Classification of hormones and their synthesis in bodybuilding

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Classification of hormones and their synthesis in bodybuilding
Classification of hormones and their synthesis in bodybuilding
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Hormones regulate all processes in the human body. To build, you need to know which hormones are responsible for muscle growth and which ones cause catabolism. Today we will talk about the classification of hormones and their synthesis in bodybuilding. All hormones known to scientists can be divided into three groups:

  • Steroid.
  • Amines.
  • Peptide (protein).

We will now talk about each of this group in more detail.

Steroid hormones

Table of mechanisms of action of steroid hormones

All substances from this group are derived from cholesterol. These include all sex hormones, glucorticosteroids and mineralocorticoids. In the male body, the main sex hormone is testosterone, and in the female, the estrogen family. It should also be said that the most potent estrogen is estradiol. Among corticosteroids, cortisol is secreted, and aldosterone is the main representative of mineralocorticoids.

Since all these substances have one precursor, the enzymatic biosynthesis pathway is also used for their production. In addition, due to the existing deviations in the course of this synthesis, which are strictly defined, a small amount of other hormones is also produced. For example, the testicles secrete mainly testosterone, but besides it, a small proportion of cortisol is formed.

The rate of synthesis of steroid hormones is determined by the activity of the enzymes involved in it, including the catalyst. With regard to cholesterol, the main limiting factor is the rate of conversion of this substance to pregnenolone. The glands that secrete steroid hormones are unable to store them. Thus, immediately after production, steroid hormones enter the bloodstream.

Peptide hormones

Peptide and steroid hormones

Peptide hormones are amino acid chains. If this chain contains no more than 20 amino acid compounds, then the hormones are called peptide. Otherwise, they should be classified as protein. Peptide hormones include, for example, somatostantin, and protein hormones - insulin and somatotropin. Some of these substances can exist in the form of separate chains, while others, in turn, have disulfide bonds and have a rather complex structure. It should be noted that some of the protein hormones can even form structures that combine several substances.

Like all other protein compounds, peptide hormones are produced by endocrine cells. First, a special substance called a prehormone is synthesized, which is then transformed into the hormone itself.

Amino acids

Amino acid formulas

Amines are synthesized from the amino acid compound tyrosine and can be included in one of two groups: thyroid hormones or catecholamines. The first should include the hormones synthesized by the thyroid gland - thyroxine and triiodothyronine. The second includes adrenaline and norepinephrine. Although the precursor molecule for these substances is one, there are serious differences between the representatives of these groups.

The rate of synthesis of thyroid hormones depends on the ability of the thyroid gland to consume mineral iodide and tyrosine. The latter substance is the main component for the synthesis of thyroglobulin, which is a large glycoprotein. It is able to accumulate in the cells of the thyroid gland in large quantities. As iodide is absorbed, this substance combines with thyroglobulin and, as a result, one of the thyroid hormones is synthesized.

Although catecholamines are also produced from tyrosine, this process takes place in the cells of the adrenal glands, namely in the medulla of this organ. This process has several stages and is quite complex.Note that epinephrine and norepinephrine can accumulate in the adrenal glands and enter the bloodstream as needed.

Learn more about hormones and their role in our body in this video:

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