External water supply device and its purpose. Requirements for the main structural elements. Rules for conducting the highway on the site, installation price.
An external water supply system is a stationary structure for moving water of a given amount and pressure from the source to the entrance to the house. Includes a set of equipment that ensures year-round operation of the system. Useful information about the device and installation of an external water supply system can be obtained in our article.
External water supply device
In the photo, external water supply
Building an external water supply and sewerage system for a country house in the absence of a centralized system is quite problematic and costly. Using a well as a source of water is the best solution to the problem of lack of water on the site. From the well to the place of consumption, the liquid is supplied through pipes in two ways - through an elevated overpass or underground, in a trench. In suburban areas, the second method is usually used.
The simplest scheme of an external water supply system consists of the following elements:
- Submersible pump or pumping station… Used to pump fluid from a well or well and supply it to the system. The submersible pump is completely submerged. The pumping station is installed in a house or in a special room above the well - a caisson.
- Accumulator or hydroaccumulator… It is used to provide a given pressure in the network. It is installed in the system as high as possible so that the water column helps the membrane maintain the required parameters.
- Well equipment automation… This includes a pressure switch, liquid level sensor, etc. These devices optimize the operation of the system, for example, they automatically turn on the pump when the pressure in the accumulator decreases.
- Filters… Products of coarse and fine cleaning are used. Coarse filters are placed in front of the pump to retain large pieces of dirt. Fine cleaning products are installed in drinking water mains to remove elements harmful to humans.
- Pipeline… It is laid from the well to the house. Inside the building, it is connected to an internal water conduit.
- Other elements… Devices for monitoring the functioning of the system, locking mechanisms.
External water supply scheme
The organization of the water supply to the house depends on the seasonality of the design. The winter water supply can be used all year round, because it is buried in the ground. The trench is made in the form of a classic trapezoid with a base at ground level.
When laying pipes in a pit, it is necessary to comply with the following requirements (according to SNiP of the external water supply):
- The width of the trench is not less than 0.5 m.
- The depth should be 40 cm below the level of freezing of the ground in a given area (from the top of the pipe). In central Russia, the depth of the trench reaches 1000-1200 mm. More precisely, the size can be found on special maps, however, it depends on the moisture content and composition of the soil. Soil with a high percentage of clay freezes more than sandy soils. In areas with severe frost, it is recommended to insulate the water supply using a heating cable.
- The main line can be protected from freezing using cylinder heaters, roll heat insulators and special electric heaters. In the southern regions, the depth should be such that the water does not heat up in the summer.
- When crossing a sewer pipe, leave the line on top, with a gap of at least 0.4 m.
- It is recommended to run the track in a straight line, without bends.
- The trench should have a reverse slope of at least 3 mm per 1 m to the source, which prevents stagnation of water if the water supply system is not used for a long time.
- Pour a sand bed at the bottom.
- Lay the pipe in the middle of the pit. If necessary, make a drain valve to drain the fluid.
- The highway enters the house at the same depth as the main part. It is possible to bring the product to the surface only in the insulated area.
- Before starting operation, check the track for 2 hours without pressure, and then for half an hour under working load. Leakage is not allowed.
- The structure is covered with sand, which should be 20 cm higher than the pipe.
- A long trench is dug with an excavator, a short one can be made by hand.
- Pass the highway into the house through the foundation through a special steel sleeve. Carefully seal and seal the gaps so that groundwater does not enter the basement.
- Install water meters at a distance of 1 m from the foundation wall.
The device of an external water supply system, operated only in summer, is simpler than a winter one. In most cases, its design includes, in addition to pipes, a submersible pump. The line is not buried deeply (maximum 50 cm) or laid on the surface of the ground, so it is not able to function in frosts. The route must be made with a slope towards the source to drain water from it. Such structures are assembled at dachas and other buildings in which no one lives in winter.
Selection of materials and equipment for outdoor water supply
The efficiency of the system functioning, its serviceability and ease of maintenance depend on the correct choice of the components of the structure. Before starting work, it is recommended to develop a project for an external water supply system, in which it is necessary to show the location of the main line and all additional equipment on the section. Tips for choosing the main components of the structure are given below.
Pipes for outdoor water supply
Pipes are the main element in outdoor plumbing. For construction, you can use a variety of products, but they all belong to two groups - metal or plastic.
Photo of metal pipes for external water supply
The most reliable of this group are considered copper products, which have a service life of up to 200 years. However, due to their high cost, they are very rarely used in such designs. You will have to pay a little cheaper for stainless steel products.
Steel tubesare characterized by high strength and relatively long service life, especially if they are galvanized. However, they have significant drawbacks. Steel pipes corrode over time and reduce the strength of the line. The inner surfaces of the products are rough, so salts and other deposits are deposited on it, which clog cavities and reduce water consumption. In addition, oxide films contaminate the liquid and degrade its quality.
Cast iron productsare the cheapest metal pipes suitable for the construction of outdoor water supply. However, they have even more disadvantages than steel ones. Cast iron products are fragile and break down under mechanical stress. They have a porous structure that absorbs water. In winter, the liquid freezes and destroys the track. Several kilograms of various deposits - oxides, colonies of iron bacteria and silica - can accumulate in steel and cast iron pipes annually. Frequent cleaning of the system increases the cost of maintaining and operating the system.
Plumbing is not made of other metals - they release oxides that saturate the liquid with toxic elements and make it undrinkable.
In the photo, the process of installing an external water supply system from HDPE pipes
Modified plastic lines are free from the above disadvantages. The advantages of plastic products for outdoor plumbing include:
- Long service life.
- Inertness: These materials do not corrode or react with chemical elements present in the soil.
- Pipes are not afraid of bacteria, they are not covered with mold, fungus does not grow on them, salts are not deposited on the walls, so they do not clog.
- The price of plastic pipes is lower than metal ones.
- The blanks are flexible and allow you to change the direction of the route without corners. Therefore, during seasonal soil movement, the external water supply system is not damaged. There is no need to purchase pre-curved elements.
- The technology for installing plastic lines is very simple.
For outdoor plumbing, the best option is pipes made of polyethylene of low pressure (HDPE)with high strength characteristics. A pipeline is built from it for supplying cold water (up to +40 degrees), which does not collapse in frosts. The construction uses pipes with a diameter of at least 25 mm. Billets are sold in coils up to 1 km long, which ensures that there are no joints along the entire length of the highway. If necessary, separate pieces are welded using a special soldering iron. You can also connect the cuts using fittings, but in the case of an underground installation, you will have to build a manhole at the joints. It is easy to assemble an outdoor water supply from polyethylene pipes for irrigation and water supply to the house in the summer.
There are two types of products: pressure for the supply of drinking water, technical for gravity systems. Products are easy to distinguish by color: pressurized - black, blue or white, non-pressurized - gray. Black workpieces are not afraid of ultraviolet radiation and can be laid over the surface. White and blue must be buried in the ground.
Photos of reinforced-plastic pipes
Reinforced-plastic pipeshave the same properties as polyethylene, but are slightly more expensive. However, they are connected with metal fittings, which rust over time.
For a water supply system, the diameter of the pipes is of great importance. It should be such that the water consumption does not change significantly when all consumption points are opened.
When calculating for a private house, the following values are taken:
- The number of simultaneously open taps is 3-4.
- Water consumption through one tap is 5-6 liters per minute.
- The pressure in the system is 2-3 bar.
- The total flow through the line is 20 l / min.
The results obtained must be taken into account when designing an external water supply system.
When choosing pipes for an external water supply system, you can focus on the table:
|Pipe length, m||Pipe diameter, mm|
|Up to 5||20|
|Up to 30||32|
Too small pipe diameter reduces the pressure in the network. Some types of fittings also reduce the flow area of the line, for example, connectors for metal-plastic products. On the drawing of an external water supply system, it is necessary to show where pipes of various sizes should be located.
External water supply accumulators
In the photo, a hydraulic accumulator for an external water supply
The choice of the optimal storage for the water supply system is carried out for a specific design, taking into account the characteristics of the device and the characteristics that it must provide.
When buying a hydraulic accumulator for an external water supply system, the following information will help you:
- Diaphragm storage tank and hydraulic accumulator… In the first case, the walls of the container are covered with a special membrane, in the second, water contacts the metal and can cause corrosion.
- Vertical and horizontal storage… The principle of operation of these devices is the same, they are selected only taking into account the ease of installation. Vertical products fit easily in small spaces. The horizontal ones are installed on top of the submersible pump.
- Accumulator volume… Affects the number of starts of the pumping station. The recommended number of pump starts is no more than 30 per hour. If we take into account that the productivity of popular submersible devices is 30-40 l / h, and the water in the accumulator occupies half of the volume, then a tank with a capacity of 80-100 l will reduce the number of pump starts to a minimum.External pumps do not have a strict limitation on the number of starts, so small accumulators can be used with them. They can be installed anywhere in the water supply, but best of all - near the pump.
For users, recommendations have been developed that allow you to choose a hydraulic accumulator for an external water supply, depending on the number of people living in the house:
|Users, human||Pump performance, cubic meters / hour||Storage volume, l|
The hydraulic accumulator creates a supply of water in the system. This allows the structure to be used in places where electricity is often cut off. If the drive is purchased for this purpose only, it must have a volume of at least 100 liters. To ensure normal pressure in the system, a 24 liter accumulator is sufficient. If an error was made when determining the size of the accumulator, eliminate it by adding another container.
Important! The device must provide a pressure of at least 0.5 bar, while the difference between the operating and maximum pressure is 1.5-3 bar.
Pumps for external water supply
In outdoor plumbing systems, two types of products are used to pump water from deep wells: submersible pumps and pumping stations.
Pictured is a submersible pump
Submersible pumpsinstalled in wells. They turn on automatically after opening the taps at the points of use. Two points affect the productivity of the device: a decrease in the water level and voltage drops in the power supply. The pump is cooled from the outside, so there must be a column of water at least 1 m high above it.
Photo of the pumping station
Pumping stationis a multifunctional device consisting of a pump, automatic trouble-free operation and a hydraulic accumulator. They are installed externally and the water is drawn in through a hose. The maximum permissible depth for a pumping station is 10 m. It costs more than a submersible pump.
When choosing a unit, pay attention to the following characteristics:
- Water intake height… It takes into account the depth of fluid suction from the well, the height of its rise through pipes to the surface and the length of horizontal sections to the point of consumption. The shallower the lifting depth and the shorter the distance between the well and the house, the greater the pump performance.
- Power… High-power products allow not only supplying water to the house for domestic needs, but also for irrigating the site. In the absence of a vegetable garden, there is no need for a high-power device.
- Body material… The best material for the case is plastic. It does not rust, is lightweight, and has sound insulating properties.
- Ejector… Additional jet pump that increases the depth of pumping liquid.
- Circuit breakers… Protects the motor from overheating and dry running.
External water supply installation price
The supply of water to the house is an individual process developed only for a specific case. When determining the cost of creating a water supply system, you will have to take into account many nuances that differ depending on the project.
The fixed assets will be used for the purchase of system elements and their transportation to the place of work, as well as for the installation of equipment, including disinfection and verification of the system's performance.
The following items can be recorded in the expense item:
- Excavation… Performed when using the trench method of laying a water supply system. The price of 1 running meter of a pit depends on the composition of the soil and the possibility of using the equipment. Pits dug in clay or black soil by hand are expensive. Manual work usually includes excavation, backfilling, trench preparation for pipe-laying, and work to route the system through the foundation. Horizontal drilling is quite expensive, for example, under a road.
- Plumbing technology… The trenchless method of installing an external water supply system is more economically profitable than trenching - no earthwork is performed, and after installation, no improvement of the site is required. However, the system can only be used in the summer; it should be dismantled or mothballed for the winter.
- Type of main pipes… The method of connecting the cuts and the number of joints depends on them. For example, polyethylene products can be laid from a well to a house in one piece.
- Pipes and equipment to improve the efficiency of the water supply system… Copper pipes are considered the most expensive. A large amount will have to be paid for the well piping (installation of the head, expansion tank and automation) and for the installation of the distribution unit in the well (installation of tees and shut-off equipment).
Outdoor water supply price in Russia:
|Kind of work||Description||Price|
|Manual trench digging up to 1.5 m deep||For areas where the technique cannot be applied||500-800 rubles / m|
|Preparing the bottom of the ditch for pipes||Formation of a sand cushion 10 cm thick with an inclination towards the well||150 rub / m|
|Laying pipes with a diameter of 32-63 mm in a trench||To a depth of 1.5 m, depending on the pipe material and the number of joints||150-300 rubles / rm|
|Sand sprinkling of pipes||Above the pipes, it is necessary to pour a layer of sand 20 cm thick||RUB 100 / rm|
|Backfilling of soil||Backfilling of the trench after the completion of the installation of the water supply system||400 rub / m3|
|Formation of a distribution unit in a well||Installation of tees, valves||RUB 2800-3100|
|Well piping in a well||Installation of head, expansion tank, automation||3500 RUB|
|Installation of pipe entry into the house||With hole punching through the foundation||RUB 2800-3200|
|Installing the pump||The cost depends on the type of pump - external or submersible||RUB 5400-8000|
|Installation of a hydraulic accumulator||The price depends on the top or bottom location of the device and its modification||RUB 2200-3400|
|Installation of automation||Tying a pumping station or mainline with useful mechanisms||RUB 3000|
|Commissioning works||Setting up automation and checking the system performance||2000 RUB|
Outdoor water supply price in Ukraine:
|Kind of work||Description||Price|
|Manual trench digging up to 1.5 m deep||For areas where the technique cannot be applied||200-500 UAH / m|
|Preparing the bottom of the ditch for pipes||Formation of a sand cushion 10 cm thick with an inclination towards the well||60 UAH / m|
|Laying pipes with a diameter of 32-63 mm in a trench||To a depth of 1.5 m, depending on the pipe material and the number of joints||70-140 UAH / rm|
|Sand sprinkling of pipes||Above the pipes, it is necessary to pour a layer of sand 20 cm thick||40 UAH / rm|
|Backfilling of soil||Backfilling of the trench after the completion of the installation of the water supply system||180 UAH / m3|
|Formation of a distribution unit in a well||Installation of tees, valves||1200-1700 UAH|
|Well piping in a well||Installation of head, expansion tank, automation||1200 UAH|
|Installation of pipe entry into the house||With hole punching through the foundation||1300-1600 UAH|
|Installing the pump||The cost depends on the type of pump - external or submersible||2500-4000 UAH|
|Installation of a hydraulic accumulator||The price depends on the top or bottom location of the device and its modification||1000-1300 UAH|
|Installation of automation||Tying a pumping station or mainline with useful mechanisms||1100 UAH|
|Commissioning works||Setting up automation and checking system performance||UAH 900|
How to make a country water supply system from HDPE pipes - watch the video:
We examined the nuances of arranging an external water supply system for a country house. It can be seen that it is not necessary to have professional knowledge to perform the work. The article contains enough recommendations to create a reliable highway on your own, without the involvement of specialists.