The design of traditional wells with manual lifting of water, their advantages and disadvantages, ways to strengthen the mine. Technology of construction of a crust. A well is a hydraulic structure for the extraction of groundwater. It is a vertical wide shaft from the surface to the underground aquifer. In the article we will tell you how to make a well with your own hands, taking into account all the nuances.
Construction and materials for the construction of a well
The well is built if there is no other source of water on the site. It consists of the following parts:
- Head - the upper part of the structure, designed to protect against pollution, freezing in winter, and also as a decoration. It is built from wood, stone, brick or concrete. A gate with a chain, a cover over the shaft, a canopy (roof) are installed on the head.
- Trunk - underground part of the well.
- Water intake - the lower part of the mine, which is equipped with a sand and gravel filter and where clean water is collected.
The following materials are used to strengthen the walls and prevent the ingress of dirt:
- Concrete rings… This option is considered the simplest and safest and is most often used when building on sandy soils. The rings, which are installed as the pit deepens, protect the master from collapse of the walls. With their help, you can dig a hole up to 20 m deep.
- Mine with a timber frame… Used in rectangular structures. For construction, logs with a diameter of 12-18 cm, having a high density, are suitable - larch, oak. The cuts are stacked on top of each other and pressed in with blows.
- Monolithic concrete… In the pit, the formwork is assembled and poured with concrete. After the mortar has solidified, the temporary elements are removed, and the gaps between the new wall and the ground are filled with a mixture of sand and gravel.
- Concrete slabs… Installed in a rectangular shaft. They are interconnected with cement mortar. In the corners, fittings are installed, which are welded in place.
- Brick… For work, red fired brick is used. The masonry is made round. A brick is lined with a well shaft up to 3 m deep. The process is very complex and laborious.
- Natural stone… For work, you can use shale, sandstone, limestone. The elements are fastened together with cement mortar. The narrow parts of the stone are directed towards the center of the shaft, which reduces the likelihood of them being squeezed out.
A traditional well is dug up to the uppermost aquifer in which the groundwater is located. It is always clean, cold and drinkable (if the chemical composition permits). Often the useful layer comes to the surface, then springs appear in these places.
It is necessary to distinguish between groundwater and upper water, which is located very close to the surface. This layer consists of poorly treated atmospheric precipitation, moreover, very small. This liquid cannot be used for drinking, only for watering.
Construction work is carried out in autumn or winter, when the groundwater level is minimal. If they are performed in the spring, then in the summer the krynitsa may turn out to be dry.
The size of the well depends on the depth of the useful layer and rarely exceeds 15 m. Traditional shafts have a large enough cross-section for comfortable shoveling. The construction process is laborious and unhurried; it may take 3-4 days to reach the desired level.
Advantages and disadvantages of wells
Traditional krinitsy have a simple design that has not changed over the centuries.
The main advantages of the structures:
- Simplicity of technology - the work can be done independently, without the involvement of professionals.
- The cost of work is minimal. Low costs are explained by the ability to do everything manually, without the use of expensive equipment.
- The service life of the well is unlimited and depends only on the volume of the aquifer.
- The large section of the shaft makes it easy to carry out maintenance work, such as cleaning.
- Krynitsy are indispensable in areas without running water and in areas where power outages are frequent.
Unfortunately, the design has a lot of flaws. Before making a well at home, the owner must take into account the following points:
- Slow water level recovery - 1-2 m3 in hour. This amount is enough to maintain the cottage, but it will not be enough for watering, filling the pool and other purposes.
- There is a danger of water siltation, so it needs to be cleaned every 3-4 years. In addition, it is necessary to periodically wash the walls of the shaft.
- Water quality cannot be predicted in advance.
- Dirt can enter the mine.
- Impossibility to hit a high-performance vein the first time.
Well construction technology
Regardless of the structure of the well, you will need a tripod, a chain and a block with which the soil rises to the surface. The work is carried out in several stages, which we will now study in detail.
Before making a well, find out the depth of the aquifer and the composition of the soil above it. To do this, it is enough to talk to the neighbors who dug the krynitsa before you. If there is nothing like this nearby, you will have to make an exploratory well. This option is costly, but the information obtained will be the most accurate.
The most successful option is considered to be sandy or clayey soil. But if there are many large stones in the ground, the well is unlikely to be dug. On sandy soil, there is a danger of the trunk collapsing, so it is necessary to think over a way to strengthen it. Digging a hole in the clay is difficult, but you can do without reinforcing structures. In any case, it is better to play it safe and take care of the reliability of the structure.
On the site, a well is built at a distance of at least 30 m from toilets, sheds with animals, manure storage sites and other similar sources of soil pollution. Banks of rivers, ravines, gullies, which are capable of draining underground waters, are considered unsuccessful for work.
If there are animals on the site that need to be watered often, install a well halfway between the residential building and the barn.
In the absence of unfavorable moments, dig it near the house, but no closer than 5 m, so as not to damage the foundation.
If the site has an autonomous sewage system without a bottom, it must be redone and plastic containers for sewage installed. Otherwise, domestic wastewater will necessarily sink to the aquifer, as a result, the water will become tasteless, smelly and simply dangerous.
Do not dig a well near neighbors that may cause drains. Place it on a high ground where they cannot reach.
Mine with concrete rings
A well made of concrete rings is the most popular option. In our case, its diameter should be equal to the diameter of the blanks. Usually, elements with an inner diameter of 1-1.5 m, a height of 0.25 and a wall thickness of at least 50 mm are used. If the ring is smaller, it is inconvenient to work in it.
Large workpieces are heavy, so stacking will require a crane and additional costs. Before starting construction, make a drawing of the well, on which show the dimensions of the main parts. Below is the sequence of works when arranging this type of krynitsa:
- Mark the pit. Its diameter should be 10 cm larger than the outer diameter of the rings.
- Dig a pit to a depth of 0.5-0.8 m, depending on the height of the concrete elements.
- Install the first ring in it and check its protrusion above the surface. The ideal option is when, after installation, it rises 10-15 cm above the ground.
- Check the verticality of the element with a plumb line.
- Remove the soil from the inside of the ring to a depth of 80 cm. If you are digging a hole in soft ground, start removing it from the center. In this case, the structure will submerge on its own, squeezing the earth into the middle. If the mine is digging in clay, start digging along the perimeter of the shaft, under the ring, towards the center.
- After lowering the rings from above, install new ones. To seal the joints between concrete elements, lay tarred hemp rope.
- Connect the workpieces together with staples, three for each joint. Before installing the next ring, check the verticality of the shaft using a plumb line.
- The process stops when the aquifer is reached.
For work, you need decks of different types of trees. Make the lower part of alder, willow or birch. They can improve the quality of drinking water. Oak and pine logs will give the moisture a bitter taste, so they are used to build the top of the trunk.
The underwater part of the mine has not deteriorated for more than 50 years due to the small percentage of oxygen in the liquid. The upper part breaks down faster, so it will have to be updated periodically.
A wooden well is built as follows:
- Assemble the lower part of the shaft from 5-7 crowns on the surface. The number of rows depends on the weight of the structure: the heavier it is, the more difficult it is to lower it into the pit. Connect the logs together with staples. Sew up the log house with boards.
- Draw the outline of the well on the ground. It should be 10-15 cm larger than the outer dimensions of the wooden structure.
- Dig a hole 1.5-2 m deep.
- Install the prepared log house into it. Check the horizontalness of the upper logs. Dig in and lower one or both sides if necessary.
- Select the soil inside the structure, starting from the middle, with the logs resting on the ground at the corners.
- Dig in the ground at the corners and the logs will descend on their own. Check the top surface is horizontal.
- Assemble the next piece of wood on the surface.
- Install a new part of the log house in the well and fix it to the bottom.
- Continue operations until you reach the aquifer.
- Form the bottom filter as in the previous section.
Approaching the aquifer can be determined in advance by the decrease in air temperature and the appearance of mini fontanelles. Get a good rest before the last stage, because you will have to work hard without rest with wet ground. The sequence of work when arranging the filter:
- After moistening the bottom, stop working for 12 hours so that there is enough water in the barrel.
- Pump out all the liquid and go deeper another 10-15 cm.
- Remove wet soil and dirt until powerful springs appear. The work will be facilitated by a mud pump.
- Postpone work for a day.
- Measure the height of the water column. It is not necessary to achieve great depth, 1.5 m is enough.
- Pump out the liquid again and flatten the exposed bottom.
- Pour clean coarse sand with a layer of 20-25 cm. Marine is not suitable, only river is needed.
- Add fine gravel (15-20 cm) and coarse gravel (15-20 cm) on top. Before backfilling, first rinse the pebbles in a solution of bleach, which rinse off with clean water.
After the construction of the well, water can not be drunk immediately. It will be cloudy for another 2 weeks, but it is quite suitable for watering and washing. When the liquid has cleared, take the samples to the laboratory to study the composition. Only after receiving a positive result can it be used for its intended purpose. The procedure is optional if the neighbors have been operating the krynitsa for a long time.
Construction of the aboveground part
It is undesirable for precipitation to flow into the mines. To avoid contamination around them, make a clay castle at the top. To do this, dig a trench 1 m deep around the perimeter of the trunk. Wrap the exposed outer side of the structure with plastic wrap.Seal the junction of the canvas in any way. Fill the hole with clay and tamp it thoroughly. Pour a bump with a slope on top and make a concrete blind area to drain moisture from the trunk.
In the scheme of the well, there is always a head - the above-ground part, which rises above the surface by 0, 6-0, 8 m. For these purposes, you can use the same rings from which the mine is made. Concrete products do not look very attractive, so a wooden frame is erected around them. Its height should ensure the ease of operation of the well, usually it is 0.8 m.
The head is covered with a roof with large overhangs to prevent debris from entering the mine. It is supported on two racks with a section of 100x100 mm. The canopy is made of edged boards with a thickness of at least 25 cm, which are stacked in 2 rows. The top layer is intended for bridging the gaps in the bottom row, as well as for decoration. The lining is not used to cover the roof, it is afraid of water and swells after rain. If the option with boards is not suitable for any reason, use metal tiles or shinglas.
Braces are an important element in the roof structure. After a while, the fastening of the braces can lead, which will lead to a distortion of the canopy. In this case, it is necessary to set the canopy to its original state and secure it with new fasteners.
The well should be closed with a lid to ensure the safety of children and pets.
One way to raise water to the surface is by using a gate. It is made from a log of at least 200 mm in diameter. For a well with a diameter of 1 m, its length should be at least 1.2 m. The gate can be made from a bar with a section of 200x200 mm.
To do this, the corners of the beam are cut with a plane. To fix the log above the shaft, drill holes 10-12 cm deep at the ends of the log. Press the axle and the handle into them. Order metal parts from the workshop, as they are not sold ready-made.
Install the gate in specially prepared places on the roof pillars of the head. To center it in the center of the shaft, use the washers that fit over the axle and the handle of the crank. Attach the bucket chain to the collar.
Safety precautions during the construction of a well
The construction of a krynitsa is a dangerous job, therefore, in order not to endanger the life of the worker, adhere to the following rules:
- It is only necessary to work in a protective helmet.
- All lifting equipment used in work must be checked for strength. It is recommended to check the ropes every day.
- Create a free area around the mine within a radius of 2-3 m.
- When lowering the master to a depth of more than 6 m, use a safety file.
- Fence the neck of the trunk with boards installed on the edge.
- When using technical means for lifting and lowering, make sure that they are equipped with a self-locking mechanism.
- When digging, always check that the rope is properly secured to the bucket.
- Before lowering anything into the pit, be sure to notify the worker about it.
- The well is cold and damp, so get to the surface during a break.
When working at great depths, check the gas contamination of the barrel. Use a lighted candle to check. If it goes out, immediately rise to the surface. You can ventilate the well as follows: tie a blanket to a rope and raise and lower it in the trunk several times. If the procedure does not help, use powerful ventilators.
How to make a well - watch the video:
Providing a suburban area with drinking water is the main task of the owner. The presence of a fresh water source guarantees a comfortable stay in the country. Everyone can make a well with their own hands, you just need to know and follow the safety rules.