Well water treatment

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Well water treatment
Well water treatment

Ways to get rid of water taken from a well from harmful impurities, the need for preliminary analysis and purification. Water purification is the removal of harmful impurities from it. If, with a centralized water supply, such a procedure is performed by sanitary services, then summer residents have to take care of the quality of water consumed from wells on their own. Today we will tell you how to do this.

The need to purify water from a well

Well water analysis

The opinion that the water in the well is always crystal clear and does not need purification is wrong. Indeed, debris and many contaminants do not seep into depth from the surface of the soil. However, artesian water, passing through layers of soil, can absorb some dissolved salts and carry it with it to the aquifer. Therefore, it is not recommended to ingest such water without additional purification.

The purest is the water that comes from a new well; outwardly, it is devoid of any impurities. However, over time, the contents of the source can become cloudy, color and odor.

The signs that cause the need to clean water from a well include the following:

  • Ingestion of foreign substances that cause the formation of sludge or mucus in the water;
  • Water tastes like iron, and plumbing over time acquires a yellow coating;
  • The presence of harmful impurities;
  • Increased water hardness, lack of the required amount of useful minerals;
  • The presence of a cloudy sediment caused by the vital activity of microorganisms;
  • The presence of hydrogen sulfide in the water, which gives it the smell of rotten eggs;
  • The composition of the water does not meet the accepted sanitary standards.

In order for the purification of water from unnecessary impurities to be of high quality, first of all, a thorough study of its composition should be carried out. Samples must be sent to a laboratory that will chemically analyze the liquid for compliance with current sanitary standards.

It is advisable to carry out such a diagnosis at regular intervals due to the fact that, due to ground movements during the change of seasons or due to repair of the water supply, the composition of the water often changes.

After performing the analysis, its data must be submitted to the local organization that specializes in water treatment. Based on the results of diagnostics, experienced specialists will be able to select the required water purification system from the well and install it on the site.

The main methods of water purification from a well

Muddy tap water

Water purification can take place in several stages. Their number and sequence always depends on the nature and level of its pollution.

There are many methods of water disinfection and purification, the main of which are four:

  1. Mechanical cleaning… It avoids contamination of the domestic water supply system and involves the installation of a filter with a fine mesh mesh. Such a filter is able to keep mechanical impurities such as silt, clay or sand from entering the system.
  2. Electrochemical oxidation… It decomposes dirt into decaying components and inorganics, after which additional cleaning is performed.
  3. Catalytic clarification… It allows you to remove decomposed substances after oxidation, and is used to clean the bottom of the filter from sediment of turbid impurities.
  4. Deep sorption… It removes the remnants of harmful impurities, eliminates the taste of metal, the smell of hydrogen sulfide in water using special sorbents containing carbon fiber.

To purify water from a well with your own hands, you can use a vibration pump, which has a lower water intake. Another option is to use chlorine-containing substances, which will deprive bacteria of a favorable environment. However, after chemical disinfection, a primary cleaning will have to be carried out.

Well water treatment schemes

The above methods of purification, as well as prevention of water pollution, are based on the operation of filtration systems. Replaceable filters in them contain special fillers, the type of which depends on the type of pollution. Let's consider the most common cleaning schemes.

Iron removal from water

Compact Home Iron Removal System

Drinking water containing an increased amount of iron, with constant use, can harm the body, negatively affect the liver, circulatory system and the surface of the teeth. Therefore, there is a technology for purifying water from a well from iron.

It provides for the sequential passage of four stages:

  • Water intake into a special filter, the internal environment of which allows the passage of liquids of 2-3 degrees of purification;
  • Passage of the primary purification stage, at which the dissolved iron acquires an insoluble form;
  • Filtration of water through a gravel bed and drainage of clean fluid from the system;
  • Flushing the ferrous sediment into the sewer system, which remained in the filter.

Regeneration of the cleaning system is carried out automatically using the control valve immediately after the filter media has been loosened by subsequent streams of water. The filtering performed by the installation can be different:

  1. Aeration and oxidative catalysis… In this case, a special compressor system is used, equipped with an aeration column. It saturates the ferrous water with oxygen and oxidizes it. The catalyst of the chemical reaction is a granular activated carbon sorbent. After oxidation, iron goes into an insoluble form, precipitates and is removed.
  2. Multicomponent exchange with ionic resin… This filtration takes place in one stage. Ionic resin acts as a sorbent that softens water, reduces its oxidizability, reduces color, removes impurities, replacing the iron of the liquid with sodium ions.
  3. Manganese dioxide filtration… This reagent oxidizes iron, traps it, and then removes it during reverse osmosis. Manganese dioxide can be used in water purification by aeration, chlorination or ozonation. It allows you to remove harmful impurities even with a low concentration.
  4. Self cleaning with reagents… This is the most common method that any DIYer can use. The method is based on the principle of oxidation and retention of iron particles in a filter for purifying water from a well. Chlorine, potassium permanganate or calcium hypochlorite are used as reagents. They are all restored with inexpensive salt tablets.
  5. Electric field cleaning… It is based on the oxidizing properties of magnetic grains of copper and zinc. When they interact with the iron of the water, they remain in the filter housing, while the electrochemical processes counteract the oxidation of the liquid.

Water purification from sand

Sand flushing

If the water from the well is supplied with sand, there may be several reasons for this. One of them is a mistake in choosing a pump. Its capacity must correspond to the technical characteristics of the well. If this figure is too high, the pump will always pick up sand.

Another reason is the wrong choice of the filter mesh. Its face value should take into account the sand fraction. Otherwise, fine-grained sand will penetrate into the source pipe, clogging the water in it.

Casing fistula can also cause sand contamination of the water. Such a defect appears when poor-quality welding of pipe seams or their corrosion. If the fistula is removed, the sand will disappear from the water.

Sand flushing can be done in three main ways:

  • First of all, you should pump the water. With the pump turned on, you need to achieve a large outflow of it. If the well equipment is in good working order, together with the water, all the sand that got into the pipe will be removed. After that, the supply of clean water without impurities will resume.
  • If the first method does not have the desired effect, you can flush the drilled well. To do this, it will be necessary to lower a column consisting of pipes into it, and supply water to this system under pressure. As a result of this procedure, the sand that has accumulated at the bottom, together with the water, will rise up, penetrating into the space between the pipes, and splash out of the well.
  • An alternative to flushing is to purge the system. To implement it, you need to insert a pipe into the well and supply air into it. The pressure should be 10-15 atm. All contaminants from the bottom will rise along the cavity between the pipes to the surface, and the well will be cleaned.

Using the last two methods of cleaning water from a well from sand, it must be borne in mind that due to the high pressure created in the pipes, the filter may fail and it will have to be replaced.

As a last resort, if all the listed methods are not suitable for the site conditions, the contaminated water can be left to settle. After the sandy sediment has formed, the clean liquid must be carefully poured.

Water purification from nitrates

Ion filter for water purification from nitrates

The presence of an excessive amount of nitrates in drinking water can gradually lead to a deficiency of oxygen for breathing, while a person begins to suffocate. Water with nitrates is especially dangerous for children. The presence of sodium salts is most typical for well water and wells up to 30 m deep.

Such water is purified in two ways - by reverse osmosis or ion exchange. In the first case, during purification, all minerals - chlorides, hydrocarbonates and other salts - are removed from the water together with nitrate ions. Such water loses its taste and brings minimal benefits to the body. Osmotic systems with a productivity of 1.5 m3/ hour, which are used in cottages, are very expensive. When using similar small-sized installations, which are much cheaper, the problem of water purification can be solved only at the initial stage, since it is difficult to calculate the filter resource for its independent replacement. As a result, nitrates may be released into the water.

The problems described above do not arise when using the second cleaning method - ion exchange. It involves the installation of a purification system based on a filter with a cartridge filled with a nitrate-selective resin. This substance only absorbs nitrates and does not affect the beneficial salts in the water. Regeneration of such a filter is provided automatically using electronic programming; all its cycles have safety factors. The installation of an ionic filter to purify water from a well from nitrates can be done independently.

Water purification from lime

Well water purification system from lime

Calcium salts, called lime in everyday life, when dissolved in water intended for drinking and domestic needs, have a harmful effect on health and home appliances. When accumulated in the body, they cause the deposition of stones, and in household appliances - the formation of scale.

You can get rid of water from lime by the following methods:

  1. Upholding… To do this, fill a large container with water and wait for the particles to settle. After some time, clean water from above must be carefully drained, and then the sediment must be removed.
  2. Filtration… It removes insoluble lime particles. In the process of cleaning, you can use various models of filters, the type of each of which ensures the appropriate quality of the outlet water.
  3. Boiling… It is used when a small amount of clean water is required. Calcium salts in boiling water become insoluble. The disadvantage of this method is the formation of scale and a certain difficulty in removing it from the container after boiling water.
  4. Reverse osmosis… This method involves the use of a special filter with a membrane that retains all foreign matter, except for water molecules. Cross-flow in the filter washes it and prevents clogging. Such a system of water purification from a well from lime is the most effective in comparison with the previous three methods.
  5. Chemical method… It allows using various salt-binding reagents to remove colloidal solutions from artesian water. After the reactions proceed, insoluble particles are formed, which can be captured using conventional filters and removed. This method is designed to purify large volumes of water.

How to purify water from a well - watch the video:

Full purification of water from a well in the house from any harmful impurities is possible if you strictly follow the existing technology, use the right equipment and reagents. Good luck!

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