Plumbing device made of plastic pipes. Design rules. Methods for joining products from various materials.
Installation of plastic pipes for water supply is a set of measures that ensure the reliable operation of the system for a long time. The assembly technology depends on the properties of the materials used. How to install water pipes from various plastic products, you can learn from this article.
Construction of a water supply system made of plastic pipes
Plastic plumbing has a rather complex structure, consisting of pipes and fittings for their connection. In its finished form, the system is a branched route from the water source to the places of use. When assembling it, it is necessary to take into account the properties of all elements and the rules for their fastening.
Home plumbing systems use pipes made of polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, polyethylene, metal-plastic… Materials have a different chemical composition, so their properties and field of application are different. The choice of blanks depends on many factors, in particular, the working fluid pressure and temperature, diameter, etc. It is also necessary to take into account the operating conditions and the environment on which the method of joining the cuts depends.
The options for joining pipes of various types are shown in the table:
|Pipe material||Connection method||Feature connection|
|Polyethylene||Thermal welding; with crimp fittings||One-piece|
|Polyvinyl chloride||Thermal welding||One-piece|
|Polyvinyl chloride (flared pipe)||Gluing||One-piece|
|Reinforced-plastic pipes||Compression fitting; press fitting||Detachable; one-piece|
Fittingscall parts for connecting pipes, as well as shut-off valves (ball valves of various modifications). With their help, you can get a design of any configuration.
Fittings are divided into monopolymer and combined. With the help of monolithic parts, only plastic tracks are assembled. They must be of the same material as the pipes. Combined parts are used for joining plastic and metal products in any combination.
The number of fittings will be less if the pipes are made of flexible material such as polyethylene or matalloplastic. There are modifications of adapters: there are samples in which the metal sleeve is soldered into a plastic shell, in other cases the metal and plastic parts are fixed with a collapsible joint.
Attention! Fittings are inexpensive, so buy them with a margin.
The most commonly used types of fittings are shown below:
- "Kegs"… This is the simplest type of connector, made in the form of a cylinder, whose inner diameter corresponds to the outer diameter of the pipes.
- Adapters… Products are used for joining workpieces of different diameters. They resemble "barrels", but the diameter of the opposite holes is different.
- Corners… Such parts are bent at an angle of 45-90 degrees. Used to change the direction of the track. Indispensable when working with rigid pipes (for example, polypropylene). Mixers are often attached to them.
- Crosses and tees… They are used to connect three or four pipes at the same time. They are available in various modifications that allow joining products from different materials and diameters.
Contours- these are pipe sections bent in a special way.With their help, you can easily get around a small obstacle.
Clips or clampsused to fix workpieces to walls. Their number depends on the rigidity of the structure: the more flexible it is, the more often they are installed. The cold water pipe is fixed with clamps every 1500-2000 mm. For hot - more often because of the large linear expansion of products.
Installation of a water supply system from plastic pipes
The technology for assembling systems from various types of pipes has many common operations, but some are fundamentally different, for example, in the method of joining workpieces. Details about the stages of the formation of the system and the features of the installation of a plastic water supply system are written below.
Water supply system design
The development of a plan is considered an important step in the construction of a water supply system. A working sketch will allow you to accurately calculate the dimensions of plastic pipes for a water supply system, determine the range of auxiliary elements and their number, correctly stretch the route and make wiring taking into account the surrounding environment, and avoid all kinds of mistakes.
Consider our tips when drawing up a diagram:
- Draw the location of plumbing fixtures in the figure, as well as objects that are in the path of the structure.
- Try to route the track with as few bends and intersections as possible.
- Choose the option in which the pipe length is kept to a minimum. It must be remembered that sharp turns will reduce the water pressure.
- Plan your connections correctly - there should be a good approach to them. Also, if the pipes are brazed, leave room for a special tool. Therefore, do not leave joints in wall openings and awkward places.
- Consider hiding the blanks in the wall grooves. It would be a good option if the walls are planned to be sheathed with plasterboard, which will close the branches from the outside. If the wiring is open, place the products in such a way that they are the least noticeable: pull vertical lines in the corners, horizontal lines along the walls.
- Decide on the method of pipe routing - tee or collector. In the first case, the water intake points are connected in series, one after the other. This allows you to reduce the number of products, but at each point the water consumption will be different. The farther from the main line, the lower the pressure. The collector method involves the use of a special distribution unit, which ensures the same water flow in any tap. It can be bought ready-made in a hardware store. But the number of pipes in the structure in this case will increase.
- Measure the distances between all objects of interest to you and plot them on the drawing.
- Think over your plans for the future. You may want to install new hardware after a while. Therefore, leave the leads in the line, which are temporarily muffled. Such foresight will allow avoiding the alteration of the plastic water supply system. joints are often made one-piece.
- It is not necessary to waste time on the beautiful design of the picture, the main thing is to take into account all the little things and display them on paper.
- For clarity, craftsmen often draw with a pencil the location of taps, bends, tees right on the wall.
- To save on pipes, do the routing not at the beginning of the route, but in the middle.
- It is possible to reduce the length of the system by introducing new lines that are connected to another branch using tees. However, at the same time, a large number of pipes appear, often in the most conspicuous place, which is not always beautiful and neat.
Preparatory work before installing plastic pipes
At this stage, pipes and tools for work are selected and bought.
Consider these points:
- Each product (metal-plastic, polyethylene, polypropylene, etc.) has its own advantages and benefits that must meet the user's requirements.
- According to the drawn diagram, count the number of pipes to form a water conduit. It is recommended to increase the calculated value so that you have a margin.
- Choose a method of fixing the workpieces to each other, which depends on the material used. Reinforced-plastic products are connected using metal fittings and rubber gaskets. Some masters are negative about this method of fixing due to the need to periodically tighten the fasteners. Failure to do so will cause the rubber seals to weaken and leak. Therefore, such joints should not be sewn into the walls. Other types of pipes are fixed to each other by soldering or gluing.
- Prepare tools for working with plastic products. A special soldering iron is needed for welding polypropylene pipes. The specially designed scissors will cut thin-walled products without damaging the surface. If the pipeline has a small number of branches, it is unprofitable to buy scissors, so use the tools at hand - a hacksaw for metal or a well-sharpened knife. Although the assembly of a plastic water supply system requires special tools, the cost of purchasing them will still pay off with the self-assembly of the structure.
- After purchasing the blanks, you can begin the installation of plastic pipes for the water supply.
Installation of a water supply system by hot welding
Before soldering plastic pipes for water supply, cut the blanks according to the developed scheme. Consider the fitting dimensions when determining their length. During this procedure, be guided by the rule: "measure seven times, cut once." A carelessly done work will lead to a discrepancy between the actual dimensions and the calculated ones and a deviation from the developed scheme.
Without a special heating device, it will not be possible to connect the plastic pipes. The store has a fairly large selection of such soldering irons. It is difficult to judge their quality, but sellers prioritize models from European manufacturers, then Turkish, Chinese and Russian. However, it can be noted that all devices work out their warranty period.
In the photo, a soldering iron for welding plastic pipes Zenit ZPT-2000
The following factors affect the price of a soldering iron for installing plastic pipes:
- Power… The higher it is, the larger the product can be joined. However, in the domestic water supply system, the pipes are small in diameter, and devices that are too powerful will overheat the material. Therefore, to work in an apartment, buy inexpensive low-power soldering irons.
- Nozzles… They are sold complete with a plastic pipe welding machine. The best ones are those with a Teflon coating, to which the molten mass does not stick. But they greatly increase the cost of the device as a whole.
Soldering iron price for plastic pipes in Ukraine:
|Soldering iron model||power, kWt||Equipment||Pipe diameter, mm||Price, UAH.|
|Zenit ZPT-2000||2||Case, nozzles, pipe scissors, tape measure, screwdriver, hexagon||20, 25, 32, 40, 50, 63||1000-1100|
|Vorskla PMZ 1, 5/6||0, 7-1, 5||Case, attachments, mittens||20, 25, 32, 40, 50, 63||290-310|
|Odwerk BSG-32||1||Case, nozzles, pipe scissors, tape measure, screwdriver||20, 25, 32, 40, 50, 63||650-680|
Soldering iron price for plastic pipes in Russia:
|Soldering iron model||power, kWt||Equipment||Pipe diameter, mm||Price, UAH.|
|Zenit ZPT-2000||2||Case, nozzles, pipe scissors, tape measure, screwdriver, hexagon||20, 25, 32, 40, 50, 63||3750-3800|
|Vorskla PMZ 1, 5/6||0, 7-1, 5||Case, attachments, mittens||20, 25, 32, 40, 50, 63||1100-1130|
|Odwerk BSG-32||1||Case, nozzles, pipe scissors, tape measure, screwdriver||20, 25, 32, 40, 50, 63||2100-2500|
To collect the water supply, follow these steps:
- Assemble the soldering machine according to the attached instructions. Find out to what temperature you need to heat it in order to solder workpieces of this type.
- Install a nozzle in it, corresponding to the diameter of the pieces to be joined.
- Clean the edges of the cuts from dirt. Make sure the ends are straight.
- Turn on the machine and wait for the nozzle to heat up. Wear protective gloves before connecting the plastic plumbing pipes to avoid scalding.
- Install the pipe and fitting at the same time into the nozzle and wait for them to heat up (usually 5-25 seconds). The time depends on the power of the soldering iron and the size of the product.
- Remove the parts from the attachment and insert the cut into the hole in the connector.
- Hold the blanks for 5-10 minutes until the material hardens.
- Repeat the operation to connect the second pipe to the fitting. Perform the work carefully and constantly monitor the quality of the welding.
- Angles and tees are attached in a similar way.
- Sequentially fixing the workpieces to each other, complete the installation of the entire system.
Installation of a water supply system by gluing
In the photo, the process of installing plastic pipes using glue
When installing a cold water supply system, PVC pipes can be fixed to each other by cold welding. In this way, only products with a special socket can be connected, into which the next smooth piece is inserted. All that is needed for the operation is glue, which is designed for gluing PVC. The strength of glued joints is not worse than after soldering.
In the photo, Tangit glue for mounting plastic pipes
Usually, formulations produced by the plastic manufacturer are used. Tangit (Germany) and ERA (China) glue is very often used to connect pipes. Below you can find out at what price they are sold.
The price of glue for plastic pipes in Ukraine (Kiev):
|Glue brand||Capacity, ml||Price, UAH.|
The price of glue for plastic pipes in Russia (Moscow):
|Glue brand||Capacity, ml||price, rub.|
Do-it-yourself installation of plastic pipes for water supply by gluing adjacent pieces is performed as follows:
- Cut the blanks in accordance with the developed plumbing diagram. Cut the products with special scissors for plastic pipes, which will provide smooth edges without burrs.
- Remove the chamfer at the ends of the products.
- Assemble the dummy plumbing (no glue) with fittings.
- Mark the relative position of the parts of the plumbing, as well as mark the depth of entry of the pipes into the fittings.
- Disassemble the structure.
- Sand the surfaces to be connected to make them roughened and remove dust and dirt.
- Wipe the surfaces with the cleaner that comes with the adhesive. The liquid will degrease and soften the plastic.
- Apply glue: on the inner layer of the socket - in a thin layer, on the pipe surface - in a thick one.
- Install the pipe with its cylindrical part into the socket (or fitting) until it stops, guided by the marks on the surface, made during the prototype assembly.
- Keep the products stationary for at least 15 seconds. After drying, remove the glue that has come out with a napkin.
- The structure can be moved no earlier than after 10-15 minutes.
Note! Testing the connection is allowed after 24 hours.
Compression connection and use of press fittings
When installing water pipelines from metal-plastic pipes, adjacent parts are attached to each other in two ways: compression and using press fittings. Each of them has its own advantages.
In the first case, the connection will be detachable, which allows the system to be disassembled if necessary. In plumbing systems, the compressor method is used both for fixing metal-plastic pipes to other types of products (for example, to a rubber hose), and for the joint of reinforced products. But over time, a leak may appear in the connector.
The connection with a press fitting is more reliable, but special equipment is required for installation, and the joint is one-piece. Below is the sequence of work when installing pipelines in both ways.
Docking of pipes using the compressor method is performed as follows:
- Cut the blanks according to the developed scheme.
- Make a 1x45 degree chamfer at their ends.
- Install a nut and ferrule on one pipe.
- Press the fitting into the second item until it stops in the limiter.
- Screw the nut onto the union, first by hand and then with a wrench. Do not apply too much force to avoid damaging the threads.
In the photo, the types of fittings for plastic pipes
The connection of pipes with press fittings is as follows:
- Install the coupling on the segment.
- Flare and strip it with an expander.
- Slide the press fitting onto the sleeve and push it all the way onto the pipe.
- Clamp the parts with a hand press.
- Fasten all cuts of the plumbing in the same way.
Installation price of plastic pipes for water supply
In the photo, the installation of plastic pipes for water supply
When determining the cost of assembling the line, all work related to its arrangement is taken into account. The following factors affect the price of installing plastic pipes for water supply:
- Type of distribution of water pipes - collector or tee. Installation of collector wiring will be more expensive, because to create it, you will need more pipes than in a tee. Accordingly, there will also be more joints.
- Installation method - open or closed. In the first case, the pipes are fixed over the walls with clamps. With the closed method, they fit into grooves (grooves in the walls), which must be completed in advance. Therefore, a closed method of installing plastic pipes is more expensive than an open one.
- To pass pipes through walls, holes of the appropriate diameter must be made. The more holes you have to make and the stronger the wall material, the more you will have to pay.
- The large number of turns that are performed with the corners increases the installation time and increases the price.
- The cost of the work is influenced by the ability of one person to assemble a part of the route separately, in a convenient place. Assistant services will also have to be paid.
- Installation of plastic pipes for water supply with external reinforcement is more expensive due to the need to remove the braid with a special tool.
- The cost of installing plastic pipes per 1 meter is influenced by the quality of the products. If the pipes and fittings have a deviation in quality (elliptical holes, diameters do not correspond to each other, etc.), the craftsman will have to spend a lot of time to get a high-quality joint. You will also have to pay for this.
- The cost of a hot water supply system is more expensive due to the presence of a larger number of joints than in a cold line - it contains thermal expansion compensators.
- Polyethylene pipes are more difficult to join than other materials due to thin walls and poor adhesion. Therefore, the foreman will have to work very carefully and slowly, which reduces his productivity and increases the cost of the work.
Installation price of plastic pipes for water supply in Ukraine (Kiev):
|Service||Working conditions||Units||Price, UAH.|
|Installation of the main||Depending on the length and diameter of the pipe||m. p.||10-50|
|Pipe supply to plumbing equipment||Depending on the type of equipment||point||from 160|
|Fitting a joint for a fitting||Depending on the diameter||point||from 10|
|Fastening the pipeline||-||point||from 12|
|Ball valve installation||Depending on the diameter||point||from 30|
|Slitting to hide pipes in the wall||Depending on the wall material||m. p.||70-150|
The price of installing plastic pipes for water supply in Russia (Moscow):
|Service||Working conditions||Units||price, rub.|
|Installation of the main||Depending on the length and diameter of the pipe||m. p.||150-1420|
|Pipe supply to plumbing equipment||Depending on the type of equipment||point||from 300|
|Fitting a joint for a fitting||Depending on the diameter||point||from 680|
|Fastening the pipeline||-||point||from 80|
|Installation of a ball valve||Depending on the diameter||point||from 150|
|Slitting to hide pipes in the wall||Depending on the wall material||m. p.||350-800|
How to make a plumbing from plastic pipes - watch the video:
From the examples given in the article, it is clear that it is not difficult to make a water supply from plastic pipes with your own hands. The result will depend on how responsible you are in solving the problem. Some risk in the assembly of pipelines is compensated by the ability to stretch the route the way you need, and not the workers, and by saving money.