What to do if there is muddy water in the well?

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What to do if there is muddy water in the well?
What to do if there is muddy water in the well?

Reasons for cloudy water in the well. Damage affecting the quality of the fluid at the source. Solving the problem by removing dirt from the well. Clouding of water in a well is the contamination of a source with various substances, in which the liquid loses its transparency. How to fix the problem depends on the reasons for this phenomenon.

Why is turbid water coming out of the well?

The turbidity of the liquid occurs due to the ingress of a large number of various substances into the source. They can harm human health or damage pumping equipment. Why there was a problem, you can find out after submitting samples for analysis to the laboratory.

There are biological, chemical and mechanical reasons for water cloudiness from wells. Their signs are listed in the table:

Causes Signs Cleaning methods
Biological The presence in the water of the remains of rotting plants, the smallest algae, microorganisms, an unpleasant odor. Mechanical method, filtration of water at the outlet of the well
Mechanical The presence of sand, clay and other insoluble sediments in the water Mechanical method
Chemical The presence of salts, chemical elements, gases in water, which is determined by chemical analysis, an unpleasant odor Filtration of water at the exit from the well

Biological contamination of the well occurs due to the proximity of the useful layer to the surface. The layers of soil do not purify rainwater or flood streams well enough, as a result, various substances penetrate into the source that violate its purity.

Reasons for biological contamination of the well:

  • The appearance in the source of a large number of microorganisms and organic substances entering the well from the surface. Typically, this is how water is spoiled in shallow mines.
  • The rapid development of algae, due to which the liquid acquires a greenish tint.
  • The presence of pathogenic microflora in the well leads to silting and blooming of water. The problem is often encountered if the well is rarely operated.

Chemical pollution occurs for the following reasons:

  1. Ingress to a source of industrial effluent. Chemicals react with salts and elements dissolved in water, causing it to become cloudy.
  2. The presence of a large amount of iron in the liquid. Such contamination is found even in artesian wells, in which the aquifer is located in limestone rocks. The presence of iron and manganese can be identified by the yellowish or brownish tint of the liquid. Color only appears on the surface when iron oxide reacts with oxygen.

To get complete information about why there is cloudy water in the well, take the fluid samples to a sanitary and epidemiological station.

Turbid water from a well

The liquid also loses its transparency due to mechanical contamination, which occurs as follows:

  • Flushing the bottom filter designed to retain solid particles. Gravel disappears due to non-compliance with the technology of building a well and installing casing pipes. Loss of backfill leads to the accumulation of large amounts of sand and limestone in the well.
  • The displacement of the soil can lead to a loss of tightness of the mine and to the penetration of untreated groundwater into the cavity.
  • Casing filter damage.
  • The use of cheap backfill during the construction phase, or it was not enough.
  • Using a vibrating pump to pump out water. It also provokes the appearance of sand at the source. It is recommended to install a centrifugal unit in the well.
  • If the casing is not submerged in the aquifer.
  • Pumping out a small volume of fluid from a well. In this case, a thick layer of clay and rust from pipes collects at the bottom.

A very unpleasant reason for the turbidity of the water associated with the contamination of the source with clay. In new mines, it appears in such cases:

  1. The wellbore was drilled in violation of the method of supplying technical water to the mine. If, after the opening of the aquifer, the clay solution is not replaced with clean water, the soil will fall into the underground layers and disperse over a large area. Removing it from there is not easy; washing out can take several days. The soil remaining inside provokes formation clogging, in which the pores are clogged, providing fluid access to the well.
  2. Clay can enter the trunk from the nearest reservoir, in which this soil is contained in large quantities. Therefore, it is not recommended to drill close to ponds if the soil around it has poor filtering properties.
  3. The soil is trapped in a shallow source due to poorly set casing or lack of cement plugs between the casing and the shaft wall. Water from the surface flows along the outside of the column and carries soil particles into the well.
  4. The liquid is pumped out with clay if the suction pipe of the pump is not located correctly. When it is too low above the bottom, all the dirt that lies on the filter will flow to the surface. To remedy the situation, lift the device higher.
  5. If clay appears from a well in operation for a long time, check two versions - source contamination due to casing depressurization or filter breakage. In both cases, complex repairs are indispensable.

How to clean cloudy water?

If dirty water appears from the well, first of all, find out the cause of the problem and eliminate it, and then proceed to clean the mine. If after all procedures the quality of the liquid does not improve, use filtration systems in the plumbing system. To reduce the amount of dirt that causes turbidity in the water, the following methods are used: cleaning the well with a bailer, flushing and pumping with liquid. Consider in which cases each method is relevant.

Elimination of well defects

Backfill to create a bottom filter

Cloudy water can appear due to defects in the barrel structure.

Most often it is necessary to eliminate the following defects:

  • If dirt enters the well when the casing filter is damaged, install a disc cleaner in the well. It is capable of retaining particles larger than 20 microns. The purifier helps well in case of biological contamination of the source.
  • If the bottom filter is washed out or if its thickness is insufficient to retain the soil, an additional layer of pebbles 15-20 cm thick will have to be poured. Sometimes it is necessary to deepen the shaft so that there is a place for gravel backfilling.
  • If cracks appear in the casing, through which the earth enters the well, it is urgent to repair it. In most cases, it is difficult to eliminate such a defect, so a new well has to be drilled. In this situation, it is also recommended to use filtration systems that are mounted at the inlet to the water intake system.

Removing dirt with a bailer

Well cleaning bailer

The bailer is used when muddy water with sand or clay comes from the well. This method is considered the most effective for recovering the source if there have been no problems with the well since the beginning of operation.

The device is made from a pipe that fits freely inside the casing. A gap of 2-3 mm is allowed between the walls. In the lower part there is a hole with a valve through which the soil enters the inside of the instrument. The shutter (or ball) will prevent the soil from falling out when the thief is lifted to the surface.

There is an eyelet at the top of the tool. A rope is attached to it for lifting the projectile with mud to the surface.

The cleaning procedure is carried out in the following sequence:

  1. Assemble a special structure - a tripod, with which the thief is removed from the well. A large vertical load acts on the product, therefore, for its construction, you will need wooden logs with a diameter of 15-20 cm or metal pipes. The height of the structure should be such that after being suspended on the hook of the winch with a bailer, 1.5 m remains to the head of the well.
  2. At the top of the tripod, connect the bars with nails or staples. To prevent the supports from moving apart, fix them together with slats.
  3. Attach the winch hook to the top of the product.
  4. The bailer can be lifted with a collar that is attached between the legs at the bottom of the structure. In this case, secure the block at the top of the tripod and pull the rope through it.
  5. Disassemble the buildings above the well - a house or a shed.
  6. Place the tripod over the source so that the vertex is visually over the center of the trunk.
  7. Hang the lifting mechanism on the hook, and attach the thief to its chain.
  8. Make sure the fixture is positioned exactly in the center of the well. Move the thief in the desired direction if necessary.
  9. To increase stability, dig the tripod supports into the ground 0.7-0.8 m.
  10. Place the thief in the shaft and release the winch. The tool will enter the bottom of the well to a certain depth, and dirt will get into its cavity. Lift it 0.5-0.7 m and release it again. Repeat the operation until the thief is full.
  11. Lift it to the surface, free it from the contents and throw it back into the barrel.
  12. To restore transparency to the water, it is necessary to remove all accumulated dirt from the mine.

Application of pumps in turbid water

Well cleaning with a pump

To get rid of muddy water from the well, pumping and washing the source with one or two pumps will help.

If the mine is shallow and the loss of transparency is caused by sand and other solid impurities, the dirt can be pumped out with a vibration pump. Products of this type have less power than centrifugal ones, but are cheaper. This fact should be taken into account, because grains of sand and pebbles can damage the pump. Perform the following operations:

  • Lower the device to the bottom and lift it up several times to move the dirt out of its place. Clay and sand from the bottom can be lifted with a pin tied to a rope.
  • Fix the device at a distance of 2-3 cm from the ground, in the middle of the shaft, and turn it on. Direct the pumped out water to a specially prepared place so as not to spoil the surface of the site.
  • Unplug the device after every half hour of operation to cool it down.
  • Lift the pump periodically to the surface to clean the inlet flange from contamination, because at the bottom there are pebbles from the bottom filter.
  • After pumping out all the water, take a break to allow water to collect in the shaft and then turn on the product again.
  • When clean water flows from the hose, the work can be finished.

The pump has a small capacity, so the cleaning procedure can take a long time. To obtain clear water from a deep well, including an artesian one, washing the mine with two pumps will help. One of them supplies water to the barrel from the surface to raise sand and clay from the bottom, the other pumps out dirty liquid.

For pumping, it is allowed to use a high-power centrifugal pump designed to work with thick liquid. It is allowed to use a device that is used in the operation of the well. The vibration pump is not able to raise water from a deep well, therefore, it is not recommended to use it in this case. The operation will require a lot of technical fluid, so install a large tank near the well and fill it with water. Place the pump next to it. Place the suction hose in a container, lower the other to the bottom of the source.

After turning on both devices, the centrifugal pump will begin to pump out the dirt into a prepared container on the surface. In it, heavy particles will settle to the bottom, and the liquid will again be sent to the mine.The operation stops when the pumped out water does not become light. Turn off the pump and pump the entire contents out of the well several times.

If the shaft walls and filter are strong, flush the source with a pump. To do this, lower the hose from the pump to the bottom of the well and turn on the device. The powerful jet mixes the dirt with the water and lifts it to the surface. Thus, not only sand and clay, but also all organic matter is removed from the well. To reduce water consumption, direct the pumped liquid to a large tank where the dirt will settle, and then pump it back into the well.

What to do if muddy water comes out of the well - watch the video:

Now you know what to do if there is muddy water in the well. Some options offer simple solutions, others will require complex technology and significant financial investments, but you will have to clean the liquid from impurities in any case.

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