General description of the dog, possible versions of the appearance of the Bichon Frize and distribution, application and popularization, development of the variety, recognition of the breed and the position of the animal in the modern world. Bichon Frize or Bichon Frize is a small dog about 5-10 kg. Her slightly rounded head is decorated with a small muzzle, and a black nose and dark round eyes create a doll-like look. A well-groomed long and curly tail is carried over to the back. The white coat is composed of curly, dense hair. A small amount of a creamy or apricot tone can be found around the ears, muzzle, feet or body, but usually no more than 10%. The "coat" is often trimmed to make the hair appear straight.
Possible versions of the origin of the Bichon Frize
There are very few breeds in the world whose origin is disputed, including the bichon frize. There are two generally accepted breeding theories for this variety and a third less common version that is probably more plausible. All amateurs agree that the species were first bred in their modern form in the 1500s in France, and initially played the role of a popular companion of the French nobility.
The Bichon Frize is a member of a group of companion dogs known as "bichons", whose name probably derives from an archaic French word for a small white dog or a small doggie for ladies. As the name implies, these dogs are known primarily for their small size, white color and fluffy coat. The Bichon family includes, in addition to the bichon frize in question, bolognese (bolognese), havanese (havanese), coton de tulear (coton de tulear), several breeds of the Russian lapdog, now extinct bichon tenerife, and most experts put there lowchen and maltese.
Along with the Italian Greyhound, the Bichons were probably the very first group of European companion dogs. Historical documentation for maltese dates back to at least 2500 years. They were very well known to both the ancient Greeks and the Romans of those times, who named the breed "melitaei catelli" or "canis melitaeus". These early canines are most likely originally descended from the small Swiss Spitz or the long-haired primitive Mediterranean sighthound.
Maltese spread across the Mediterranean thanks to the Greeks, Romans and, quite possibly, the Phoenicians. Although there is no definitive historical record, this species is almost certainly a direct ancestor of the Bolognese and Bichon Tenerife (a close relative of the Bichon Frize), although it is also possible that these breeds were developed by crossing the maltese with the poodle, barbet or lagoto -romagnolo (lagotto romagnolo).
The most common hypothesis for the development of the bichon frize is that the dog was bred from the bichon tenerife. These now extinct predecessors were natives of the Canary Islands, a territory of Spain located off the Moroccan coast. Spanish traders imported the breed to French lands in the early 1500s. The variety quickly became popular with the local nobility, who called it either Bichon or Tenerife.
Many argue that these canines are the ancestors of the modern bichon frize. There is historical documentation indicating that the bichon tenerife was introduced to France before the 20th century, and the bichon frize was often called tenerife. However, dogs of this type have been known in French territory for several centuries, long before Europeans knew about Bichon Tenerife.
In addition, the havanese, the only confirmed direct descendant of this species, bears significantly less resemblance to them than to the bolognese. If bichon frize comes from bichon tenerife, then it almost certainly overlaps with other canines.
The second most common view of the origin of this breed is that it was developed from very small poodles and / or barbets. Both poodle and barbet are some of the oldest European varieties, and both were extremely popular in France at the time the Bichon Frize was being bred. It also suggests that both of these dogs were approved by the French nobility, whose treasure later became the bichon frize.
However, these canines are historically much more closely related to other members of their group than the poodle or barbet, and in fact are more like Bichons. It is very likely that the Bichon Frize has some of the bloods of poodle and barbet, but it was most likely crossed with other bichon.
Although rarely postulated, there is a third potential lineage for bichon frize that is largely true and perhaps the most likely. Since time immemorial, small white companion dogs have been in great demand among the upper classes of northern Italy. The Maltese were well known in the region during Greek and Roman times, and their descendants are believed to have been present there ever since. Beginning in the 1200s, the Bolognese (as these dogs came to be called then) were extremely popular. This is evidenced by their "traces" in the art and written annals of the Italian Renaissance.
Numerous Italian noble and wealthy families who traded and had contacts throughout Europe often presented their dogs as gifts to the upper nobility of other European countries. These pets have become highly valued in Spain and Russia. Many of these are known to have been imported into France, possibly as early as the 1100s.
The history of the spread of the Bichon Frize and its application
According to many researchers, modern bichon frize almost certainly originated from bolognese in the first place. He resembles him more than any other breed, and in turn vice versa. Both dogs are native to neighboring countries and there are numerous records detailing their prominence. Perhaps most convincingly, this variety first became popular during the reign of King Francic I, a renowned admirer and patron of the Italian Renaissance arts.
It may also be that the Bichon Frize was bred by the intersection of several varieties. Dogs weren't as clean back then as they are today, and any little fluffy white dogs would probably have been bred together. While the full truth will likely never be known, the modern descendants of bichon frize may have developed by mixing bolognese, maltese, bichon tenerife, poodles, barbet and possibly lagotto romagnolo.
However, the Bichon Frize was bred and gained its fame in France in the 1500s. The breed first became popular during the reign of Monarch Francic I (1515-1547). The species reached the peak of its acceptance among the French nobility during the reign of Henry III (1574-1589). Chronicles testify that this king loved his bichon frize pets so much that he carried them with him in a basket decorated with ribbons wherever he went.
Other nobles began to imitate the king and the French verb "bichoner", which can be translated as "to make beautiful" or "pamper". The Bichon type of canines was very often depicted on canvases by famous masters, although many of them were actually Bolognese. After the reign of Henry III, the Bichon Frize "did not go to great favorites" among the European nobility, but still remained quite popular.
A significant number of bichon frise were exported to Russia, where they were crossed with bolognese to develop several smaller species known as the lapdog. The popularity of the Bichon Frize rose again during the reign of Emperor Napoleon III (1808-1873). It was during this period that his position as a popular pet of the French nobility greatly increased. It was fashionable to bring these tiny dogs aboard ships to entertain and communicate with the crew on long voyages. Many of these dogs were exported to Madagascar, where they became extremely popular and eventually gave rise to the life of a new breed - the coton de tulear (coton de tulear).
Popularization of the Bichon Frize breed
After the reign of Napoleon Bonaparte III came to an end, the bichon frise again became disliked by the French aristocracy. But, by that time, the variety had acquired a very large number of amateurs, among the less noble segments of the population. The French economy had advanced to the point where most people could afford to keep a little companion dog, and the Bichon Frize was arguably the most popular choice of all.
The highly intelligent and highly trained breed has become a favorite of French entertainers and trainers, and is regularly seen alongside street performers, organ grinders and in circuses. The Bichon Frize was also arguably the world's first dog on display, and was used by the physically disabled French to drive them around the city and for visual impact. Since the Bichon Frize was by that time mainly kept by commoners, it was not initially popular at dog shows in France and was not standardized at the same time with other varieties of this country.
In the years after World War I, Belgian comic book creator Gerge began publishing comics for Tintin's book. In them, the protagonist was often accompanied by his little white dog named "Milo". Although she was not a bichon frize representative, she increased her focus on the breed throughout France.
The development of the Bichon Frize and its name
Breeders and hobbyists of this species have come together to standardize this canine species and start keeping records of their breeding. In 1933, the first written standard was published by Mrs. Abadi, an employee of the Steren Vor Kennels. These criteria were adopted by the French Kennel Club the following year.
Since the breed was known by two names, "bichon" and "tenerife", the president of the International Federation of Cynology (FCI), Madame Nizet de Lema, as the official name of the FCI, proposed a new name "bichon poil frize", which is loosely interpreted as "little white a dog with a fluffy coat. " During this time, Madame Abadi and three other breeders have had the greatest influence on the continued development of the variety.
Rumor has it that the first Bichon Frize arrived in the United States, with returning soldiers who fought in World War I. However, these dogs were not bred, and it is unclear how many and how they were actually introduced to America. The breed was not developed in the Western Hemisphere until 1956, when Mr and Mrs Pica left for Milwaukee with their six Bichon Frize.
Their pets gave birth to the first American litter, Bichon Frize, shortly after moving to the United States. In 1959 and 1960, Azalea Gascoigne from Milwaukee and Gertrude Fournier from San Diego also brought these dogs with them to America and began breeding them. In 1964, these four fans teamed up to form the Bichon Frize Club of America (BFCA).
The American Bichon Frize Club has worked hard to increase the number of the breed in the United States and to encourage other breeders to join their efforts. The small and charming bichon frize proved to be the perfect choice for the overly urbanized population of the United States, and the population quickly began to grow.
Confession of the dog Bichon Frize
The goal of the BFCA has always been to get the full recognition of its "charges" from the American Kennel Club (AKC). In 1971, AKC added the variety to the Miscellaneous category, which served as the first step towards full success.
Although most canine species spend many years in the "miscellaneous class", the BFCA and its bichon frize impressed the AKC so quickly that they were officially recognized in 1972. In 1975, the Bichon Frize Club of America hosted the first national show for its territorial varieties. In 1981, the United Kennel Club (UKC) also fully accepted these representatives.
From the 1960s to the 1990s, the demand for bichon frize grew rapidly in the United States. During this time, they became one of the most popular and trendy little companion dogs in America. By the late 1990s, this breed was one of the twenty-five most popular species in terms of AKC registration. However, this attention did not pass without a trace, and the pets paid with interest for their fame.
The position of the Bichon Frize dogs in the modern world
Many inexperienced bichon frize breeders bred dogs that were of inferior quality, considering themselves experienced breeders. Worse, the small size, low exercise requirements, and high monetary value of the purebred species have made them one of the most popular breeds among commercial dog breeders who put on stream a production called the puppy mill. These breeders only care about the potential profit they can get, not the quality of their animals.
Many canines exhibit abnormal and unpredictable temperaments, poor health, and very low compliance with official standards due to such "operations". As a result, the overall quality of the Bichon Frize suffered greatly, although many respected breeders continued to produce outstanding animals. Most of these "mill puppies" proved to be difficult for owners, and they were mostly sent to animal shelters.
The popularity of bichon frize began to decline significantly around the turn of the millennium. This was in part due to the damage they suffered as a result of their popularity. However, most likely, this situation is associated with the fact that the demand for small varieties is cyclical. Except for the Poodle, Yorkshire Terrier, Chihuahua, and possibly a Shih Tzu. Most companion breeds experience very large swings in popularity in the United States as trends and fashions change.
Over the past decade, a new group of canines, such as the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, the Gavaniese and the French Bulldog, have seen significant increases in demand and likely reduced demand for the Bichon Frize. Nevertheless, representatives of the species remain very popular in America, and in 2011 they took thirty-ninth place out of a complete list of one hundred and thirty-seven breeds in terms of registration with the AKC.
The Bichon Frize has been primarily bred as a companion dog throughout its history, and the vast majority of its members are companion animals. Historically, this breed has also been widely used in the entertainment industry, and many of these dogs still work in circus arenas, with street performers, and on big and small screens. In recent years, the Bichon Frize has also shown its high level in a number of canine competitions such as competitive obedience and agility. It is also very popular as a therapy and service animal for the disabled.
More about the Bichon Frize breed and its origin, see below: