Do-it-yourself house made of earth

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Do-it-yourself house made of earth
Do-it-yourself house made of earth
Anonim

Features, types and methods of earthen houses construction. The advantages of buildings and some of the difficulties associated with their operation and design. Technology for erecting a domed house. The disadvantages of houses made of soil include the inability to erect buildings with a height of more than 2 floors. However, this can be corrected by building additional structures next to the main building, connecting them using corridors. It will come out very nicely!

The strong enemy of Earthships technology is the dampness caused by the rains. Therefore, if you do not perform plastering after the house is built from the ground, the structure may slide. In damp regions, the arrangement of such structures with a waterproof roof is mandatory.

Certain difficulties in the construction of earthen houses can be caused by the psychological attitudes of the land owners. For some of them, life under the earth is associated with imprisonment, poverty and even death.

Walls of bags of earth

The construction of small structures from the ground is within the power of any master. But, in order to build a building with an area of ​​more than 20 m2 or a whole composition of such objects, you will need a well-made project, the help of architects and builders of ecological objects. Today it is difficult to find such specialists, since due to the minimal cost of materials, there are few people who want to have a small income or short-term employment. Here it is impossible to save on the “waste” of building materials, to receive a “kickback” or a dealer discount.

Putting a finished building into operation is also fraught with difficulties. Supervisory authorities use long-established SNiPs and DBNs, and new environmental standards are under development.

As for mortgages, banks provide for the maximum risk for earth construction, considering this technology to be experimental. Therefore, they take a higher percentage, according to such a risk.

Varieties of earthen houses

DIY adobe house

The choice of the type of house from the ground depends on the type of soil, the features of the relief of the site and the climate of the region. According to the method of construction, such buildings are buried and above ground. In turn, each of them has its own varieties.

Ground-based houses include:

  • Earthbite… The walls of such a structure are erected by filling the formwork with soil, or from earthen blocks previously made using special forms by compaction or by plastic molding. The second method is the most widespread in the world, since before laying the strength and shape of the blocks are more stable than in the first case. In addition, cracks are unlikely to appear when the block wall dries and shrinks.
  • Adobe… It belongs to composite materials, it is laid by hand during the construction of monolithic walls of a house. Saman is a mixture of clay, soil, water, sand and straw.
  • Earthbags… It is a technology for building walls and creating domes from bags filled with soil. The construction of such houses is now actively underway all over the world. Traditionally, this technology has been present in the construction of military fortifications, dugouts, flood control, etc. If you add a little cement to the soil mixture, a house made of bags of earth can stand for decades.
  • Geocar… This is a peat block house. The material has properties that allow it to be used both as a heater and as a structural element in the construction of houses up to three floors.Peat blocks are most suitable for the natural conditions of the Non-Black Earth Region, they meet all the requirements regarding strength and environmental safety standards.

Recessed houses include:

  1. Atrium house… This is the name of the underground structure, in which the atrium is the center of the house, as well as the entrance to it. The concept of "atrium" means the central space of a building, illuminated through an opening or skylight. Such a house is built on a flat area and covered with earth. The deepening is carried out by 2.7 m, and the minimum thickness of the sod present on the roof is at least 0.2 m. All four walls of the atrium are accessible to daylight. The living quarters are located around the courtyard, which is overlooked by glazed openings that provide the house with the warmth of sunlight. The atrium has natural ventilation, rises slightly above the ground and practically does not change the landscape, while providing reliable protection from the wind in the winter season.
  2. Protruding house… From the front, it is open to the light, while the other sides and top are covered with earth. The open wall of the house, usually oriented to the south, allows the sun's rays to easily penetrate into the dwelling, providing heat from the facade to its entire area, including the bathrooms. The structural elements of the building are the cheapest in comparison with other earthen houses.
  3. Penetrating house… In addition to windows and doors, such a structure is completely covered with soil on the sides and on top. The advantage of a house penetrating from the ground is natural cross ventilation and sunlight coming from one or more sides of it.

The main goal of creating any of the listed earthen structures is the maximum conservation of energy in the complete absence of harm to human health.

Basic technologies for building a house from the ground

Earthbags Construction Technology

Earthen houses are erected using three methods:

  • Slip formwork method… It is intended for the construction of a building with right angles. Racks are installed on both sides of the walls around the entire perimeter of the future house. Then identical shields are attached to them against each other. The resulting formwork is filled with soil mixture. After its ramming and setting, the formwork is dismantled and installed in a new area. The finished wall usually consists of 15 cm of compacted soil and a lime pad, i.e. 5-6 cm. Due to the high labor intensity, this method is rarely used.
  • From earth blocks… This method is more widespread than the previous one. For the manufacture of piece materials, folding forms are used. They are filled with soil mixture, compacted, then the finished bricks are removed and dried.
  • From bags of earth… This method allows the construction of buildings that differ in shape and have a unique style. Variants of dome-shaped houses or round walls with an equipped roof are very popular.

We will consider the features of the latter method in more detail below.

How to build a dome house?

Domed house made of bags of earth

Before making a dome-shaped house out of earth, you need to choose a suitable place for it. In plan, it will have a round shape. Therefore, in the center of the planned structure, you need to stick a stake, tie a rope to it, measure the required radius on it and mark the circumference of the walls of the house.

When the marking of the site is completed, on the resulting circle it is necessary to provide for the location of the entrance, determine the dimensions of the doorway. It should be borne in mind that the base of the entrance to the domed house should go a little inward so that the door can be installed vertically on a sloping wall.

Then, along the finished circle, you should dig a trench about 40 cm deep and a width corresponding to the size of the bag. After that, it needs to be covered with rubble, which will play the role of drainage and foundation.

For the construction of walls, propylene sugar bags or sleeves made of decay-resistant fabric are suitable.The bags must be filled with damp earth, without adding 25 cm to the top in each of them. Due to the large weight of such "bricks", it is recommended to perform this work on the wall of the structure. To prevent the soil from spilling out, the free edges of the bags should be sewn with wire.

The first layer of bags filled with soil must be laid around the circumference of the house and tamped in any way. The second layer should be positioned by analogy with brickwork, performing bandaging of the seams. It should have a smaller circumference relative to the previous layer. This alternation will give the house a domed shape.

Before placing any bag underneath it, stretch a piece of synthetic twine to tighten the next two or three levels of the wall. This will make it easier to plaster the house in the future. Between the layers of bags with soil, you need to lay two strips of barbed wire, which in this case plays the role of reinforcement and fastening mortar.

When laying a round wall made of bags of soil, it is necessary to leave openings for windows and doors. They are often made in the form of arches. After drying, the outside of the house must be plastered with cement or clay mortar.

How to build a house from the ground - watch the video:

Finally, a tip: before building a house out of the ground, we recommend practicing on a small structure such as a sauna or a barn. Good luck!

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