Previously, the definition of "nebula" meant any static phenomenon in space that has an extended shape. Then this concept was concretized, having studied the mysterious object in more detail. Let's try to figure out what a similar section of the interstellar medium is. Nebula is the main building material of the Universe, which consists of dust, plasma and gas. We can safely say that this is one of the most beautiful and amazing space objects with a rich palette of colors.
Nebula concept in space
The nebula is a cloud of gas that houses a huge number of stars. The radiance of these celestial bodies allows the cloud to glow in different colors. Through special telescopes, such space formations look like spots with a bright base.
Some of the interstellar regions have fairly well-defined contours. Many of the known gas clusters are a patchy fog that spreads in different directions in jets and has a diffuse form of origin.
The space between the stars of the nebula is not empty substance. In a rather small amount, particles of a various nature are concentrated here, to which the atoms of some substances can be attributed.
Distinguish between the origin of diffuse and planetary formations in space. The nature of their formation is significantly different from one another, therefore, it is necessary to carefully understand the structure of the appearance of different nebulae. Planetary objects are the product of the main stars, and diffuse objects are the consistency after the formation of stars.
Nebulae of diffuse origin are located in the spiral arms of galaxies. Such a cosmic combination of gas and dust in most cases is associated with large-scale and cold clouds. Stars form in this area, making the diffuse nebula very bright.
Education of this kind does not have its own source of nutrition. It exists energetically due to the high temperature stars that are next to it or inside. The color of such nebulae is predominantly red. This factor is due to the fact that there is a large amount of hydrogen inside them. Shades of green and blue indicate the presence of nitrogen, helium and some heavy metals in the composition.
In the stellar region of Orion, very small nebulae of diffuse formation can be observed. These formations are very small against the background of a giant cloud, which occupies almost the entire described object. In the constellation Taurus, it is realistic to record only a few nebulae next to fairly young T-type stars. This variety indicates that there is a disk that appears around bright celestial bodies.
A planetary nebula in space is a shell, the energy of which, at the final stage of formation, is dumped by a star without reserves of hydrogen in its core. After such changes, the celestial body turns into a red giant, capable of tearing away its surface layer. As a result of the incident, the interior of the object sometimes has a temperature exceeding 100 degrees Celsius. As a result, the star deforms in such a way that it becomes a white dwarf without a source of energy and heat.
In the 20s of the last century, there was a demarcation of the definitions of "nebula" and "galaxy".The separation that has taken place is considered by the example of the formation in the Andromeda region, which is a vast galaxy of a trillion stars.
The main types of nebulae
Space education is classified according to various parameters. The following types of nebulae are distinguished: reflective, dark, emission, planetary gas clusters and the residual product after the activity of supernovae. The division also applies to the composition of nebulae: there is gaseous and dusty cosmic matter. First of all, attention is paid to the ability to absorb or scatter light by such objects.
Dark nebulae are dense compounds of interstellar gas and dust, the structure of which is opaque due to dust exposure. Clusters of this kind can occasionally be observed against the background of the Milky Way.
The study of such objects depends on the AV-score. If the data is quite high, then the experiments are carried out exclusively using the technologies of submillimeter and radio wave astronomy.
An example of such a formation is the Horsehead, which formed in the constellation Orion.
Such concentrations scatter the light carried by nearby stars. This object is not a source of radiation, but only reflects the radiance.
A gas-dust cloud of this type depends on the location of the stars. At close range, the loss of interstellar hydrogen occurs, which leads to the flow of energy due to the scattered galactic dust. The Pleiades Cluster is the best example of the described cosmic phenomenon. In most cases, such gas and dust clumps are located near the Milky Way.
Light nebulae have the following subspecies:
- Cometary… The variable star underlies this formation. It illuminates the described section of the interstellar medium, but has a varying brightness. The sizes of objects are calculated in hundreds of a parsec fraction, which indicates the possibility of a detailed study of such a concentration of gas and dust in space.
- Light echo… This phenomenon is quite rare and has been studied since the beginning of the last century. The constellation Perseus after a supernova in 2001 allowed observing a similar change in the cosmic sphere. The high-intensity flares activated the dust, which has been forming a moderate nebula for several years.
- Reflective substance with fibrous structure… Hundreds or thousands of parsec fractions are the size of this species. The forces of the magnetic field of the star cluster move apart under external pressure, after which gas-dust objects are embedded in these fields and a kind of shell filament is formed.
The following division into gaseous and dusty nebulae is rather arbitrary, because both elements are present in each cloud. But some research makes it possible to distinguish between such compositions of cosmic substance.
Such manifestations of space activity have different forms, and their types can be designated by the following points:
- Ring-shaped planetary substances… In this case, there is such a type of nebula as planetary. The layout of its components is very simple: the main star is visible in the center, around which all external changes take place.
- Gas fibers that release their energy separately… These glowing gaseous substances are formed in the most unexpected way in the form of scattered glittering weaves of gas.
- Crab nebula… It is a residual phenomenon after the explosion of a star of a new format. Such an event was recorded when studying celestial bodies that reflect their energy. In the very center of the cluster is a pulsating neutron star, which, according to some indicators, is one of the most productive sources of galactic energy.
This type of nebula looks like a kind of dip, which stands out against the background of a light cosmic bunch. This fragment can be observed in the constellation Orion, where a similar plume divides a single cloud into two distinct zones. Against the background of the Milky Way, there are also dusty patches that are pronounced in the region of Ophiuchus (the Serpent Nebula).
It is realistic to study such dust accumulation only with the help of a telescope of rather high power (diametrically from 150 mm). If a dusty nebula is located near a bright star, then it begins to reflect the light of this celestial body and becomes a visible phenomenon. Only in special images will it be possible to see this ability, which is close to diffuse nebulae.
The main indicator of such a cosmic cloud is its high temperature. It consists of ionized gas, which is formed as a result of the activity of the closest hot star. Its effect is that it activates and illuminates the atoms of the nebula using ultraviolet radiation.
The phenomenon is interesting in that it resembles neon light by the principle of education and visual indicators. As a rule, emission-type objects are red due to the large accumulation of hydrogen in their composition. Additional tones may be present in the form of green and blue, which are formed due to the atoms of other substances. The most striking example of such a star cluster is the famous Orion Nebula.
The most famous nebulae
The most popular nebulae for study are: Orion, Triple Nebula, Ring and Dumbbell.
Such a phenomenon is remarkable in that it can be observed even with the naked eye. The Orion Nebula is an emission-type formation located below the belt of Orion.
The cloud's area is impressive because it is nearly four times the size of the full-phase moon. In the northeastern part, there is a dark dust cluster, which is cataloged as M43.
In the cloud itself there are almost seven hundred stars, which are still forming at the moment. The diffuse nature of the formation of the Orion Nebula makes the object very bright and colorful. Red zones indicate the presence of hot hydrogen, and blue indicate the presence of dust, reflecting the glow of bluish hot stars.
M42 is the place closest to Earth where stars form. Such a cradle of celestial objects is located at a distance of one and a half thousand light years from our planet and delights outside observers.
The triple nebula is located in the constellation Sagittarius and looks like three separated petals. The distance from the Earth to the cloud is difficult to calculate accurately, but scientists are guided by the parameters of two to nine thousand light years.
The uniqueness of this formation lies in the fact that it is represented by three types of nebulae at once: dark, light and emission.
M20 is the cradle for the development of young stars. Such large celestial bodies are predominantly blue in color, which was formed due to the ionization of the gas accumulated in that area. When viewed with a telescope, two bright stars directly in the center of the nebula are immediately visible.
Upon closer examination, it becomes clear that the object is as if torn into two parts by a black hole. A crossbar can then be seen above this gap, which gives the nebula the shape of three petals.
The ring, located in the constellation Lyra, is one of the most famous planetary substances. It is located at a distance of two thousand light years from our planet and is considered a fairly recognizable space cloud.
The Ring glows due to the nearby white dwarf, and its constituent gases act as remnants of the ejected consistency of the central star. The inner part of the cloud flickers greenish, which is explained by the presence of emission lines in that section. They were formed after double ionization of oxygen, which led to the formation of a similar shade.
The central star was originally a red giant, but later turned into a white dwarf. It is realistic to consider it only in powerful telescopes, because the dimensions are extremely small. Thanks to the activity of this celestial body, the Ring Nebula arose, which envelops the central source of energy in the form of a slightly elongated circle.
The ring is one of the most popular objects of observation among both scientists and ordinary space lovers. This interest is due to the excellent visibility of the cloud at any time of the year and even in city lighting conditions.
This cloud is the territory between the stars of planetary origin, which is located in the constellation Chanterelle. Dumbbell is located at a distance of about 1200 light-years from Earth and is considered a very popular object for amateur study.
Even with the help of binoculars, the formation can be easily recognized if you focus on the constellation Arrow in the northern hemisphere of the starry sky.
The shape of the M27 is very unusual and looks like a dumbbell, which is why the cloud got its name. It is sometimes referred to as a "stub" because the outline of the nebula looks like a bitten apple. Several stars can be seen through the gaseous structure of the Dumbbell, and when using a powerful telescope, you can see small "ears" in the bright part of the object.
The study of the nebula in the constellation Chanterelles has not yet been completed and suggests many discoveries in this direction.
There is a rather bold hypothesis that gas-dust nebulae are capable of affecting human consciousness. Pavel Globa believes that such formations can completely change the lives of some people. According to experts in the field of astrology, nebulae have a destructive effect on the senses and change the consciousness of the inhabitants of the Earth. Star clusters, according to this version, are able to control the duration of human existence, shortening the life cycle or making it longer. It is believed that nebulae affect people more than stars. The famous astrologers explain all this by the fact that there is a certain program for which a certain cosmic cloud is responsible. Its mechanism begins to act instantly, and a person is not able to influence this. What the nebula looks like - watch the video:
Nebulae are a magnificent phenomenon of extraterrestrial origin that needs detailed study. But it is difficult to judge the reliability of the voiced assumption about the influence of star clusters on human consciousness!