Features of artesian wells. Structural design options, conditions for issuing drilling permits, problems arising from the operation of such water sources.
The main types of wells
For the device of any well, a drilling rig is required, pipes, the type of which depends on the planned structure of the structure. When drilling artesian wells, small-sized machines are used. Most often they are made on the basis of the ZIL-131 chassis. Wells, in addition to the materials used, differ from each other in drilling depth, diameter and are standard, telescopic, equipped with a conductor or with a double pipe. Consider the types of wells by design:
- Standard design… A structure of this type is intended for water extraction if the limestone contains an insignificant amount of sandy and clay layers. In this case, it is enough to immerse the casing part of the pipe to the upper rock horizon. The standard system provides for the use of pipes with a diameter of 133-159 mm and makes it possible to lower the pump into the well to 2/3 of its depth due to the increased pressure indicator.
- Double pipe system… This design has an additional pipe that runs inside the metal barrel of the source. During installation, the steel pipe is immersed to the place of occurrence of the limestone, and the additional pipe is immersed through its layer to the water carrier. The metal product has a diameter of 133 mm or 159 mm. An additional pipe is made of plastic, is marked with HDPE and a diameter of 133 or 117 mm. If the surface layers of the rock are unstable, the inner pipe is lowered to the bottom.
- Conductor system… This device of an artesian well is required in the presence of quicksand soils. The conductor itself is a piece of pipe. Its diameter is much larger than the cross section of the casing. A steel conductor is installed in the upper layers of the soil to protect the wellbore from the pressure caused by quicksand.
- Telescopic design… Such a system consists of three pipes nested inside each other like "nesting dolls". Its use is advisable in the presence of particularly dense rock layers with limestone lying between them. In this case, the outer steel pipe is buried to the boulders, the insert from the second pipe - to the limestone, and the third, thinnest plastic pipe - into the aquifer. A plastic pipe is used only when there is clay in the limestone. The depth of a telescopic well requires the use of powerful submersible pumps.
How to get a well permit
When planning an artesian well, the requirements for its location are a significant obstacle for those who want to drink their own clean water. The current sequence of actions for obtaining permission from officials for drilling operations cannot be canceled, however, a favorable outcome of the case can be expected if the following requirements are met:
- There should be no buildings closer than 30 m from the drilling site.
- Possible sources of biological waste should be located no closer than 200 m from the future well. These include livestock farms, cesspools or sewers.
- The same applies to chemical sources - factories, gas stations, auto repair shops, which should be located no closer than 300 m from the place of drilling a well.
Therefore, before applying for the device of an artesian well, you should make sure that there are no reasons for refusal. It will be nice if the area where you plan to drill a well is fenced off. Place it no closer than 30 m from the future source.
If the neighbors on the site have their own well, they will need to retreat 100 m from it - this is also a requirement of the law.
When submitting an application for a permit, it is necessary to submit a certificate of ownership of the land plot, cadastral, situational and general development plan.
After checking the conditions, considering the application, the documents submitted and obtaining the long-awaited permission, you can drill an artesian well at the site. When all work is completed, the water source should be issued. To do this, it is necessary to provide the experts with a project for a well with diagrams, a photo, on the basis of which a conclusion can be made about the food suitability of water.
Then you need to arrange a sanitary zone according to the documentation and wait for the verdict of the authorities. After receiving it, you can quite safely use your own source for its intended purpose.
Artesian well problems
Sometimes, during the operation of wells, their owners are faced with problems characteristic of such sources. We will now consider the most famous of them.
Sand in the well
As noted above, an artesian well is drilled “for limestone”. Therefore, the appearance of sand in it is an unusual situation, which arises due to the fact that somewhere the pressure of the water pulls the sand into the trunk of the source. It is possible that this is happening from under the base of the casing. In this case, cementing, deepening and pipe installation will help.
Another reason is a break in the thread on the metal casing, especially if it is thin-walled 4-4.5 mm thick. The thread cut on such a pipe makes the metal in certain places slightly thicker than foil. Therefore, it breaks easily.
The next reason is the presence of quicksand. It has its own constant water level, and where the casing pipes turn into a smaller diameter, overflow occurs with the capture of sand. To eliminate the defect, an oil seal is placed or the pipes are raised higher.
When detecting sand suspended in water from an artesian well, you should not eliminate it yourself. This can only be done by a drilling crew. Someone else's intervention will only aggravate the situation and may further increase the cost of repairs.
Water with color and smell
Here the options are different: the liquid can be yellow or black, hydrogen sulfide or have another unpleasant odor. A filtration system can help in its purification, which should be purchased after the delivery of a water sample for analysis and receipt of its results. Sedimentary rocks, very swampy areas or insufficient drilling depth can give the water a smell.
Warm water in the wellbore
Well water itself is never warm, and if this happens, the problem lies in the distribution network of the house. Cold water enters the water heater, equipped with a check valve that prevents hot liquid from entering the cold one. In the event that the valve is faulty or missing, heated water can go into the well.
Watch a video about an artesian well:
Despite the high cost of drilling and equipping an artesian well, we recommend that you turn your attention to this particular source of water supply. It guarantees an uninterrupted supply of water, can work for a very long time and is unlikely to dry out due to the intake of life-giving moisture from the depths of the earth. Good luck!