The choice of pipes for water supply, features, characteristics, price, an overview of their types. What pipes are better to buy for water supply?
Water pipes are products for delivering water from its source to the consumer. The range of these products is quite extensive. They all differ in durability, strength, and various other characteristics. Let's talk about which pipes for the water supply are better and how to choose them correctly.
The main types of pipes for water supply
Such a responsible task as the device of a water supply network must be solved, taking into account many factors: the length of the highway, its purpose, the place of installation, the method of installation, and so on. But first, even at the stage of project development, you should decide on the material for the manufacture of the pipeline.
There are four main types of pipes used in plumbing:
- Black and galvanized steel pipes… Their main advantage is strength and stability at a high temperature of the carrier. For external systems, smooth electrically welded pipes are used for joining by welding. For internal networks, thin-walled pipes are used, for joining which detachable, as well as one-piece connections can be used. Read more about installing a steel pipe plumbing.
- Copper pipes… Due to the unique qualities of this metal, copper pipes for water supply are out of competition with similar steel or plastic products. Copper piping is durable, it is not afraid of corrosion and temperature drops. Perhaps the only drawback of the material is its high cost, but taking into account the service life of the copper water supply system, which is more than half a century, the price of the structure can be fully justified.
- Plastic pipes… They are represented by polyethylene, polypropylene and PVC products. The main advantages of plastic pipes for water supply are: affordable price, low weight, flexibility, corrosion resistance and ease of connection during installation. Their disadvantage is poor resistance to ultraviolet light and mechanical stress.
- Metal-plastic pipes… They have all the advantages of polymers and steel: strength, corrosion resistance, flexibility and durability within 20-50 years. The duration of operation of such material directly depends on the conditions in which it operates, as well as on the quality of the network installation.
Characteristics of pipes for water supply
Their knowledge helps to choose the right material, determine the optimal diameter of the products and perform the high-quality installation of the line in relation to the specific conditions of its future operation. Below we will consider the nominal, internal (Dy), external section (Dн), wall thickness and other indicators of pipes made of metal and polymers.
Steel pipes for plumbing
Photo of steel pipes for water supply
They are made according to GOST 1050-74 from black or galvanized steel. In the second case, there is a high resistance of the material to corrosion, which has a positive effect on its service life.
The pipes are delivered in sections. Their length can be 4-12 m, and the cross-sectional diameter is from 15 to 32 mm. Pipes with Dy 20-32 mm are used for the installation of a common pipeline, with Dy 15 mm and 20 mm - for piping to plumbing fixtures. Steel pipes of these sizes are most often used for networks inside the house. Outdoor networks require the use of products of large diameters.
In addition to GOST, when designating the transverse dimensions of pipes for a water supply system, the European standard is often used. The table below will help to compare these data:
|Pipe diameter, mm||Wall thickness, mm|
|Dy||Dн GOST||Dн European standard||h GOST||h European standard|
|15||20, 0-22, 0||21, 3||1, 5||2, 3|
|20||25, 0-28, 0||26, 9||1, 5-2, 0||2, 6|
|25||30, 0-32, 0||33, 7||2, 0||2, 6|
|32||42, 0||42, 4||2, 0||2, 6|
|40||48, 0||48, 3||3, 0||2, 6|
|50||57, 0||60, 3||3, 0||2, 9|
|65||76, 0||76, 1||3, 0||2, 9|
|80||89, 0||88, 9||3, 0||3, 2|
|100||108, 0||114, 3||3, 5||3, 6|
Permanent connections of steel network elements are obtained by welding using appropriate equipment. For detachable connections, special units and fittings are used, which are installed on pipes equipped with threads at the ends. On pipes with Dy 15 mm, a half-inch thread is cut, respectively, with Dy 20 mm - 3/4 inch, with Dy 25 mm - an inch thread.
Copper pipes for plumbing
In the photo there are copper pipes for water supply
They are made according to GOST R52318. Copper products of three types are used for water supply:
- solid unannealed pipes with a diameter of 10 to 108 mm;
- semi-solid pipes with a diameter of 6 to 159 mm;
- soft annealed pipes with a diameter of 6 to 22 mm, which are often supplied in a polyethylene jacket.
Solid and semi-solid pipes are produced in the form of straight rods with a length of 30-50 m. Soft pipes are about 25 m long and are supplied in coils. It is easier to work with them: such products are easily bent at the required angle.
To connect solid copper pipes, special fittings are required, which are threaded or soldered. Fittings for threaded pipe connections are made of brass. Such parts can have external and internal threads. Solder fittings are made of copper.
When installing a home network, water pipes are used with the following parameters:
|Outer diameter Dн, mm||Nominal bore Dy, mm||Weight 1 m, kg||Wall thickness, mm|
|10, 2||6, 0||0, 4||2, 0|
|13, 5||8, 0||0, 610||2, 2|
|17, 0||10, 0||0, 8||2, 2|
|21, 3||15, 0||1, 28||2, 8|
|26, 8||20, 0||1, 66||2, 8|
|33, 5||25, 0||2, 39||3, 2|
Plastic pipes for water supply
In the photo, plastic pipes for water supply
These are three types of products with different parameters and purposes:
- Polyethylene pipes (PE)… They are made in accordance with GOST 18599-2001 from plain and cross-linked polyethylene. Products of the first type are used to deliver cold water and operate in a temperature range from 0 ° C to 40 ° C, an operating pressure of no more than 25 bar. When joining products, welding is required. Pipes of the second type have a high density. Therefore, they can be used to supply hot water. Docking of sewn polyethylene pipes for water supply is done with fittings.
- Polypropylene pipes (PP)… They are manufactured in accordance with GOST R 52134 of 2003 in three types: PN10, PN20, PN25. PN10 pipes are used to deliver water with a temperature of 20-45 ° C at a system pressure of 1 thousand kPa. Pipes of the second type can be used in hot water supply and operate with a carrier temperature of 80 ° C and a system pressure of 2 thousand kPa. Pipes of the third type are reinforced from the inside with aluminum foil, they can withstand a temperature of 95 ° C and a pressure of 2500 kPa. Docking of polypropylene pipes for water supply is carried out by soldering using the richest set of fittings.
- PVC pipes… Their manufacture is regulated by GOST R 51613-2000. The material is produced in sections, the length of which is 10-60 m, the outer diameter of the cross-section is from 10 to 315 mm, the thickness of the walls is from 1, 3 to 18, 7 mm. The purpose of such pipes is to transport water at temperatures up to 45 ° C. Hot media cannot be used with this material. PVC pipes can be used for internal, overground external networks, if they are protected from ultraviolet radiation and mechanical stress. Knots and pieces of PVC pipes for water supply are connected to the socket using special glue. This eliminates the need for fittings.
The most versatile are polypropylene products. They are often used for water supply networks at home. Their sizes are shown in the table below:
|Dн, mm||Pipe PN10||Pipe PN20||Pipe PN25|
|Dу, mm||h, mm||Dу, mm||h, mm||Du, mm||h, mm|
|16||-||-||10, 6||2, 7||-||-|
|20||16, 2||1, 9||13, 2||3, 4||13, 2||3, 4|
|25||20, 4||2, 3||16, 6||4, 2||16, 6||4, 2|
|32||26, 0||3, 0||21, 2||5, 4||21, 2||3, 0|
|40||32, 6||3, 7||26, 6||6, 7||26, 6||3, 7|
|50||40, 8||4, 6||33, 2||8, 4||33, 2||4, 6|
|63||51, 4||5, 8||42, 0||10, 5||42, 0||5, 8|
|75||61, 2||6, 9||50, 0||12, 5||50, 0||6, 9|
|90||73, 6||8, 2||60, 0||15, 0||-||-|
|110||90, 0||10, 0||73, 2||18, 4||-||-|
Note! Dн - outer diameter of pipes, Dу - inner diameter, h - wall thickness.
Reinforced-plastic pipes for water supply
Photos of metal-plastic pipes for water supply
Manufacturing technology and their indicators are determined by GOST 53630-2009, the requirements of which are designed to ensure the stability of the physical and mechanical properties of the material during the entire service life of the water supply system.
The reinforced-plastic pipe includes an inner layer of polyethylene, an outer layer and an aluminum layer. The inner smooth layer gives the product strength and resists build-up.The aluminum foil layer stabilizes the expansion of the material in different temperature regimes of its operation and prevents oxygen from entering the pipeline. The outer layer of polyethylene is the protective shell of the product.
Reinforced-plastic pipes can operate at a medium temperature of 90 ° C and a maximum pressure of 16 bar. Of the minuses, it is worth noting the low frost resistance of the material and the need for periodic maintenance of the connections of the finished pipeline.
The supply of metal-plastic pipes for the water supply is carried out in coils or in lengths up to 12.5 m. For joining the sections and creating network nodes, special fittings are used - fittings. With their help, you can create detachable and permanent connections. This is especially true in rooms where welding is prohibited.
The main parameters of metal-plastic pipes for water supply are given in the table:
|Indicators||Outside diameter, mm|
|Inner diameter, mm||12||16||20||26||33|
|Wall thickness, mm||2, 0||2, 0||3, 0||3, 0||3, 5|
|Weight of 1 running meter of pipe, g||115||170||300||370||430|
|Water volume in 1 running meter of the pipe, l||0, 113||0, 201||0, 314||0, 531||0, 855|
|Service life, years||50|
|Minimum bending radius, mm||80||100||110||160||550|
|Thermal conductivity coefficient, W / mK||0, 43|
Criteria for choosing the best pipes for plumbing
The main criteria for this choice are the diameter of the products, their material of manufacture and the price. Let's consider all this in more detail.
Diameter of pipes for water supply
If you know the value of the throughput of the general network, it is easy to determine the required diameter of the domestic water pipe. It does not depend on the material of its manufacture and is selected using special SNiP tables, widely presented on the Internet. The diameter of the pipe for the water supply can be influenced by the number of points of water sampling of the system, its length and the number of turns.
With a standard value of the flow velocity in the system of 0.02 km / s and its length less than 30 m, pipes with a diameter of 25 mm are usually used, respectively, with a length of more than 30 m - 32 mm, a length of less than 10 m - 20 mm.
A typical solution is the water supply to the devices with a pipe with a diameter of 10 and 15 mm, for risers - 20 and 25 mm.
Plumbing pipe material
The photo shows the best pipes for water supply from different materials
When the question arises of which pipes to use for water supply - metal or plastic, you need to know the operating conditions of the future system. This is important, because not all products can be used equally, for example, for hot water supply, for external distribution or for drinking water. Of no less importance is the cost of the material, which is often the determining factor.
Let's consider in what cases it is worth using different types of water pipes:
- Steel black pipes… Undoubtedly, they have the best strength indicators, however, they have a number of significant disadvantages. The high electrical conductivity of this material and the accumulation of condensate on its surface accelerates the destruction of products by corrosion. Therefore, such pipes need galvanizing or periodic painting. Their large weight requires the installation of special fasteners, and the joining of elements into a single system requires special tools or welding equipment. It will be advisable to use ordinary or galvanized steel pipes when reconstructing a system assembled from the same elements. For the installation of a new water supply system, it is recommended to choose an alternative option.
- Stainless steel pipes… As in the previous version, they are distinguished by high strength, versatility in use for hot and cold water. The stainless steel pipeline, although it looks quite attractive, is very expensive. Therefore, it is advisable to install it if the aesthetics of the system is chosen as a priority. Moreover, due to its complexity, only a qualified specialist can implement the assembly of such a water supply system.
- Copper pipes… This material is strong, durable and capable of working over a wide temperature range. Its appearance is truly unique. Thanks to this, with the help of copper pipes, many complex problems of the design of the room are solved, where the elements of such a network are located. In addition, a huge advantage of copper pipes is the complete absence of harmful compounds when metal interacts with chlorine, which is used to disinfect water supply systems.For fans of a healthy lifestyle, this fact can be decisive in choosing the best pipes for water supply. Their cost is quite high; experience is required for installation.
- PVC pipes… Due to its chemical activity, this material is not well suited for drinking water supply. It is recommended to use it for the installation of non-pressure networks with a liquid temperature of no more than 40 ° C, for example, for sewer systems.
- Polyethylene pipes (RE)… They serve for the device of networks of cold liquid, this material does not withstand high temperatures. Due to its elasticity, the polyethylene pipeline does not burst even when water freezes in it. Therefore, it is recommended to use it for laying an external network in the depth of the ground, without resorting to its additional protection. Particularly good are polyethylene pipes used to supply water to a house from a well or borehole.
- Polypropylene pipes (PPR)… In terms of the balance of price and quality, this material is the most suitable for the creation of water supply networks and heating systems. Conventional unreinforced pipes are used exclusively for supplying cold water. They are inexpensive and can be easily joined with a special soldering iron. Other pipes, reinforced with fiberglass or foil, serve for hot water. Such material is not subject to thermal deformation, does not require stripping, pipes are reliable and practical, they are joined in the same way.
- Reinforced-plastic pipes (PEX-AL-PEX marking)… These products are very elastic and easy to bend. Moreover, in places of bending, they are able to maintain a circular cross-sectional shape, which other polymer pipes cannot boast of. Thanks to this property, such a material is ideal for installing a water supply system in small-sized rooms, where it is difficult to do without bending it in places of installation with inconvenient access. To perform high-quality wiring, you need to choose pipes with a wall of 2 mm and an inner diameter of 12 mm.
Read more about installing a water supply system from polyethylene pipes.
Price of pipes for water supply
The material of the pipes and their cross-section form the main price for such products. But in each specific case, it can vary, based on their characteristics. For example, a galvanized coating makes a steel pipe more expensive. This is clearly illustrated in the table below.
Price of steel pipes for water supply in Russia:
|Name||Size, mm||Price, rub / r.m|
|VGP pipe black||15x2, 8||65, 0|
|VGP pipe black||20x2, 8||84, 0|
|VGP pipe black||25x3, 2||120, 0|
|VGP pipe black||40x3, 5||180, 0|
|Galvanized VGP pipe||15x2, 8||105, 0|
|Galvanized VGP pipe||20x2, 8||130, 0|
|Galvanized VGP pipe||25x3, 2||190, 0|
|Galvanized VGP pipe||40x3, 5||255, 0|
Price of steel pipes for water supply in Ukraine:
|Name||Size, mm||Price, UAH / l.m|
|VGP pipe black||15x2, 8||32, 0|
|VGP pipe black||20x2, 8||25, 0|
|VGP pipe black||25x3, 2||59, 0|
|VGP pipe black||40x3, 5||91, 0|
|Galvanized VGP pipe||15x2, 8||62, 0|
|Galvanized VGP pipe||20x2, 8||85, 0|
|Galvanized VGP pipe||25x3, 2||114, 0|
|Galvanized VGP pipe||40x3, 5||195, 0|
The price of a copper water pipe is much higher. Here, the cost of the material depends on the transverse dimensions of the products and the manufacturers of such products. Copper pipes made in Europe are 10-20% more expensive than their Russian counterparts.
Price of copper pipes for water supply in Russia:
|Name||Size, mm||Price, rub / r.m|
|Copper pipe EN10-57 soft||6x1, 0||145, 0|
|Copper pipe EN10-57 solid||8x1, 0||196, 0|
|Copper pipe EN10-57 solid||10x1, 0||244, 0|
|Copper pipe EN10-57 solid||12x1, 0||286, 0|
|Copper pipe EN10-57 solid||15x1, 0||343, 0|
|Copper pipe EN10-57 solid||18x1, 0||432, 0|
|Copper pipe EN10-57 solid||22x1, 0||540, 0|
|Copper pipe EN10-57 solid||28x1, 5||1018, 0|
Price of copper pipes for water supply in Ukraine:
|Name||Size, mm||Price, UAH / l.m|
|Copper pipe EN10-57 soft||6x1, 0||69, 0|
|Copper pipe EN10-57 solid||8x1, 0||98, 0|
|Copper pipe EN10-57 solid||10x1, 0||120, 0|
|Copper pipe EN10-57 solid||12x1, 0||145, 0|
|Copper pipe EN10-57 solid||15x1, 0||170, 0|
|Copper pipe EN10-57 solid||18x1, 0||210, 0|
|Copper pipe EN10-57 solid||22x1, 0||270, 0|
|Copper pipe EN10-57 solid||28x1, 5||520, 0|
The cost of household polypropylene pipes, which are in greatest demand, depends on their diameter and the presence of a reinforcing layer. Conventional pipes are cheaper than aluminum or fiberglass interlayers. For greater clarity, we recommend that you familiarize yourself with the price table for such products.
Price of polypropylene pipes for water supply in Russia:
|Name||Size, mm||Price, rub / r.m|
|PPR pipe PN10||20x1, 9||27, 0|
|PPR pipe PN10||25x2, 3||42, 0|
|PPR pipe PN10||32x2, 9||66, 0|
|PPR pipe PN10||40x3, 7||110, 0|
|PPR pipe PN20||20x3, 4||35, 0|
|PPR pipe PN20||25x4, 2||56, 0|
|PPR pipe PN20||32x5, 4||88, 0|
|PPR pipe PN20||40x6, 7||148, 0|
|PPR pipe PN25 arm. fiberglass||20x3, 4||48, 0|
|PPR pipe PN25 arm. fiberglass||25x4, 2||71, 0|
|PPR pipe PN25 arm. fiberglass||32x5, 4||116, 0|
|PPR pipe PN25 arm. fiberglass||40x6, 7||180, 0|
|PPR pipe PN25 arm. aluminum||20x3, 4||68, 0|
|PPR pipe PN25 arm. aluminum||25x4, 2||98, 0|
|PPR pipe PN25 arm. aluminum||32x5, 4||155, 0|
|PPR pipe PN25 arm. aluminum||40x6, 7||250, 0|
Price of polypropylene pipes for water supply in Ukraine:
|Name||Size, mm||Price, UAH / l.m|
|PPR pipe PN10||20x1, 9||14, 0|
|PPR pipe PN10||25x2, 3||25, 0|
|PPR pipe PN10||32x2, 9||32, 0|
|PPR pipe PN10||40x3, 7||55, 0|
|PPR pipe PN20||20x3, 4||18, 0|
|PPR pipe PN20||25x4, 2||28, 0|
|PPR pipe PN20||32x5, 4||45, 0|
|PPR pipe PN20||40x6, 7||75, 0|
|PPR pipe PN25 arm. fiberglass||20x3, 4||25, 0|
|PPR pipe PN25 arm. fiberglass||25x4, 2||36, 0|
|PPR pipe PN25 arm. fiberglass||32x5, 4||58, 0|
|PPR pipe PN25 arm. fiberglass||40x6, 7||90, 0|
|PPR pipe PN25 arm. aluminum||20x3, 4||35, 0|
|PPR pipe PN25 arm. aluminum||25x4, 2||52, 0|
|PPR pipe PN25 arm. aluminum||32x5, 4||78, 0|
|PPR pipe PN25 arm. aluminum||40x6, 7||130, 0|
How to choose the best pipes for plumbing - watch the video:
Today, buying water pipes is not a big problem. It is much more important to make the right choice of them even at the stage of designing a home water supply network. For its self-installation, the most optimal option from our point of view would be the choice of plastic pipes. The technology of working with them can be easily mastered by any neat home master. Good luck!