How to identify septoria, what crops are affected by this disease, how to deal with it? The reader will find answers to these and other questions in this article. Unlike some other fungal diseases, septoria can be spread everywhere - in different regions. It affects many plants.
Varieties of septoria
Here are the crops that infect the following Septoria fungi:
- cereals - Septoria nodorum, graminum and others;
- gooseberry and currant-Septoria ribis;
- tomato - Septoria lycopersici;
- grapes - Septoria ampelina;
- millet - Septoria panicimiliacei;
- soybeans - Septoria glycincs.
To understand which microorganisms have infected the plants, look at the leaves of the crops. If rusty or brown spots with yellow edging have formed on them, then this is most likely septoria. They are irregular in shape. On the front side of the leaf, black dots - pycnidia of the fungus may appear. If the plant is severely affected, then its shoots and leaves may dry out, and the stems may turn brown.
For the prevention of septoria, it is necessary to give preference to potassium and phosphorus fertilizing, reducing nitrogen. Crops do not need to be planted too often, as they need good ventilation, enough light. Excessive moisture can also lead to the development of the disease.
Septoria pome fruit
Harmful mushrooms can lead to diseases of apple, pear, and other pome crops. If, after flowering, you find light spots with a dark edging on the leaves, in the middle of which black dots appear, then this is septoria or, as it is also called, white spot.
During the growing season of plants, the fungus Septoria piricola Desm forms pictidal spores that spread rapidly. Due to the disease, the leaves dry out, fall off, therefore, the growth of young shoots is weakened, the yield of winter hardiness of trees decreases.
To prevent this, it is necessary to plant varieties resistant to this disease, after the leaves fall off, remove them or embed them deep into the soil. Spraying the garden with fungicides will help defeat this disease. The first one must be carried out before the buds have blossomed, during the period of their blooming, a second treatment is carried out. The third should be produced immediately after flowering.
If the tree is severely affected, then during the summer it will be necessary to carry out several more treatments, but during this period, preference is given to products that are harmless to plants and humans.
Septoria raspberry and blackberry
White spotting of raspberries and blackberries is strong in rainy and humid years. In this case, the leaves of these crops are covered with small light brown spots, then they turn white, and a thin brown border around them remains.
If you look closely, you will notice black dots in the center of the spots - these are fungal spores. Gradually, these areas of the sheet are destroyed. If the disease has struck the stems, then light spots with black pictidal dots appear on them. The bark here cracks, and the leaves darken and dry out. The disease leads to a deterioration in fruiting, such plants do not tolerate frosts well, and the mushroom itself winters well, making its way through the bark to the affected stems of blackberries and raspberries. In the spring, white spot makes itself felt, when the ripening period of the berries comes, it reaches its greatest strength.
To fight septoria, it is necessary to destroy the affected remains of blackberries and raspberries in time, cut out the shoots that have borne fruit in time, do not thicken the planting. In autumn and early spring, it is necessary to dig up the soil under the plants, in weakly affected ones, it is necessary to cut off the tops, and if the annual shoots are heavily infected, cut them out completely and dispose of them.
In early spring, while the buds have not yet blossomed, it is necessary to spray the blackberries and raspberries with Bordeaux liquid with a concentration of 3%. Before flowering and harvesting - with the same product, but with a concentration of 1%.
Preparations for septoria
Fitosporin M, if necessary, can be used during the entire growing season. You need to take 3 g of this drug, first dilute in a small amount of water, then add it so that the total volume becomes 10 liters and spray.
In early spring, and then during the budding period, after flowering and after harvesting, plants can be treated with the following fungicides and preparations:
- 1% and 3% Bordeaux liquid solution;
- colloidal sulfur, diluting 25-50 g in 5 liters of water;
- copper sulfate;
- copper oxychloride solution;
- Abiga-Peak (20-25 g per 5 liters of water);
- Strobe (2 g per 5 L of water);
- Propicanazole by spraying with a 0.15% solution.
Septoria on currants and gooseberries
This disease is quite common in these crops. It is easy to recognize it by brown specks 2-3 mm in diameter, which gradually turn white, and the border remains dark. Such signs indicate this disease. White spot can also affect berries. The spores of the fungus overwinter on unharvested parts of the plant, and in spring, especially if the weather is wet, the spores inflict the first attack, affecting the gooseberry, and mostly black currant.
Control measures are the same as for raspberries and blackberries. It is also important to weed the soil under the plants in a timely manner. Before bud break, you can spray with copper sulfate or Kaptan, Tsineb or Phtalan preparations. Bordeaux liquid can also be used. In this case, 50 g of the drug is diluted in 5 liters of water. These measures help to defeat other diseases of currants and gooseberries.
Tomato Septoria - Useful Research
As a result, it was revealed that the most resistant are such medium-late and late-ripening varieties of tomatoes, such as:
- Kuban standard;
- Wonder of the World;
The age of the seedlings, planting schemes, growing methods are of great importance. Tomatoes grown from seedlings of a longer period (80 days instead of 50) are affected by septoria 1, 3 times more often.
With a sparse planting pattern of bushes: 140 by 50 cm, the development of white spot during the mass harvest period was 12-23% less than on plants planted at a distance of 70 by 50 cm. Therefore, an increase in the distance between plants reduces the risk of fungal diseases affecting them …
Treatment with the above drugs will help prevent and combat septoria on tomatoes and other crops.
For the cultivation of gooseberries and methods for the prevention of septoria, see this video: