How to deepen a well

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How to deepen a well
How to deepen a well

Reasons for the decrease or disappearance of water in the source. Methods for deepening mines on different soils. Condition for the restoration of wells. Work performance technology. Deepening a well is a set of measures to restore normal water intake, which involves removing soil from the bottom of the source to move to a new layer. During work, a thorough cleaning of the curtain is also carried out. We will talk about how to deepen the well with your own hands in this article.

The need for deepening the well

Deepening the well when the water level changes

The service life of the krinitsa largely depends on the quality of the construction work. However, the functionality of the source can be influenced by natural phenomena that humans cannot foresee. The problem is often solved by deepening the mine.

It is necessary to reanimate the well in a similar way in such cases:

  • The water level changes depending on the season of the year. The reason for the fluctuations in the debit is due to the fact that the trunk was dug in early spring or autumn, when a large amount of rain or melt water seeps into the ground. Its level temporarily rose, and the builders took it for a permanent one. After a short period of time, the flow of liquid stops, the water horizon descends, lowering the water level in the well or completely draining it.
  • The appearance of a deeper mine or an artificial lake in a neighboring area, which is fed from the same layer. For this reason, not only your wells are drying up, but also those of your neighbors.
  • Geological changes leading to the movement of the water layer far from the surface.

If the decision to repair is made, carry out the work in winter, when the groundwater level is at its lowest. If the liquid completely disappears, you will have to dig a hole to a depth of at least 5 m. After receiving positive results, it is necessary to check the quality of the liquid and its suitability for drinking. An alternative to reworking the well is to build a new mine.

Well deepening technology

Repair and deepening of wells is carried out quickly and with maximum effect if modern techniques are used. The work is carried out in several stages. First, find out the very possibility of finalizing the krynitsa in this way and choose a method of resuscitation, which depends on the reasons for the disappearance of water and the composition of the soil. The main processes begin after the sequence of operations has been drawn up.

Preparatory work

Well deepening tools and accessories

After the first signs of shallowing of the well appear, you should not immediately begin to restore it. Wait a few months, often the water comes back on its own. It is recommended to revise the existing source in the following cases:

  1. There is no free space for a new krinitsa.
  2. Pipes and electrical cables are connected to the well, and significant financial costs will be required to move them.
  3. Produced water of high quality.
  4. The trunk is deep enough - at least 10 rings.
  5. The daily intake of fluid is less than one ring or none at all.

Before deepening the well, check its condition. Construction work can be started if the following conditions are met: the well was recently built, the concrete rings are not distorted, the log cabins are in good condition. Even a completely dry source can be reanimated, but for this you will have to remove a large amount of soil.

Refuse to rework in such cases:

  1. When large quicksand is found.
  2. Seasonal fluctuations in water level are very large.
  3. The depth of the mine is less than 8 m.
  4. The well is very old, you will have to not only dig, but also restore the entire structure.
  5. If the underground part consists of a log cabin, in which the decks are shifted relative to each other by 5 cm or more.
  6. The wooden parts of the mine have rotted away.

For work, you will need the following tools and accessories:

  • A shovel with a handy handle for use in confined spaces.
  • Dirty water pump.
  • Ax, crowbar or chipper for passing hard rocks.
  • Winch with a lifting capacity of 500-600 kg for lifting buckets with soil.
  • Compact ladder that does not take up much space, such as a rope ladder.
  • Light source.

Prepare overalls for the worker - rubber overalls and boots, a helmet.

Using smaller rings

Deepening the well with rings of smaller diameter

In this way, you can deepen a well made of concrete rings, built on sandy or other loose soil by a maximum of 3 m.To carry out the work, you will need smaller repair products so that they move freely in the opening. The recommended height is 90-100 cm.

The outer diameter of the spare parts depends on the degree of curvature of the barrel, therefore, before deepening the well made of concrete rings, check the condition of the structure. For a shaft with smooth walls, the gaps between new and old elements should be 20-30 mm. If the opening is 1 m, buy products with an outer diameter of 80 cm. But often the trunk has a curvature. If there are significant irregularities, use rings with a diameter of 700 mm. In this case, at the bottom of the well, gaps will appear between the two trunks, which will be filled with stones and rubble.

You will also need a cutting shoe for work - a shortened ring with a sharp cutting edge.

Before deepening the well with rings, check the reliability of the structure. If you find gaps in the structure, try to eliminate them by aligning the barrel. If it fails, fix the elements together with four metal brackets, which are fastened evenly around the circumference. They are made from metal plates with dimensions 4x40x300 mm, in which holes with a diameter of 13-14 mm are made. Attach the plates to the adjacent rings and mark on the shaft the position of the fastening holes through the existing ones in the blanks.

Drill holes according to the marks, and then fix the brackets with anchor bolts with a diameter of 12 mm. The installation of the fasteners is very important to keep the rings from sliding even if the ground moves.

Work on deepening with additional rings is performed in the following sequence:

  1. Make sure the bottom is able to support the additional stress from the repair rings.
  2. Pump out all the water from the well.
  3. Dismantle the superstructure above the mine.
  4. Lower the sharp-edged ring into the bottom, and on it - the repair ring. Seal the connection points.
  5. Fix the elements to each other with metal staples.
  6. Use a plumb line to check the verticality of the walls of the new shaft.
  7. Remove the dirt inside the pieces, first in the middle, then under the shoe, until the shaft settles.
  8. Repeat the operation until a powerful stream of water appears.
  9. Check the verticality of the walls of the building.
  10. Form a bottom filter.
  11. Fill the gap between the pipe and the wall with fine stone and sand.
  12. Install dismantled buildings and removed equipment.

Instead of concrete rings, plastic pipes or rings reinforced with stiffeners can be used. The pipes can be installed all the way to the top of the shaft. In this case, use samples with a thread that allows you to connect adjacent elements. Plastic products have a long service life, but they can only be used once.

Application of pipes for filter recess

Deepening the well with a plastic pipe

It is produced using special pipes with a diameter of 500 mm. In such products, holes 1, 5-2 cm are drilled for the flow of water. Products can be metal or plastic. It is allowed to use ordinary (non-perforated) elements, and make holes in them yourself.

The deepening of the well with pipes is performed in the following sequence:

  • Wrap the inside of the pipe with fine mesh stainless steel mesh and fix it in this position.
  • Place the product vertically in the center of the well and fix it temporarily.
  • Mount a tripod with a block above the mine.
  • Pass a rope through the block and attach a thief to it - a special device for removing soil. It looks like a sharpened pipe with a valve.
  • Make sure that the thief is positioned exactly in the center of the well.
  • Lift the device with a rope and check that there is 1.5-2 m of free space under it.
  • Release the rope - the device will fall into the hole and enter the ground, part of which will fall through the hole into the device.
  • Lift the thief and remove soil from its cavity.
  • Repeat the operation, periodically lowering the pipe to the vacant place.
  • After obtaining the desired result, fill the space between the new and the old mine with gravel, stone and sand and concretize it.
  • Place several layers of rubble on the bottom to create a bottom filter.
  • Install buildings and equipment removed at the beginning of work.

If you close the barrel with a lid, you get a chamber in which the temperature never drops below zero. It is possible to install a pump and other equipment for water supply to the site.

Digging when deepening the well

How to deepen a well by digging

A similar scheme for deepening the well involves removing soil from the well, followed by lowering the rings. To do this, a worker is lowered to the bottom, who digs a hole. The soil is removed by a bucket and lifted by auxiliary mechanisms, for example, a tripod with a block and a rope, which is connected to a winch. Pump out the accumulated water periodically.

During the process, do not forget about safety precautions. It is forbidden to dig at a depth of more than 40 cm at a time - there is a danger of a sudden lowering of the rings with all the unpleasant consequences.

Remove soil evenly around the perimeter until the structure is lowered to the depth of the tunnel. Then install an additional ring of the same diameter on top. Seal the interface. Repeat the operation until the flow of water becomes strong.

Sometimes, after digging, the rings do not fall. To eliminate the problem, do the following: dig holes with a diameter of 150-200 mm around the well. To do this, use drills - hand-held, electric, you can use a drilling rig. The length of the working tool should be at least 4 m. Fill the wells with water, this will loosen the soil. With blows on the end of the shaft, lower it down until it stops.

If the rings still don't go down, make wooden shields and install them in the well. Prepare planks 25x150 mm from water-resistant wood species such as aspen. The length of the segments should be equal to the distance from the bottom of an already deepened well to the bottom end of the shaft, which did not sink after digging. Fill the space under the trunk with planks in a circle. Reinforce the structure with aspen beams, which will create a rigid belt and prevent the boards from squeezing inward. As a result, you will get a new ring, but not concrete, but wooden, which will last a long time.

How to deepen a well with quicksand with a bailer

Deepening the well with a bailer

The presence of quicksand in the source is determined by the following criteria:

  1. The water level in the krinitsa is within 1 m, and it is impossible to increase it by any traditional methods.
  2. The liquid in the well has a cloudy brownish tint.
  3. In winter, intense heaving occurs, often leading to deformation of the structure.

It is recommended to deepen a mine with quicksand only in exceptional cases. A bulk mixture saturated with moisture is under high pressure and, when trying to select the soil, starts to move. An unexpected movement of a viscous mass is often the cause of an accident. The best option for restoring the water supply is considered to be the construction of a new well in a different location.If this is not possible, try to get the job done in the winter when the soil freezes over. More likely to pass small quicksand.

The high plasticity and viscosity of quicksand does not allow restoring the well by simply removing the soil: the semi-liquid mass immediately fills the vacated space, therefore, in order to deepen by 20-30 cm, it is necessary to remove several dozen buckets of soil. It is not recommended to use a pump: the rapid removal of a large volume of sand will distort the shaft and even possibly destroy it.

The best way to deepen the well in quicksand is to use the percussion rope method, but in this case the diameter of the trunk will be reduced to 500 mm. For work, you will need a perforated casing pipe, a thief and devices for raising and lowering the working tool. The technology is similar to the filter cavity. If the quicksand failed to pass, it is necessary to install a plug at the bottom of the well and use the water that collects in the lower part of the well.

After the end of the work, the cleaning of the curtain is obligatory. Analyze the water, disinfect it if necessary or remove the cause of the contamination. Treat the walls with disinfectants, clean the inner surface from organic deposits. Eliminate cracks and gaps between the elements of the shaft, waterproof the shaft.

How to deepen a well - watch the video:

The above measures allow restoring the functioning of the well and saving money on the excavation of a new source. Compliance with the work technology will provide access to clean water, moreover, free of charge. A negligent attitude to work can lead to the overlap of the water layer and the complete destruction of the mine.

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