Abronia: planting and care outdoors and indoors

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Abronia: planting and care outdoors and indoors
Abronia: planting and care outdoors and indoors
Anonim

Characteristics of the abronia plant, agrotechnology of planting and care in the garden and indoors, advice on reproduction, difficulties in growing a flower, interesting notes, types.

Abronia belongs to the genus of representatives of the flora included in the Nyctaginaceae family. And although in nature there is a lizard under this name in the subtropical regions of the North American region, you can find about three dozen plant species with the same name. Natural areas of distribution stretch from the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, through Canada to the southernmost regions in western Texas, capturing California and central Mexico. Sandy and dry substrates are preferred.

Family name Niktaginovye
Growing period Perennial, but mostly only one season lives
Vegetation form Herbaceous or semi-shrub
Breeds By seeds, as well as by growing seedlings
Open ground transplant terms Throughout May-June
Landing rules Distance between seedlings 15-20 cm
Priming Light, loose, well-drained, sandy, with drainage
Soil acidity values, pH 6, 5-7 (neutral) or slightly more than 7 (slightly alkaline)
Illumination level Well lit by the sun
Humidity level Elevated
Special care rules Fertilization and high-quality watering are required
Height options Up to 0.2 m
Flowering period June to July
Type of inflorescences or flowers Capitate semi-umbellate inflorescences
Color of flowers Lilac, blue, cyan, pink, purple, yellow, reddish and white
Fruit type Single seed nut
The timing of fruit ripening October
Decorative period Summer
Application in landscape design In flower beds, rock gardens, rockeries, in group plantings in flower beds, for cutting
USDA zone 5 and higher

This plant got its name from the word in Greek "abros", which translates as "cheerful" or "joyful" or "graceful". The first description of abronia was given by the French botanist Antoine Laurent de Jussier (1748-1836) in his work "Genera Plantarum", published in 1789. But as a culture, they began to grow this flower with the advent of the 19th century. The people, because of the shape of the inflorescences, it is often called "sandy verbena".

Abronia is a herbaceous or semi-shrub perennial, but generally many members of the genus grow as annuals. The height of the stems to which this plant can stretch is only 20 cm, but some specimens are capable of reaching 0.35–0.5 cm. But accurate measurement of these parameters is quite problematic due to the fact that the shoots tend to creep along the soil surface or they grow creeping. The stems have a reddish tint and forked branching. Often their surface is sticky to the touch due to the fact that it is covered with glandular pubescence of short hairs.

The leaf plates of abronia are arranged on the stems in an opposite order. The shape of the leaves is solid, they are fleshy. Also, like the stems, their surface is covered with a sticky pubescence of glandular hairs. The leaf petioles are elongated with a reddish tint. The outlines of the foliage are rounded-ovate, sometimes oval or lanceolate with an uneven, wavy edge. The leaf gradually tapers into a petiole. The color of the deciduous mass can be green, dark emerald, or grayish green.

Abronia is characterized by the formation of bisexual small flowers.When blooming, which occurs from June to July, a fragrant aroma spreads around. Inflorescences growing from leaf sinuses are crowned with flower-bearing stems with a leafless surface. Located at the ends of the peduncle, the inflorescences rise above the entire plant. Since the shape of the inflorescence is somewhat similar to the flowers of verbena, you can hear the popular nickname "sandy verbena". The diameter of the inflorescence in some species (for example, the umbellate abronia) can measure 10 cm. The flowers collect dense, capitate inflorescences with a semi-umbilical shape, they are surrounded by a panicle and not too clearly distinguishable wrapper.

The calyx has a corolla-like shape, the tube is elongated, narrowed in the form of a cylinder or with a slight expansion towards the apex. In the calyx of abronia, there are 4–5 lobes, which grow open, with a slight limb. There is no corolla in flowers. There are five stamens inside the calyx. The color of the flowers can take on shades of lilac, blue, blue and pinkish, purple, yellow and reddish, as well as white. In this case, the inner part of the tube is lighter in color.

After the flowers of the "sandy verbena" are pollinated, fruits, which are one-seeded nuts, begin to set. The fruit grows enclosed in the base of the calyx, which remains on them. Fruiting occurs in abronia in mid-autumn. The fruits themselves are winged or not, usually fusiform or shell-shaped, rhombic in profile, cordate or single-fruited. Wings 2–5, opaque, with thin veins, not extending beyond the top or base of the nut, or slightly widening. Mature to near-ripe fruits are usually required for identification of Abronia species due to differences in vegetative structures in each taxon. Abronia appears to be in a state of active evolution. Cross-pollination easily occurs in the greenhouse, producing many hybrids. Hybridization sometimes occurs in vivo.

The plant is unpretentious to care for and can, when fulfilling simple requirements, become an adornment of any flower garden or garden of stones.

Agrotechnology of planting and caring for abronia in open ground and indoors

Abronia blooms
  1. Landing place "Sandy verbena" is recommended to select an open one so that it is illuminated by the sun from all sides, but at the same time, due to the heat-loving nature of the plant, protection from drafts is necessary. It will also be a mistake to plant abronia where moisture from the spring melting of snow or rains can stagnate. In waterlogged soil, rot develops rather quickly.
  2. Priming for abronia, a light, preferably sandy, is selected. Acidity values ​​should be neutral (pH 6, 5-7) or slightly alkaline (pH slightly above 7). If the soil on the site does not meet these requirements, then to loosen it, it is mixed with coarse-grained river sand and a little nitrogen fertilizer is added so that the plant grows deciduous mass. However, as practice shows, this representative of the flora can put up with any kind of substrate, but on the lung, its growth and flowering will be the best.
  3. Landing abronia it is performed not earlier than the end of May, when return frosts will not be able to destroy tender seedlings. So the planting hole is dug up and a layer of drainage material is laid on its bottom. They can serve as small expanded clay or pebbles. After the seedling is installed in the hole, it is filled with prepared soil mixture and watering is carried out.
  4. Watering when caring for abronia in the open field in the warm season, it is recommended to be moderate, but it is especially worth paying attention to if the weather is hot and dry, but it is important not to bring the soil to waterlogging.
  5. Fertilizers for abronia it is recommended to use both mineral (for example, such complete mineral complexes like "Kemira-Universal"), and organic (well-rotted manure is suitable). You need to start feeding before flowering.
  6. Pruning when caring for abronia, it will have to be done often, since the shoots of the plant tend to grow rapidly, capturing nearby lying territories. This operation is performed throughout the summer months.
  7. Room care. It is also possible to grow "sandy verbena" indoors. Then the planting is performed in a small container, in the bottom of which holes are made for the outflow of excess moisture from irrigation. Then drainage is placed in the pot, which will serve as protection against waterlogging of the soil and will not allow the roots to rot. The soil can be used the same as when planting in the garden. A couple of seeds or several seedlings are placed in one container. When growing abronia at home, a sunny place is selected (southeast or southwest location, you can south, but provide light curtains for shading at midday). When summer comes, pots with plants can be put out in the garden or on the balcony, then you can enjoy flowering throughout the summer. When the cold days of autumn come, the containers with "sandy verbena" must be brought into the room. It is recommended to reduce watering during this period. When grown indoors, abronia should be kept at a temperature within the range of 25-30 degrees. If these indicators increase even a little, then this will immediately affect the decorativeness of the "sandy verbena". The humidity needs to be high. To do this, you can put a vessel with water or air humidifiers nearby. But it is not recommended to spray the plant because of the glandular pubescence of leaves and stems.
  8. The use of abronia in landscape design. This flowering bush will organically look in group plantings on flower beds and flower beds. You can plant "sandy verbena" among the stones in rock gardens and rockeries. With the help of such plants, it is possible to form flower patterns, decorating the corners of the garden. Abronia is used to create borders, and when grown in a pot, it is used as an ampelous culture due to creeping shoots.

Read also about the features of caring for pyzonia at home.

Abronia breeding tips

Abrone in the ground

In order to grow "sandy verbena" bushes on its site, the seed propagation method is used.

If the region where it is planned to cultivate abronia is southern, then you can immediately sow seed in open ground during April-May. But it is usually recommended to grow seedlings. To do this, with the arrival of March, it is necessary to place seeds in seedling boxes filled with a loose and nutritious substrate (for example, peat-sandy). They are spread over the surface of the soil and sprinkled with a thin layer of the same soil. After that, the crops are sprayed with warm water from a spray bottle and greenhouse conditions are provided.

That is, the place in which the germination of abronia seeds will be carried out should differ in room heat indicators (approximate temperature 18-23 degrees), and it is also recommended to create high humidity. To do this, you can put the seedling box on the sill of the south window, providing diffused lighting so that the sun's rays do not burn young shoots. A piece of glass is placed on top of the seedling container or wrapped in a transparent plastic wrap. During germination, it will be necessary to periodically ventilate to remove condensate collected on the shelter and spray the soil if it begins to dry out.

The shelter can be removed when seedlings appear. When the seedlings of abronia grow up enough, then pick it up in separate cups with the same soil as for germination. It is better if containers made of pressed peat are used, which will allow later to carry out a transplant faster, since such pots can be stasis placed in the planting holes without removing the seedling from them. When the threat of return frosts has passed (and this is approximately the period of late May or early summer), it is possible to plant "sandy verbena" plants in a prepared place in the garden.

Some gardeners practice sowing abronia seeds before winter, but then flowering can come much later than those of those plants that were grown in greenhouse conditions. But if we compare those plantings that were carried out in the spring in open ground, then here the flowering will be earlier and much more magnificent.

Difficulties in growing abronia outdoors

Abronia grows

When caring for the "sandy verbena" problems arise due to the fact that the plant does not have enough light, that is, the planting was carried out in a place where the bush was not illuminated by the sun's rays throughout the day. Then the stems become thinner and very elongated, the color of the leaves turns pale, and flowering is poor or does not begin at all. In this case, an urgent transplant is recommended.

Also, do not plant abronia in places where moisture stagnation may occur due to precipitation or spring thaw. This threatens with rot that affects the root system of the bushes. In this case, like the previous one, it is necessary to change the growing location.

The greatest harm to abronia is caused by aphids. This pest is represented by small green and black beetles that feed on the plant's cellular juices. Then the foliage turns yellow and flies around. The problem is aggravated by the fact that a sticky, sugary bloom called paddy appears on parts of the bush - a product of the vital activity of insects, which subsequently provokes such a disease as a sooty fungus. Also, aphids act as a carrier of viral diseases, for which there is no cure for today. To prevent these troubles, if such pests are found on the bushes, the abronia should be treated immediately with insecticidal preparations like Aktara, Karbofos or Aktellik.

It is recommended to repeat the treatment after ten days in order to completely remove the "sandy verbena" harmful insects that will hatch from the eggs laid.

Read also about methods of combating diseases and pests when growing mirabilis

Interesting notes about abronia

Abronia bloom

The original "sandy verbena" was described in 1793 by the French botanist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829). Abronia umbellata was collected in 1786 from Monterey, California by the gardener Jean Nicolas Colignon of the French expedition La Perouse, who stopped in the capital of Alta California as part of a scientific exploration journey spanning the Pacific Ocean. While Collinon and his shipmates were killed in a wreck near Vanikoro in the Solomon Islands, part of his collection had previously been shipped back to France during a stopover in Portuguese-held Macau, including seeds of the specified species. They were planted in the Paris Plant Garden, and Lamarck eventually named the resulting flora Abronia umbellata, making the species the first Californian flower not found outside western North America to be described in the scientific manner of Linnaeus.

Types of abronia

In the photo, Abronia umbrella

Umbellate abronia (Abronia umbellata)

is the most popular variety among gardeners. The natural habitat of growth falls on the lands of the coastal regions of California. Perennial, not exceeding 0.2 m in height, however, the length of the creeping shoots can reach half a meter. Usually grown in our latitudes as an annual crop. Leaves: petiole 1–6 cm; the shape is ovoid, elliptical or rhombic. The size of the leaves is 1, 5–6, 8 x 0, 8–4, 7 cm. The edge of the leaf plate is full and wavy, the surfaces are glandular-pubescent to glandular-villous, usually because of this, the color is gray.

During the flowering period (approximately in June-July), small bisexual flowers are formed in the umbellate abronia, in which the petals are spliced ​​into a tube of yellowish-green color, but the color of the petals themselves is pink. When flowering, a fragrant aroma is heard. From the flowers, inflorescences are collected in the form of umbrellas, reaching 10-12 cm in diameter.In their appearance, the flowers are similar to verbena inflorescences, therefore the people call the plant "sandy verbena".

It often happens that flowering stretches until the frost itself. The fruits are single-seeded nuts. At the same time, the seeds filling them are small, so in 1 gram their number varies within the range of 60–80 pieces. The size of the fruits of the umbellate abronia reaches 6–12 x 6–16 (-24) mm.

The beginning of cultivation dates back to 1788. The greatest interest among florists was gained by the variety var. grandifloracharacterized by lilac-pink petals and a yellow spot at their base.

In the photo Abronia latifolia

Abronia latifolia,

which is also called "sand verbena" in its native lands. The area of ​​natural distribution falls on the western coast of North America, from Santa Barbara County to the Canadian border, where it is found on the beach and sand dunes of coastal forests, river estuaries, along the immediate coastline (height 0-10 m). Takes part in stabilizing dunes and resisting erosion.

This perennial herbaceous species originates from a thick, fleshy root structure that is edible and traditionally eaten by the Chinoca Indians. Under stress or bad weather (drought and the like), the abronia latifolia dies back to the root and germinates again when conditions are more favorable. At the same time, the growth rate is quite high. The height of the stems is 15.2 cm, while the width of the curtain can be measured at a maximum of 2.1 m. When the specimen is an adult, its height parameters fluctuate within 25–30 cm, while the stems grow creeping and their length is 45–50 cm as in the previous species. It happens that shoots can bend during growth at an angle of almost 90 degrees. The leaves are green, fleshy, juicy.

Already in May, small flowers begin to open at the broad-leaved abronia, saturating all the surroundings with a delicate fragrant aroma, with something we go with an aroma when the night violet blooms. The flowering period of this species is slightly shorter than that of the umbelliferous abronia, ending already at the end of summer. It produces attractive neatly rounded capitate inflorescences composed of small, bright gold flowers and small, winged fruits. Individual flowers of abronia latifolia do not have petals, they consist of yellow bracts that form a calyx around the stamens. Under the right conditions, it will bloom most of the year. The plant is adapted to salt spray and will not be able to withstand regular rainfall or extreme drought.

In the photo Abronia Maritima

Abronia maritima

often referred to as Red Sand Verbena. It is a perennial herb adapted to sandy soil. The growing area falls on the coast of Southern California, including the Channel Islands, and the northern part of Baja California. It grows along stable sand dunes nearby, but not in the surf. This salt tolerant plant requires salt water, which it receives mainly in the form of sea spray, and cannot tolerate fresh water or prolonged dry conditions. Its luscious tissues are adapted for the extraction and storage of salt.

Abronia maritima forms a green rug along the ground, and its stems are sometimes buried under loose sand. The maximum height that the shoots reach is 12.2 cm, while the width varies in the range of 0.5–2 m. The leaf blades are fleshy, 5–7 cm long and broadly elliptical to oblong. Leaves store salt. The rugs are thick and provide shelter for many small beach animals. This is a rare plant. Its habitat is located in densely populated beach areas where it is disturbed by human activities.

Abronia maritima blooms all year round from bright red to pink or purple flowers, collected in inflorescences in the form of bunches. The color that the petals in flowers can take is pink, reddish or purple.

In the photo Abronia turbine

Abronia turbinata (Abronia turbinata)

In its native lands, the plant is called Transmontane Sand-verbena.Native to eastern California and Oregon and western Nevada, where it grows in desert and plateau shrubs. It is an erect or spreading herb, usually annual, reaching 50 cm at maximum stem height or length. Several thick green leaves are formed on the stems, which measure in shape from slightly oval to almost round and several centimeters wide.

The inflorescences arise from the stem on the peduncles of the abronia turbinates of several centimeters and contain inflorescences in the form of hemispheres or spreading umbrellas up to 35 white or pinkish flowers. Each small flower is represented by a narrow tube up to 2 cm long, which opens into a lobed corolla at the top. The fruit is several millimeters long, hollow inside, swollen wings.

In the photo, Alpine abronia

Alpine abronia (Abronia alpina)

in its native lands it is called Ramshaw Meadows Abronia. A rare flowering plant, it is endemic to Tulare County, California, where it is known only from one area high in the Sierra Nevada. It is a small, squat perennial herb that forms a gentle carpet on the soil surface in alpine meadow habitats. The leaves have rounded lobes, each less than a centimeter long at the ends of short petioles. The foliage and stems are indistinct and glandular.

Alpine abronia blooms in groups of up to five white, pink or lavender flowers about a centimeter wide and long. Inflorescences are capitate-umbellate. The flowering process begins in July.

In the photo, Abronia Pogonant

Abronia pogonantha

also called Mojave Sand-verbena. It comes from California and Nevada, where it grows in the Mojave Desert, adjacent hills and mountains, and in parts of the San Joaquin Valley in the Central Valley. It is an annual herb that produces creeping or straight glandular stems up to 0.5 m long. Petiole leaves are mostly oval in shape, up to 5 cm long and 3 cm wide. The plant blooms with an inflorescence of numerous white or pink flowers, each with a tubular throat up to 2 cm long. The fruit is a winged, heart-shaped body about half a centimeter long.

In the photo, Abroni fragrant

Fragrant Abronia (Abronia fragrans)

Perennial plants. Stems tend to grow creeping, slightly to moderately branched, elongated, sometimes reddish at the base and nodes, glandular-pubescent, viscous. Leaves: petiole 0.5–8 cm; the leaf plate is ovoid, triangular or lanceolate. The size of the leaves is 3–12 x 1–8 cm, the edges are full, slightly wavy, the upper surface is glandular-pubescent, the reverse surface is denser and longer, pubescent or sometimes fleecy.

When flowering, in fragrant abronia, inflorescences are formed, in which the peduncle is longer than the segment of the petiole; bracts linear-lanceolate to oval-ovate, 7–25 x 2–12 mm, cicatricial, glandular to short villous. In the inflorescence, there are 30–80 flowers. Perianth: greenish to reddish-violet tube, 10–25 mm, 6–10 mm in diameter. The flowering process occurs from spring to autumn.

The fruits of the fragrant abronia are winged or not, spindle-shaped and appear deeply grooved when the wings are wingless, when the wings are not curved. The shape of the fruit is cordate, tapering at the base, with a noticeable beak in a wide notch at the apex. Fruit size is 5–12 x 2, 5–7 mm. Wings 4–5, thick, narrow, not widened at apex, along the entire length of the cavity. When growing, it prefers dry sandy soils, shrubs and meadows, 400–2000 m.

In the photo Abronia nana

Abronia nana (Abronia nana)

Plants are perennial, creeping or almost the same, as a rule, forming sods. Leaves: petiole 1–5 cm; the leaf plate is elliptical or lanceolate, shortly ovate or oblong-ovate. The size of the leaves is (0, 4 -) 0, 5–2, 5 x (0, 2 -) 0, 4–1, 2 cm, their length is less than 3 times their width. The edges of the leaves are full and wavy, the surfaces are glabrous or glandular-pubescent. Inflorescences: bracts lanceolate-ovate, 4-9 x 2-7 mm, cicatricial, glandular-pubescent. The inflorescence is composed of 15–25 flowers.Perianth: tube pale pink, 8–30 mm, white to pink at the end, 6–10 mm in diameter.

The fruits of the abronia nana are obovate, 6–10 x 5–7 mm, rough, the tops are low and broadly conical; wings 5, no extensions, no cavities. Abronia nana is a highly variable species. This is especially noticeable on the southern edge of the species range. In northeastern Arizona, the plants with dense villi and very small lobes are similar to the short-leaved A. bigelovii from north-central New Mexico.

Related article: How to plant and grow a tladian in open ground

Video about abronia:

Pictures of abronia:

Photo of Abronia 1 Photo of Abronia 2 Photo of Abronia 3 Photo by Abronia 4 Photo by Abronia 5

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