is impossible to create uniform pressure at the outlet from the droppers along the entire length of the branch, the soil moisture is uneven. They often fail and are rarely used.
  • Crevice tape… It is a flexible product with slits in the form of slits, in which labyrinth channels are embedded inside. The hose is easy to roll up and fold. It is sensitive to water quality, so the irrigation system must have a fine filter.
  • Emitter tape… The most popular type of drip irrigation hoses, which differs from other models by the presence of flat droppers (emitters) and a long service life. The diameter of the channels is large enough, so they are less likely to clog. Emitters regulate fluid pressure and create turbulence, which clears the water from debris. The manufacturing technology of such tapes is rather complicated, so they are more expensive than others.

Comparative characteristics of drip tapes of different thicknesses:

vendor code Diameter, mm Emitter pitch, cm Water outflow at 1.0 atm., L / h Working pressure, Bar Length
var. 1 var. 2
DT 1618-10 DT 1618-15 DT 1618-20 DT 1618-30 16 10/15/20/30 0.8 1, 4 0, 4-1, 2 25050010002000
DT 1622-10DT 1622-15DT 1622-20 DT 1622-30 16 10/15/20/30 0.8 1, 4 0, 4-1, 2 25050010002000

Drip Irrigation Filters

Drip Irrigation Filter

In a drip irrigation system for home use, two types of filters are most often used:

  • Strainer… Consists of a cartridge in the form of a stainless mesh, built into the body-flask. Typically, the mesh size does not exceed 120 microns.
  • Disc filter… In this product, the cartridge is made of tightly pressed filter plates. Water flows through the cracks between them, leaving dirt particles on the surface. Disc filters are preferable to mesh filters: they clean the liquid better and last longer. Even organic inclusions are retained by the plates.

1 / 2-4 inch threaded flanges are available for mounting the filters to the housing. A 3/4 inch thread is considered optimal for drip irrigation. Use 1-inch strainers for high flow rates.

The filters have a quick-release cover that allows easy cleaning of the device. If the water is very dirty, it is recommended to install two filters in series.

Comparative characteristics of disc and mesh filters:

Filter Model Consumption, m3/hour Pressure max, Bar Filtration degree, micron Connection diameter, inch
Disk R25DR32D R63D 3516 668 120 3/4"1"2"
Reticulate R25SR32SR50SR63S 351216 6666 120 3/4"1"1.5"2"

Development of a project of a drip irrigation system

Drip irrigation system diagram

Drip irrigation scheme

The installation of hoses is carried out in several stages, but first you need to develop a drip irrigation scheme and determine the amount of water, and then you can start assembling the system.

How to determine the number and types of elements of a drip irrigation system:

  • Draw a plan of the area and show the area for irrigation and all the main parts of the water supply system - distribution pipes, tank, tapes, liquid distribution points, filters, etc.
  • If the system is automatic, draw the locations of the sensors, time relays and other elements. Before doing drip irrigation, consider how to fill the container with water and indicate the location of the hoses from a natural source of moisture.
  • Indicate the dimensions of the sleeves on the plan. Polyethylene irrigation pipes with a diameter of 40 mm are usually used as distribution pipes. Discard smaller items as it will be difficult to connect tapes to them.
  • Count the number of fittings and determine their types.
  • You can buy ready-made drip kits, and then additionally purchase missing parts. Do not use metal parts. Over time, they corrode and small dirt particles clog the emitter holes.
  • Find a container for water. The volume of the tank must be such that there is enough liquid for at least 1 day of operation.

When buying a drip irrigation system, pay attention to the diameter of the tape:

  • 16 mm - used for branch lengths up to 300 m;
  • 22 mm - for branches up to 750 mm.

The dropper spacing of 10, 15 and 20 cm is used:

  • For watering garlic, raspberries, parsley, lettuce and other commonly planted crops;
  • To create a single line of irrigation;
  • To create a continuous line of humidification along the system to a depth of 25-30 cm;
  • For strong moisturizing of the area;
  • For irrigation of soil that absorbs moisture well.

Maintain a 30 cm dropper step:

  • For watering potatoes, strawberries, cucumbers, cabbage and other crops, between which there is a small distance;
  • On medium-grained soils.

A dropper step of 40 cm is used:

  • For watering tomatoes, pumpkins, watermelons, etc.;
  • To create a continuous irrigation line over a long distance.

Water consumption for drip irrigation depends on soil moisture, air temperature, distance from the surface to the roots. For vegetable crops and plants with a developed root system, a flow rate of 2-3, 8 l / hour is sufficient. For most berry crops, emitter tapes are usually used with a flow rate of 1-1, 5 l / h.

The longer the sleeve, the lower the water flow and the diameter of the holes should be. However, in this case, it is necessary to organize a thorough filtration of the liquid.

When choosing an emitter for water consumption, you can focus on the following values:

  • Water consumption 2, 0-3, 8 l / hour… For irrigation of crops with developed roots, with two-row planting, for use on sandy soils.
  • Water consumption 1, 0-1, 5 l / hour… Standard stream for all cases.
  • Water consumption 0, 6-0, 8 l / h… For very long branches of drip irrigation, for soil with poor flow capacity.
  • Water consumption 0, 6-0, 8 l / hour… This value is suitable for sandy soils.

Wall Thickness of Drip Tubes:

  • 2-3 mil (0.15mm) - products are very demanding for water purity and operating conditions. They are used for irrigation of early crops. Often they only last one season. Not used on stony soils.
  • 4-5 mil (0.15mm) - are used on any type of soil for drip irrigation of crops with an average ripening period.
  • 7-8 mil (0.18-0.2 mm) - universal products that have no restrictions on use, are not afraid of mechanical stress and can last for several seasons.
  • 10-12 mil (0.25-0.2mm) - it is recommended to use for watering plants on stony soil and in conditions where there is a danger of damage to the system. The service life of the product reaches several years.

Drip tubes can withstand pressure up to 3 bar, but the working pressure in the hose should be no more than 1.5-2 bar. With such a flow head, the fittings do not break off, and the flow rate corresponds to the passport data. If necessary, buy pressure regulators to increase the reliability of the drip irrigation system.

Below are the tables by which you can choose the sleeves depending on the length of the beds. The information will help in calculating drip irrigation.

    Emitter drip tape 8 mil, any hole pitch, 1, 2, 1, 6, 2, 4 l / h TUBOFLEX Russia m 0, 85-0, 9 Emitter drip tape, 6 mil, 20 cm, 1.6 L / hr SERTSAN Turkey m 1, 08-1, 15 Emitter drip tape 6 mil, 20cm, 2.0L / hr SERTSAN Turkey m 1, 08-1, 19 Emitter drip tape, 6 mil, 20 cm, pouring out 1.2 L / h PESTAN Serbia m 1, 1-1, 22 Emitter drip tape 6 mil, 20 cm, pouring out 1.6 L / h PESTAN Serbia m 1, 08-1, 18 Emitter drip tape 6 mil, 20 cm, discharge 2.3 L / h PESTAN Serbia m 1, 08-1, 16 6 mil Slotted Drip Tape, 15cm, 1.5L / hr PESTAN Serbia m 1, 2-1, 18 6 mil Slotted Drip Tape, 20cm, 1.5L / hr PESTAN Serbia m 1, 16-1, 25 Slotted drip tape, 6 mil, 15 cm, 1.0 L / hr PESTAN Serbia m 1, 13-1, 20 6 mil Slotted Drip Tape, 20cm, 1.0L / hr PESTAN Serbia m 1, 13-1, 20 6 mil Slotted Drip Tape, 15cm, 0.6L / hr PESTAN Serbia m 1, 11-1, 15 6 mil Slotted Drip Tape, 20cm, 0.6L / hr PESTAN Serbia m 1, 1-1, 23 Tee 16 * 16 * 16 LFT Plast Progeet Italy PCS. 15, 0-17, 0 Corner 16 * 16 * 16 LFT Plast Progeet Italy PCS. 19, 0-21, 0 Plug 16 mm LFT Plast Progeet Italy PCS. 4, 0-6, 0 Repair fitting 16 mm with thread LFT Plast Progeet Italy PCS. 7, 0-9, 0 Repair fitting 16 mm with ring LFT Plast Progeet Italy PCS. 5, 0-8, 0 Starting fitting LFT Plast Progeet Italy PCS. 10, 0-12, 0 Starting crane LFT Plast Progeet Italy PCS. 14, 0-15, 0 Disc filter 3 " Aqua Italy PCS. 4200, 0-4300, 0 Disc filter 4 " Aqua Italy PCS. 8700, 0-8900, 0 Disc filter 1 " Aqua Italy PCS. 5700, 0-5900, 0 Disc filter 1 "1/4" Aqua Italy PCS. 310, 0-350, 0 LFT hose 6 " tyana sell USA-Turkey m 310, 0-350, 0 LFT hose 4 " tyana sell USA-Turkey m 75, 0-85, 0 Power clamp 149/161 mm ROBUST Germany PCS. 75, 0-85, 0 Power clamp 104/112 mm ROBUST Germany PCS. 45, 0-50, 0 Power clamp 98/103 mm ROBUST Germany PCS. 45, 0-50, 0 Power clamp 74/79 mm ROBUST Germany PCS. 35, 0-45, 0

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