How to make sewer ventilation with your own hands

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How to make sewer ventilation with your own hands
How to make sewer ventilation with your own hands
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Sewerage ventilation device. Selection of parts for construction. Instructions for the placement and installation of elements, the price of ventilation of the sewage system.

Sewerage ventilation is a structure made of pipes and special devices for removing gases from the system. In its absence, an unpleasant odor appears in the room and a strong noise is heard from the movement of water. We will talk about the device for ventilation of the sewage system and how to install it in our article.

Features of the functioning of the ventilation of the sewage system

Internal and external sewerage ventilation scheme

Scheme of internal and external ventilation of the sewage system

The sewerage system of a private house consists of two parts - internal and external. They work together to form an efficient drainage system. However, organic waste decomposes in the pipes, producing methane and other foul-smelling gases. All this is accompanied by the release of heat. Heated vapors quickly spread along the highway and seep into the premises at the slightest opportunity. Therefore, often in private houses, residents are faced with specific problems related to sewage - an unpleasant smell appears in the rooms and the bubbling of water is heard. Discharge from cesspools, which can cause fires and explosions, is especially dangerous. In such situations, a quite reasonable question arises: is ventilation of the sewage system necessary?

To avoid such troubles, there must be an exhaust hood in the sewer that connects the cavity of the line with the outside air. Heated vapors move through it and are discharged into the atmosphere, and fresh air falls in their place. The pressure in the pipes is equalized, reducing the noise that occurs during the use of plumbing. This ensures a constant level of water in the siphons, which does not allow gases to enter the room.

Sewer system ventilation

In the photo, ventilation of the sewer system

Sewerage ventilation functions at any time of the year - in heat and cold. This is due to the difference in temperatures between the gases in the mains and the air outside the house, due to which mutual heat exchange occurs between them. A differential pressure is formed, which contributes to the effective ventilation of the line.

The classic ventilation system is created for natural ventilation of the mains. It is considered to be in-house, because mounted in the building. The design consists of the following elements:

  • Fan pipe… It is installed on a sewer riser and brought out to the roof. The part connects the system to the atmosphere.
  • Air valve… Designed to allow air to pass only in one direction - into the pipe. Installed in the riser and in its branches. If the house has a septic tank, the valve is mounted on top of the ventilation riser connected to it. With its help, the pressure in the system is equalized when a large amount of water is drained.
  • Deflector… Accelerates the flow of gases discharged from the sewer. They are mounted on top of the fan pipe.
  • Cap… Set if there is no deflector.
  • Odor trap (siphon)… Installed directly under the sink, sink, behind the toilet and next to other plumbing fixtures to prevent gases from entering the room. It is always filled with water. If the siphons do not work, an unpleasant odor appears in the room. For example, with a sharp discharge of water in the riser, a vacuum is formed, which draws the liquid out of the water seal. As a result, a channel is formed through which gases escape.

In some cases, it is allowed to create sewage ventilation systems in an apartment that differ from the classic ones. These include:

  • Ventilation without fan pipe… An air valve is mounted instead of an exhaust hood, but it does a worse job.
  • Forced ventilation… In such systems, electrical devices of various designs are installed that blow gases out of the line. For these purposes, low power axial blowers are used - 200-350 W. They are of several types: field, in the form of an impeller fixed on the motor shaft and placed in a casing in the form of a snail; axial, which are installed inside the pipe. Fans are used in sewer systems that are rarely used. In them, the water in the siphons quickly dries up, and they cease to perform their function.

See also the device and principle of operation of the storm sewer.

Sewerage ventilation schemes

There are several schemes for effective ventilation of the sewage system. Each option is used in specific situations. Consider the features of the operation of the most popular designs.

Sewer system with a drain pipe

Sewerage ventilation scheme using a fan pipe

The fan pipe is intended for ventilation of the internal sewerage system and is, as it were, its natural continuation. Branches from the toilet, sink and other bathrooms are connected to it.

The product must be installed in such cases:

  • House with more than one floor with a bathroom;
  • The house is one-storey with several bathrooms;
  • In the building there are 2 or more sewer risers with a diameter of 50 mm;
  • If there is a bathroom or pool in the room;
  • On the plot there is a drainage pit, which is close to the house (8-10 m).

The design is not needed if the volume of drains is small and they do not completely fill the line. Such requirements apply to buildings with 1-2 floors with a small number of residents. It is believed that residents use plumbing fixtures at different times, leaving free space in the pipes. Also, it is usually not placed in a house built long ago, because for this it is necessary to carry out major repairs. However, experts recommend installing a fan pipe always, if possible, because it does its job well.

Sewer system without waste pipe

Sewerage ventilation scheme with a vacuum valve

It is troublesome to stretch the hood to the roof through two ceilings, and in a built house it is almost impossible. Therefore, instead of a drain pipe, a vacuum valve is sometimes installed. It is placed in houses with a small number of residents. In multi-storey buildings, the product is not mounted due to frequent use and a high probability of failure.

The device consists of the following parts:

  • Housing with a hole in the side wall for air flow;
  • Rubber diaphragm or stem covering the opening;
  • Spring that tightly presses the membrane to the body in the closed position;
  • A cover over the movable elements, which can be easily removed to inspect the working mechanism.

The device works as follows:

  • If the sewer is not in use, the valve is closed. In this case, the diaphragm is firmly pressed against the body by its own weight or spring. The pressure in front of her and behind her is the same.
  • At the moment of draining the water, a rarefaction of air appears in the system, due to which the membrane moves inward and opens the entrance.
  • After equalizing the pressure, the valve returns to its original position.
  • With a decrease in pressure from the outside, the part is tightly pressed against the seat and closes the passage.

The sewage ventilation scheme with an aeration valve has the following advantages:

  • The device allows you to reduce the cost of installation work, because it is not required to punch a hole in the roof for the fan pipe and then seal the gaps.
  • The device ensures the functioning of the siphon due to the absence of a vacuum in the system.
  • In the presence of a waste pipe, the valve excludes the flow of cold air into the sewer and its freezing.
  • The device reduces the risk of fire spreading in the event of a fire.
  • Prevents rodents from entering the house.
  • Does not allow contamination of the line with foreign impurities.

However, experts consider the valve only an additional element that is not able to fully meet the task. It is not an obligatory element in the sewage ventilation system.

Non-standard solutions for sewer ventilation

Septic tank ventilation scheme

Septic tank ventilation scheme

In the constructed building, it will not work to build a classic ventilation with a fan pipe. In this case, an external hood is created. This design is of 3 types:

  • Outside wall ventilation… The design resembles a downpipe that protrudes above the roof. It is made from parts with a diameter of 110 mm. It is attached to the wall with brackets. The riser should protrude above the roof to a height of at least 1 m. This scheme is popular due to the simplicity of installation work.
  • Remote ventilation of outdoor sewerage… The pipe is attached to a detached building, for example, to a fence located at a distance of more than 5 m from the house. This option is possible if the neighbors are far from your site. The advantages of this system are that it is located at a considerable distance from the house and an unpleasant odor is not felt.
  • Septic tank ventilation… A similar scheme is common in the private sector. The building is located at a fairly large distance from the house (up to 20 m), so unpleasant aromas in the local area are not audible.

The choice of ventilation elements of the sewage system

To equip the hood, you will need pipes, adapters and various accessories. All items can be purchased at the store, but some of the knots are easy to make yourself. How to choose parts, we will consider below.

Fan pipes for sewer ventilation

Fan pipes for sewer ventilation

The hood can be made from any material that is used in this sewer system. It is usually assembled from PVC parts. Blanks made of this material weigh a little and are easy to assemble. No experience is required to connect them. It is easy to connect additional elements to the structure - angles, tees, etc. However, in houses you can still find routes made of cast iron and copper, which have been successfully operated for many decades.

In a one-story house, the diameter of the sewage ventilation is 50 mm, in a multi-story house - 110 mm. The higher the house, the larger the diameter of the funnel. Usually it is 40 mm larger than the diameter of the sewer products. It makes no sense to choose products of too large a diameter.

For the arrangement of ventilation, elements of various geometries may be needed:

  • Straight products are placed perpendicular to the toilet. They are common in high-rise buildings.
  • Corner ones are used in non-standard situations and in branched structures.
  • Vertical ones are installed if there are several bathrooms in the house. They maintain the pressures in the branches of the system.

Sewer ventilation deflector

Sewer ventilation deflector

The deflector increases air draft due to the pronounced aerodynamic properties of the product. It functions on the basis of the Bernouli effect: the speed of movement of air masses changes with a change in the cross-section of the channel. The device allows you to increase traction by 20%, but it is only effective in windy conditions.

Below are the most popular deflectors of various designs among users:

Name Type of Material Inlet pipe diameter, mm
"Vent-Class" D-120 Deflector Khanzhenkov Galvanized steel 120
TsAGI-100 Deflector TsAGI Galvanized steel 100
Turbovent "Stabil 120" Volpert-Grigorovich Galvanized steel 120
Turbovent "Dragon" Dr-150-CH-A Turning Steel

stainless steel

150

To reduce the cost of building sewer ventilation in a private house, the deflector can be made by hand. The work is carried out in the following sequence:

  • Prepare material for work. The best option is considered to be stainless steel with a thickness of 0.25-0.5 mm. An aluminum blade 0, 4-0, 8 mm is also suitable. The most affordable galvanized steel sheet is considered to be 0, 4-0, 6 mm. To make a layout, you will need cardboard 1-1, 5 mm.
  • Draw an assembly drawing of the part indicating the connecting dimensions. Draw out every detail with dimensions.
  • Unfold each element at a 1: 1 scale. Transfer the drawings to cardboard.
  • Cut out the parts of the device from the cardboard and assemble the layout. Secure the parts together with a stapler.
  • Install the structure on the pipe and check the quality of the joining of the parts. Resize the parts as needed.
  • Mark the location of the rivets and use an awl to make holes in these places.
  • Disassemble the layout of the deflector. Expand each part and cut them out of the metal using the sweeps.
  • Make holes for rivets according to the marks made.
  • Assemble the deflector from the manufactured parts and fasten them with rivets.

Sewer vent valve

Vacuum valve for sewer ventilation

There are many varieties of vacuum valves, and the user can choose the product of their choice. The device diameters can be 50 mm and 110 mm. The first products are placed on the corner outlet of the sewer riser, the second - on the riser itself. The smaller device is designed to eliminate the vacuum in the pipe that occurs after draining water from 1-2 points at the same time.

The working element in the valve can be a diaphragm and a stem. The second option is preferable - it will last longer.

It is necessary to decide in advance how the valve will be attached to the ventilation riser of the sewage system of the house. Connections are:

  • Flanged - the device is bolted to the track;
  • Threaded - Before mounting on the pipe, it is necessary to cut the threads;
  • Bell - the joints are sealed with rubber cuffs, this option is the most common among users.

Aerators are chosen, taking into account the peculiarities of its operation, the diameter of the line and the method of attachment. Pay attention to its throughput, which can be used to determine the volume of air passing through it per second. It is recommended to choose an aerator with a margin.

The following are the characteristics of HL air valves and their conditions of use:

Floor outlet diameter, mm The angle of entry of liquid into the riser, degrees Throughput of the riser, l / s
НL900N НL900NECO
50 45, 0 5, 85 7, 70
60, 0 5, 10 6, 80
87, 5 3, 57 4, 54
110 45, 0 4, 14 5, 44
60, 0 3, 64 4, 80
87, 5 2, 53 3, 20

The ventilation valve is easy to make with your own hands from a sheet of plastic. To do this, follow these steps:

  • Prepare a spring from an old handle, a 4 cm long self-tapping screw, pieces of plastic and foam rubber.
  • Cut a 5 cm circle out of a sheet of plastic.
  • Make a hole in the middle for a self-tapping screw. Its diameter must be such that the spring does not pass.
  • Cut a circle of foam rubber with a diameter of 6 cm. Make a hole in the center.
  • Glue 2 circles with any glue.
  • In the cover of the tee located at the outlet of the ventilation pipe, make 3 holes with a diameter of 5 mm. They should be located at a distance of 2.5 cm from the center, at the same distance from each other. Remove any burrs from the edges.
  • In the center of the cover, make a hole for the self-tapping screw with an awl.
  • Screw the glued discs to the cover with a self-tapping screw with a spring with foam rubber to the surface.
  • Check the functionality of the structure. To do this, blow into each hole in the lid. Air should flow freely outward, straightening the spring. If necessary, loosen the compression of the spring by slightly unscrewing the self-tapping screw.

How to make sewer ventilation?

How to make a valve for ventilation of the sewer

The photo shows how to make a valve for ventilation of the sewer

The exact location of the ventilation elements of the sewage system is determined at the design stage of the building and the water supply system, and it is recommended to equip it when erecting partitions in the house. The features of the installation of each element of the system are discussed below.

It is convenient to install the fan pipe during the construction phase of the building. Before making an internal sewage system, make special openings and hatches in the walls. In a constructed building, it is better to locate the track outside the premises.

First, develop a design diagram, meeting the following requirements:

  • The diameter of the drain and the hood must match.
  • The stand should be at least 4 m from the nearest window.Otherwise, an unpleasant odor will enter the room.
  • Install the fan pipe on the sewer riser above the connection level of any plumbing fixtures.
  • Above the roof, the product should rise by 30-50 cm. The height depends on several factors, for example, on the roof structure. On a flat roof, it should be more than 30 cm, on a pitched roof - more than 50 cm. More precisely, this parameter is determined according to SP 30.13330.2012. In any case, the hood must be located above the products of other systems.
  • It is mounted separately from the chimney and other ventilation ducts.
  • It is allowed to connect several funnel pipes into one. All ventilation outlets are connected into one line in the attic, which is then led out to the roof. However, if there is a large distance between the risers, it is allowed to install several hoods.
  • If the distance between the plumbing device and the hood is more than 6 m (with a line diameter of 110 mm), then a separate ventilation or a vacuum valve must be installed on each individual sewer outlet.
  • With the lateral outlet, the edge of the highway should not go beyond the overhang of the roof, so that it is not destroyed by snow or ice falling from the roof. In this case, cover the outlet with a wooden grate.
  • Do not take the hood to the attic, gases will accumulate there. This can be dangerous, especially if methane gas is emitted from the sewer.
  • The ventilation of the sewer pipe will function correctly if its beginning is in a warm room and the end point is in a cold one. In this case, the vapors will move in the right direction.

With an exhaust hood with a diameter of 110 mm, branches from plumbing fixtures should be of the following dimensions:

Sewer pipe material Appointment Diameter, mm
Pvc Bidet and washbasin outlet 32-40
Cast iron or PVC Removal from the bath and sink 50
PVC, cast iron, steel, copper Branch without toilets, riser 70-75
PVC, cast iron, steel, copper Discharge from toilets, riser 100-110

The fan pipe is mounted in the following sequence:

  • At the top of the riser, make an inspection to inspect the system and clean it.
  • Attach a tee or cross to it, where the product will hold.
  • Install a pipe on it. Plastic products are sealed with rubber seals. After connecting them, make sure there are no distortions. Correctly connected elements are turned by hand.
  • The most difficult operation during the installation of the hood is its wiring through the horizontal ceiling. However, there are many devices that allow you to properly seal this place. You can install a steel box through the ceiling and pull a fan pipe through it. Fill all the free space in the box with an insulator. In the constructed building, ventilation is carried out through the load-bearing wall, because reworking the floor slab can reduce its strength.
  • Secure the branch to the wall with cable ties.
  • Install a deflector or hood on it.
Installation of a sewer ventilation valve

When installing the air valve in the sewer ventilation system, adhere to the following rules:

  • On the riser, it should rise 10-15 cm above the highest entry of the horizontal pipe connected to the plumbing fixture.
  • The room in which the valve is located is well ventilated.
  • The valve does not tolerate frost, so the temperature around it must always be positive to avoid freezing of parts.
  • After prolonged use, the seating surface becomes dirty and the valve does not fit snugly against the seat. Therefore, the device must be periodically cleaned from dirt. For easy operation, install the product in a location where it can be easily accessed.
  • Do not install valves on all sewer pipes. Thus, the air supply to the pipes is completely shut off, and the gases will remain in the line.
  • Seal the attachment point of the device carefully.
  • The valve is always mounted vertically. If the branch is horizontal, set the elbow to mount the device in the correct position.
  • If the room has a floor grate, secure the product 35 cm from the floor.

Installation of the aerator is carried out in the following sequence:

  • Determine where the valve will be installed. There are two options: installation on a vertical riser and near a plumbing fixture. Typically, the device is placed in a toilet, bathroom and kitchen in a place where it is easy to control the work.
  • Turn off the water supply through the riser (for a multi-storey building).
  • If you plan to install the device on a horizontal section of the sewer, dismantle part of the pipe at a predetermined location. On a vertical riser, it is not required to disassemble the line, the aerator is placed at the very top.
  • Look for an arrow on the device that indicates how to install it correctly. After fixing in a regular place, it should coincide with the direction of movement of the drains in the pipe.
  • Fasten the valve in the cavity of the product by first installing the O-ring. You can also mount a tee and connect an aerator to it.

See also how to insulate the sewer with your own hands.

Sewerage ventilation price

External ventilation of the sewage system

Sewerage ventilation schemes for private houses are always different, because they are built according to individual projects. Therefore, the costs of creating it are different. Professional plumbers evaluate their work according to the following articles:

  • Exhaust system design;
  • The costs of purchasing items and shipping them;
  • Installation work;
  • Checking the performance of the structure and its maintenance during the warranty period.

Costs depend on factors such as:

  • A method for removing gases from the sewer. If indoor ventilation is chosen, it is better to do it at the stage of building a house. In this case, you will not have to pay for the restoration of order in the house. If the building is built, it is recommended not to mess with the funnel. The cost of installing it outside the house will be disproportionately less.
  • Avoiding the waste pipe and using vacuum valves will reduce your costs, but the system can malfunction.
  • Forced ventilation will increase the cost of construction due to the availability of electrical appliances.
  • Sewerage ventilation price depends on the size of the building. The larger the house, the more supplies you will need. There is a need to connect the lines, which complicates the design.
  • An increase in the number of plumbing fixtures leads to the installation of additional system elements - vacuum valves and siphons.
  • Working at height also increases the cost of the job. In this case, decking and other structures may be needed.
  • Work with heavy and bulky items is more expensive.
  • The price of sewer ventilation depends on the additional devices used, especially vacuum valves. The most expensive equipment is manufactured by the HL company from Austria. Average prices for this device are from UK-based MCAlpini. Traditionally, domestically produced products are the cheapest. Pay attention to the products of the company "Politek".

Sewerage ventilation installation price in Russia (Moscow):

Types of jobs Price
Installation of a fan pipe, 50 mm lounger 330-370 rubles / r.m.
Installation of a fan pipe, lounger 100 mm 410-460 rubles / l.m.
Clamp installation 50 mm 30-70 rubles / piece
Clamp installation 100 mm 80-120 rub / piece
Embossing the socket of a cast-iron fan pipe from 500 rubles / piece
Concrete strobe from 450 rubles / r.m.
Brick strobe 330-380 rubles / r.m.
Making openings in the floor 390-420 rubles / r.m.
Complex works price, rub.
Replacing the drain pipe DN50 (cast iron for plastic) without destroying the walls (removing the old one, installing a new one), installing 2 siphons, piping the sanitary installation 3500-4500
Replacement of the drain pipe DN50 (cast iron for plastic) with dismantling the wall (removing the old one, installing a new one), installing 2 siphons, piping the sanitary installation 4500-5500
Replacement of a plastic fan pipe DN50 with the same one in the apartment (removal of the old one, installation of a new wall), installation of 2 siphons, piping of the sanitary installation 2500-3500
Replacing the funnel before overlap 3500-4500
Installation of a fan pipe in the ceiling (when replacing it) 1200-1800

Sewerage ventilation installation price in Ukraine (Kiev):

Types of jobs Price
Installation of a fan pipe, 50 mm lounger 140-190 UAH / l.m.
Installation of a fan pipe, lounger 100 mm 180-220 UAH / l.m.
Clamp installation 50 mm 10-30 UAH / piece
Clamp installation 100 mm 20-40 UAH / piece
Embossing the socket of a cast-iron fan pipe from 500 UAH / piece
Concrete strobe from 450 UAH / l.m.
Brick strobe 140-190 UAH / l.m.
Making openings in the floor 180-200 UAH / l.m.
Complex works Price, UAH.
Replacing the drain pipe DN50 (cast iron for plastic) without destroying the walls (removing the old one, installing a new one), installing 2 siphons, piping the sanitary installation 1100-2000
Replacement of the drain pipe DN50 (cast iron for plastic) with dismantling the wall (removing the old one, installing a new one), installing 2 siphons, piping the sanitary installation 2000-2300
Replacement of a plastic fan pipe DN50 with the same one in the apartment (removal of the old one, installation of a new wall), installation of 2 siphons, piping of the sanitary installation 1100-1500
Replacing the funnel before overlap 1400-2100
Installation of a fan pipe in the ceiling (when replacing it) 450-700

How to make sewer ventilation - look at the video:

Often the sewer system and its ventilation are designed without strict adherence to building codes and the selection of components, which causes poor performance of the structure. In addition, defects do not appear immediately, but after a certain period of time, when it is difficult to eliminate them. Therefore, the arrangement of ventilation of the sewage system must be taken seriously at all stages, from the creation of the project to the installation work.

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