Meldonium in sports. Reasons for admission

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Meldonium in sports. Reasons for admission
Meldonium in sports. Reasons for admission

Find out the positive and negative qualities of this drug in sports and whether it is worth including it in your sports diet. Meldonium is a metabolic drug and is intended to normalize the functioning of cellular structures that have undergone oxygen starvation (hypoxia) or are not provided with sufficient nutrition. In Russia, meldonium was included in the list of important medicines. After massive scandals related to the use of meldonium as a doping, this drug became known all over the world. Today we will tell you about why athletes take meldonium.

A brief history of the creation of meldonium

Research meldonium in the laboratory

This medication was created back in the seventies on the territory of the Soviet Union, namely in Latvia. Moreover, initially it was not a drug and was used in agriculture to accelerate the growth of domestic animals and poultry. Meldonium was also actively used in the production of polyamide resins as an intermediate product.

Professor Kalvinsh, it is he who is the creator of this drug, says that the idea of ​​creating mildronate came to him in connection with the need to dispose of rocket fuel (heptyl). The substance he obtained allowed him to reduce the concentration of active substances in heptyl by one percent in two years. As a result, the rocket fuel became unsuitable for further use.

After a series of clinical trials, meldonium was found to have unique properties. After experiments with animals, scientists have proven that this drug has cardioprotective properties. In 1976, a patent for meldonium was issued in the Soviet Union, and eight years later it was also patented in the United States. However, after a couple of years in the United States, it was banned for medical use.

In 1984, clinical trials of meldonium began, and in medicine, the drug was called mildronate. It should be noted that in the USSR interest in the use of meldonium was shown not only by doctors, but also by the military. It was used quite actively in Afghanistan. When the Soviet Union disappeared from the political map of the world, serious changes took place in the patent system and in 1992 the drug was re-registered in the territory of Latvia.

Physicochemical characteristics of mildronate

Ampoules of Mildronate

Now we will share with you information that may be of interest to people who are fond of chemistry. Immediately after its creation, the drug was described as a zwitterion (dihydrate), the carboxylate group of which has a negative charge, and the hydroazinium fragment, respectively, is positive.

At a temperature of 254 degrees, the substance begins to melt. It also dissolves well in water, methanol or ethanolone. Perhaps this is where we can end the conversation about the physicochemical properties of the drug and move on to the main topic of this article - why athletes take meldonium.

Why athletes take meldonium: the main reasons

Meldonium in a syringe

To begin with, this drug has a structure similar to butyrobetaine synthesized in the body. This substance is necessary for the normal course of energy metabolism processes, and is also able to stimulate the work of the nervous system. By and large, it is here that the answer to the question of why athletes take meldonium is hidden.

First of all, this is due to the ability of the drug to increase the endurance of athletes, and it is also easier to endure the psychological stress that is inevitable during the period of participation of athletes in competitions. These are the effects of the drug, due to which it was included in the doping category:

  1. In those moments when the body is exposed to strong physical and psychological stress, the use of mildronate allows you to control the balance of incoming and outgoing oxygen. This effect is associated with the ability of the substance to speed up metabolic reactions.
  2. Under the influence of serious stress, the body quickly depletes energy reserves and with the help of Mildronate it is much easier for athletes to transfer them. This is due to the economical use of oxygen and the acceleration of the processes of restoring energy reserves.
  3. With the help of meldonium, the processes of transmission of nerve signals are accelerated, which contributes to a set of muscle mass. This drug allows you to use the capabilities of the human body with maximum efficiency and it is easier to endure psychological and physical stress. Scientists have found that this ability of meldonium is most clearly manifested during a set of muscle mass.
  4. During training, with the active expenditure of energy in the cellular structures, the concentration of fatty acids decreases. When using meldonium, cells quickly adapt to new conditions, and this allows them to survive.
  5. Meldonia has the ability to prepare the cellular structures of the nervous system for the upcoming psychological stress caused by participating in competitions. At the same time, the athlete gets the opportunity to keep his mind bright and maintains the best physical shape.
  6. With the help of the drug, you can significantly increase the efficiency, which makes its use extremely effective in many areas of human life.
  7. By optimizing glucose consumption, meldonium allows you to eliminate interruptions in the supply of energy to the brain and cardiac muscle, even with a low concentration of sugar in the bloodstream.

As we have already said, mildronate is a strong stimulant for the human body and is able to improve thinking and memory, increase dexterity, and increase resistance to negative environmental influences. This is what can be considered the answer to the question why athletes take meldonium. In situations where it is not possible to provide the body with sufficient oxygen, cellular structures can survive only through the competent use of their own resources.

The use of mildronate in medicine

Mildronate capsules and a glass of water

We just found out why athletes take meldonium. Let's talk about the use of this drug in medicine. It should be said right away that medical professionals use this drug for various types of therapy. If there is a need for complex therapy in the treatment of various diseases of the heart muscle, then meldonium is used intravenously or in the form of tablets.

In addition, the injectable drug is actively used for violations of blood flow in the brain. It is possible to use meldonium for a special type of therapy for alcoholism. To speed up the recovery processes after surgery, with a sharp drop in performance or during a period of severe physical stress, mildronate can also be very effective.

The drug has also found active use in violation of the circulatory process in the organs of vision and various types of ethology. To solve these problems, parabulbar administration of mildronate is used. It should be noted that at present there is no evidence of the possibility of safe and effective use of this drug in the treatment of people under 18 years of age.

It must also be said that there is no urgent need to use the drug for the treatment of unstable angina pectoris or acute heart attack. If a violation of the venous outflow of blood was diagnosed, as well as an increase in intracranial blood pressure, then meldonium is completely contraindicated.Among other contraindications, we note the period of lactation and pregnancy, as well as the increased sensitivity of the body to the active ingredients of the medication.

How to properly use Mildronate for athletes?

Maria Sharapova

Knowing why athletes take meldonium, the rules for using the drug should also be clarified. The dosages used by athletes are different from those taken in medicine. To obtain the maximum result from meldonium, athletes need to use it twice a day at a one-time dosage of 500-1000 milligrams.

As we have already noted, the drug has stimulating properties and therefore it is advisable to take it only in the first half of the day. The duration of the Mildronate course during participation in the competition is from 10 to 14 days. During the preparatory phase, the cycle length can be extended to three weeks.

In addition, it should be remembered that when used intravenously, it is not advisable to exceed a one-time dosage of 500 milligrams. For many athletes, the issue of utilization of meldonium metabolites is also relevant. It takes six hours to completely remove the drug.

Analysis of the sports scandal due to meldonium

Doping control

Since the beginning of 2016, this drug has been included in the list of prohibited ones, and if traces of its use are found during the competition, the athlete may be disqualified for four years. Surely you all remember the scandal that happened in 2016. About six dozen athletes were convicted of using mildronate.

If representatives of the anti-doping organization and the IOC are sure that the drug is doping, then athletes and specialists are sure of the opposite. A similar point of view is shared by the creator of meldonium, who claims that his brainchild cannot be considered a prohibited drug. If the positive properties of mildronate for the work of the cardiovascular system have been proven, then this cannot be said in relation to increasing the physical capabilities of the human body. As a matter of fact, such studies were not carried out at all and it is not entirely clear, therefore, meldonium was recognized as doping.

For more on Meldonium (Mildronate) and the doping scandal, see the following video:

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