Do-it-yourself septic tank cleaning

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Do-it-yourself septic tank cleaning
Do-it-yourself septic tank cleaning

Reasons for the appearance of sediment in septic tanks. Features of cleaning various types of sedimentation tanks. Methods for removing deposits from tanks. Septic tank cleaning is the removal of sludge and other sediments to maintain performance and increase the life of the device. The event is held in various ways, depending on the type of product and the preferences of the owner. How to carry out the mandatory procedure for servicing the sump, we learn from this article.

Features of cleaning septic tanks

Wastewater in a septic tank

A septic tank is called a flow-through structure for cleaning household wastewater. In the chambers of the product, water settles and organic matter is processed by microorganisms, after which the liquid is removed outside the device. During the operation of the sump, solid particles partially decompose or settle to the bottom, while liquid particles are processed by microorganisms. Within 6-12 months, the sediment is decomposed by aerobic microbes and turns into sludge. Microorganisms are added to it, which eventually die off and settle.

After some time, a thick layer of sediment forms at the bottom of the reservoir. It reduces the working volume of the chamber, reduces the efficiency of the septic tank and worsens its environmental safety. Water does not have time to get rid of inclusions and is discharged outside dirty.

If the sump is not serviced, the sludge will block the overflow pipe, resulting in a serious sewer failure. Therefore, after the accumulation of a certain amount of dirt, the septic tank is cleaned, despite the fact that the liquid after all processes is discharged into the filtration fields. In addition to sludge, large solid inclusions are also removed from the tank and filters are washed.

The procedure is performed within the time specified by the manufacturer of the device. Typically, factory-made sedimentation tanks are cleaned at least once a year. The fact is that the sediment thickens over time and turns into a dense substance resembling clay. The compressed dirt cannot be removed with a pump, so there is no need to wait for an emergency. Homemade storage-type septic tanks (cesspools) are cleaned out as they fill.

Methods for cleaning the septic tank from silt are selected at the design stage of the structure and depend on its design. The simplest devices, including accumulators, cesspools, are cleaned by a sewage machine with a vacuum pump. The contents of the chambers are pumped into the tank by a car or by a vacuum drain pump into the tank through the discharge pipes in the tank lid.

In more complex designs, special pipes are provided for sludge removal. The process consists in opening the valves through which the contents of the container flow out on their own.

To remove dirt from modern devices, high-tech septic tank cleaning systems are used, for example, automatic sludge pumping. In stations of this type, the sludge is automatically transferred to special tanks by built-in pumps. Maintenance of the product is reduced to replacing one container with another without pumping out the liquid.

Important! In biological stations, microbes decompose organic matter, therefore, after the procedure, 20% of the sludge accumulated at the bottom should remain in them for the rapid recovery of the removed microorganisms. Often, a combination of several cleaning methods is used to service a septic tank. For example, the reservoirs of biological treatment plants (Topol, Astra) have to be freed from silt and faecal deposits. The procedure can be performed in three ways - chemical, mechanical and biological.

A brief description of the existing cleaning options is shown in the table:

Way Application Characteristic Peculiarities
Mechanical Septic tank, cesspool Sump truck, sewage suction, fecal pump The sediment is removed for disposal off-site
Biological Cleaning station Microbes for septic tanks, special biological products Microbial-treated effluent is used for irrigation
Chemical Any septic tanks Chemicals for septic tanks, household detergents that do not destroy the microbes of the purifier After cleaning, not always water can be poured onto the site, some drugs are toxic

In order to increase the time between cleanings, it is recommended to periodically add biological agents to the tanks, for example, microbes for septic tanks. They significantly reduce the amount of rainfall, so the number of calls to the sewer trucks is reduced and money is saved.

The quality of the removed water may deteriorate if it does not go away on its own to the filtration field. The reason may be the silting up of the soil filter. It is almost impossible to restore it, so it is necessary to build a new filtering field in a different place.

Methods for cleaning septic tanks

Sediment ponds are cleaned in such ways - by pumping out sediment using sewage equipment and using special preparations (biological or chemical) that break down organic compounds. Let's consider all the options in detail.

Mechanical cleaning

Mechanical cleaning of a septic tank

This method is very old, but those who want to use it are not decreasing. Most often it is used when servicing drives and cesspools. Today, such an operation is performed using pumping station or sewage truckthat pull dirt out of the tanks. With a small device, cleaning takes place in one go.

In order for the technician to drive up to the place of work, install a septic tank near the fence or next to the road. The recommended distance between the machine and the storage tank is 5-10 m. The depth of the pit should not exceed 3 m, otherwise the hose will not reach the bottom of the well.

Often before work, bio or chemical preparations are added to the storage device, which decompose solid inclusions. More modern means for servicing septic tanks are sewers… These are powerful units capable of removing even compacted sludge from a distance of 40 m.

It is allowed to remove sludge from small accumulators that fill up for a long time. To clean a septic tank with your own hands, you will need a fecal and water pump, a long hose and a large waste collection tank with a lid. The work is performed in the following sequence:

  • Shut off the sewage supply to the septic tank; you cannot use the sewer during the procedure.
  • Prepare a place where the waste will be disposed of. This can be a large container or a pit at a great distance from the place of residence.
  • Connect the fecal pump hose to the outlet on the septic tank. You can use the usual one, but it will quickly become clogged with silt and solids. To avoid damage to the device, install a filter on the inlet to retain large elements.
  • Attach the second fluid transfer hose to it to the prepared location.
  • Pump out the liquid sediment.
  • If the device uses anaerobic microbes, leave 20% of the liquid in the container.
  • Pour clean water into the tank and rinse the container and all pipes. The procedure is necessary to slow down the formation of stony deposits on the walls.
  • Remove mechanical deposits by hand with brushes and scrapers. In this way, a septic tank is cleaned from concrete rings. Plastic tanks are not cleaned with tools; the walls can be damaged.
  • After removing deposits, rinse the reservoir with clean water.
  • Pour a small amount of liquid into the container and add, if desired, biological products that will restore colonies of beneficial microorganisms.

Biological treatment

Dr. Robik for a septic tank

Biological treatment is used for septic tanks in which bacterial colonies live. To achieve the desired result, add special agents to the tanks - microbes that are more active than those used for filtration, or biological products that accelerate the decomposition of inclusions.

Well proven "bacteria for septic tanks", which completely process feces and fats. Such microbes are specially bred for use in sewers and are not dangerous to humans. Under the action of the drug, the sediment layer becomes loose and does not thicken, the unpleasant odor is eliminated. Other ways of servicing tanks with aerobic and anaerobic microbes can lead to a complete humiliation of the microflora, as a result of which the septic tank will be disrupted.

The greatest demand is biological product "Doctor Robik"… It is produced in various designs. For example, DR-37 accelerates the decomposition of inclusions, DR-47 contains very active aerobic bacteria for use in cesspools, DR-57 is added to tanks with a thick layer of compressed sludge, etc.

It is convenient to use such means for cleaning a septic tank: Septicsol, Bioforce, Septic Cofort, Tamir. They dissolve in water and are poured into the toilet, and then flow by gravity into the sump.

Biologics are often added to the sump after all the dirt has been removed. They destroy the fat layer and organic inclusions at the bottom, which impair the absorbency of the cleaner. If there is active biological mass in the septic tank during the procedure, adhere to certain rules:

  1. In the reservoir, it is necessary to create conditions for the normal life of microorganisms. These include the constant arrival of effluents that microbes feed on. If new waste is not received within 2 weeks, the microbial colony will die.
  2. There should always be water in the tank.
  3. Cleaning is recommended during the warm season, because bio-substances are most active at a temperature of + 5 … + 30 degrees.

Biological treatment is performed as follows:

  • Buy a drug with active microorganisms. The tool is selected depending on the septic tank device and its volume.
  • Read the instructions for preparing the substance before use. Some are sold in a liquid state and are immediately ready for cooking, while others must first be filled with water. You should not use drains as a medium for preparing a working solution.
  • Check for fluid in the tank. If it is absent, pour 5-6 buckets of water into the device, and then add the preparation. Otherwise, the remedy will not work.
  • Pour biomass into all chambers. It will start working immediately after entering the liquid medium, and the unpleasant odor from the sump disappears after a few hours. The process can take several days. The longest cleaning takes place in the receiving tank, because he is the dirtiest.
  • Remove the liquid mass from the tank in any way, leaving 20% ​​of the effluent for the rapid recovery of colonies of microorganisms.

The technology for cleaning septic tanks with bacteria has many advantages over a chemical analogue:

  1. The liquid after the procedure is absolutely safe for others. The water can be used for irrigation.
  2. Biological products that process feces, fats and paper disinfect containers.
  3. The products do not destroy the walls of the tanks.
  4. The preparations destroy unpleasant odors in the container.
  5. Cleaning the septic tank with bacteria replaces the process of decay of organic matter with its decay.
  6. Funds are safe for all types of building materials.

Chemical cleaning

Chemical cleaning of a septic tank

The chemical method for cleaning a septic tank involves the use of substances that contain coagulants that promote adhesion of small inclusions. After enlargement, they fall to the bottom in the form of flakes.

More recently, ammonium compounds, formaldehyde compounds, nitrate oxidants, as well as alkalis and acids have been used for such purposes to remove build-ups on the walls of the chambers.However, such products are toxic and have a negative impact on the environment. Today, less aggressive drugs are used for the procedure.

When choosing chemicals, pay attention to the following points:

  • For biological septic tanks, there are special chemicals that are harmless to microorganisms. On the packaging of such substances, there is always a marking of permission for use in a bacterial environment.
  • Avoid harsh detergents, bleaches, shampoos, washing powder, because they destroy all colonies of microbes.
  • If substances harmful to bacteria accidentally enter the tank, add a new batch of biomaterial to the tank so that the waste recycling process does not stop.
  • When using chemicals, add additional water to the tank.

For the possibility of chemical cleaning of a septic tank, it is recommended to use the following substances:

  1. Ecological products for safe dishwashing, eg SPUL-S.
  2. Full-Clean Home Cleaner with a mild formula.
  3. SAN-PLUS® fresh sanitary liquid, safe for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.
  4. Chlorine-free bleaches based on active oxygen.

The chemical cleaning method has the following advantages:

  • Such substances are very active and quickly dissolve formations.
  • They accelerate the process of decomposition of organic matter, which for some reason remained in a solid state.
  • The process does not depend on temperature extremes.
  • Unpleasant odor is quickly eliminated.
  • Organic matter decomposes to a semi-liquid state.

The disadvantages of this method include the reaction of drugs with many building materials. Therefore, it is forbidden to use the chemical method if the tank is made of plastic or metal, unprotected from the influence of chemicals. Be careful when working in a wired station. How to clean a septic tank - watch the video:

Cleaning the septic tank is a mandatory maintenance procedure for the device. Compliance with the requirements for the removal of solid inclusions contributes to its effective functioning and the prevention of emergency situations. In this article, we have shown how this process can take place in various situations.

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