Description of the belamkanda plant, how to cultivate on a personal plot and indoors, breeding rules, problems arising from care in the garden, interesting notes, types.
Belamcanda is part of the rather extensive family of Iridaceae, or as it is also called Iris. The native area of natural distribution falls on the lands of the Far East, mostly Chinese and Vietnamese lands. Preference is given for settling cliff cliffs, not too dense forests, the sides of fields with rice plantings and roads. However, as a culture, this ornamental plant began to be grown in a large number of other countries, such as Japan and Indonesia, the northern Indian regions, as well as eastern Siberia.
ImportantWhen growing belamcanda in your garden, it should be remembered that such actions support the preservation of a representative of the flora that is disappearing in the wild, since it is listed in the Red Book in many countries.
|Family name||Iris or Iris|
|Breeds||Seed and vegetatively (by dividing the bush)|
|Open ground transplant terms||Late May or early summer|
|Landing rules||The distance between the seedlings is at least 15 cm|
|Priming||Loose, well-drained, nutritious|
|Soil acidity values, pH||6, 5-7 (neutral)|
|Illumination level||Penumbra or sunny location|
|Humidity level||Moderate watering, drought tolerant|
|Special care rules||Application of dressings depending on the phase of the growing season|
|Height options||0.6-1 m|
|Flowering period||June to August, depending on the weather|
|Type of inflorescences or flowers||Panicle|
|Color of flowers||Bright yellowish orange to red, purplish white or lemon|
|Fruit type||Seed capsule|
|The timing of fruit ripening||Late summer or September|
|Application in landscape design||Group plantings for mixborders and the formation of borders, in flower beds and ridges, for decorating the banks of reservoirs and framing edges|
Belamkanda borrowed its scientific name from one of the East Asian languages. At the same time, the people can hear the following nicknames - Chinese lily (by place of origin), leopard lily, the reason for this was the color of the petals in the flowers of the plant or the blackberry lily, due to the characteristic type of seeds.
CuriousThere is not a single plant on the planet that looks like the shape of the fruit to the belamcanda.
Usually, there is only one species of Belamcanda chinensis, which became the basis for the formation of other forms. The root system of this herbaceous perennial plant is characterized by branching. It is located close to the soil surface. Belamkanda has medium-sized stems. The leaf plates are xiphoid, with a rigid surface and are very similar to the leaves of an ordinary iris, since threadlike veins run along it in the longitudinal plane. The height of the leaves reaches 40-60 cm with a width of about 2.5-4 cm. The color of the foliage is bright or dark green. Usually at the base there are 5–8 leaves, forming a kind of fan.
Usually, the formation of buds begins in the belamcanda by the second year of life.The flowering process of the blackberry lily occurs in the summer months, but in natural conditions, the buds can bloom during August-October or bloom in the last week of May. Flowers, resembling a lily in shape, live only one day, opening with the first rays of the sun and withering by sunset, but since there are many buds, the process seems to be long, stretching over several weeks.
In this case, the formation of peduncles occurs, which in height can reach values of 0, 6-1 m, thereby increasing the size of the plant. Some specimens can reach up to one and a half meter mark. When flowering on flower-bearing shoots in belamcanda, dichotomously branched panicle inflorescences are formed. Flowers seem to "soar" over the deciduous mass, attracting the eye with bright colors. But even before blooming, the buds are characterized by their unusual, spectacular shape, reminiscent of a snail's house or a butterfly's cocoon.
Moreover, each of the peduncles gives rise to 6-10 pairs of buds, which will gradually open one after the other. It happens that three flowers are open at a time. Belamcanda has inflorescences composed of star-shaped flowers, the diameter of the opening of which is about 5-8 cm. Usually the flower is composed of three pairs of petals, spaced widely spaced from each other, while the outer petals are slightly larger than the inner ones. The shape of the petal is oval, the top is rounded, along the center there is a well-defined vein. The perianth tube is short. The stamens originate from the base of the segments' leaflets. In the central part, there is one ovary with a trihedral surface.
The color of the silky belamcanda petals can vary from pale yellow or bright yellowish orange to red or purple. Moreover, on their surface there is always a chaotically scattered spot of red color, for which the plant is called tiger lily. However, there are forms that show off with white petals and purple spots or lemon yellow shades.
After flowering, the time comes when the seed pods of elongated outlines begin to form in the belamcanda, which, when fully ripe, open along thin seams resembling membranes. Inside there are numerous black seeds that look like blackberries (for a plant and is called a blackberry lily). Such fruits are characterized by an ellipsoidal or obovate shape. The seeds are colored black, the surface is glossy, and the shell is fleshy. The seed diameter is 4–6 mm.
ImportantDespite the similarity between the fruits of belamcanda and ordinary blackberries, you should not taste them, since they are not suitable for food.
The bolls can remain on the shoots during the winter months and look quite attractive in herbal compositions from fresh or dried flowers. Blackberry lily, despite its decorative effect, is not particularly demanding in care, while there is the possibility of growing it as a room culture.
Tips for planting and caring for belamcanda outdoors and indoors
- Landing place It is recommended to select a tiger lily taking into account its natural preferences, that is, open and sunny, but slightly shady areas of the garden may also be suitable, where the plant will not lose its decorative effect. It is important not to locate the belamcanda in places where moisture stagnation from precipitation or melting snow is possible. It is also worth choosing a location that is protected from gusts of wind, since high flowering stems may not withstand and break off.
- Priming for growing a blackberry lily, a light, with good drainage qualities should be selected. High humus content is preferred. It is better that the acidity values are neutral with a pH of 6, 5–7.
- Landing belamkanda. The best time to move the tiger lily outdoors is during the last week of May or early summer. Usually, during this period, already returnable frosts recede and will not be able to harm immature plants. The depth of the hole for the seedling should be no more than 2 cm. If the seedlings are planted in groups, then they try to withstand about 15 cm between them. When planting the cut, the depth and diameter of the hole should only slightly exceed the size of the root system. In any case, before placing the plant on the bottom of the pit, you need to lay a layer of drainage material (for example, expanded clay, pebbles or medium-sized brick pieces). Such drainage will protect the roots of belamkanda from waterlogging. Then such a layer is sprinkled with the harvested soil mixture and only after that a seedling is placed on it. The root collar of the plant should be located at the same level as the soil level on the site. All voids in the pit are filled with the substrate, and its surface is slightly compressed to remove air. Then abundant hydration is required.
- Watering when caring for a tiger lily, it should be carried out in moderation, since in nature belamcanda grows on dry soils and can easily tolerate dry periods. At the same time, it is possible to even dry the substrate a little, than to bring it to waterlogging, since the latter aspect will contribute to the development of root rot. When grown indoors during the winter dormant period, watering should be carried out minimally.
- Fertilizers when growing, belamcanda should be applied in accordance with the growing phases: the formation and growth of flowering stems, the formation of buds and the beginning of flowering, before fruiting. In this case, the introduction of dressings should be regular - once every 2-3 weeks. First, nitrogen preparations should be used to build up green mass, and then potassium-phosphorus preparations, which help flowering. You can use such complete mineral complexes as Kemira-Universal, Agricola or Fertika. At the beginning of the growing season, such fertilizers are applied twice a month, and when flowering begins, they become every week. When grown indoors during the period of winter dormancy, the plant is not disturbed by top dressing.
- Wintering of belamkanda. The plant has a fairly good frost resistance and perfectly tolerates a decrease in the thermometer column to the -15 frost mark. Even annual seedlings can cope with such rates without any shelter. When grown in regions with cold winters (in our latitudes), blackberry lily is used as an annual, or it is still recommended to carry out measures to preserve specimens of belamcanda. You should dig out the rhizomes and move them indoors until summer. The roots are placed in containers with soil and kept in a dark place until sprouts develop. With the arrival of spring heat, planting is carried out on a flower bed. In some not too cold regions, you can organize a shelter from fallen dry leaves, pouring them with a mound on the places where belamcanda grows or using a covering material.
- General advice on room care. When growing a tiger lily at home, it is recommended to keep such a representative of the flora in a winter garden. When planting, a pot with a diameter of 15 cm is used, where five pieces of belamcanda rhizome are placed. The container is filled with a composition based on sand and compost devoid of mineral soil. Peat chips, river sand and sod soil combined in equal proportions can serve as such a soil mixture. A 3-5 cm drainage layer is also placed on the bottom of the container in the first layer. Until sprouts appear, keep the pots in the dark. When the growing season begins, watering should be moderate, this also applies to the flowering period. After the flowers of the belamkanda wither, it is recommended to dry the rhizomes and save until the new growing season.With this content, the plant should be placed on the windowsill of a window with a southern, southwestern or southeastern orientation. On the south window, it is required to draw a light curtain at noon.
- The use of belamkanda in landscape design. A plant such as a tiger lily will look great in flower beds, next to perennial representatives of the flora, and can be used as a houseplant. It is customary to plant blackberry lily bushes on the shores of reservoirs or frame the edges, decorate Japanese stone gardens, rockeries or plant in groups in mixborders. Due to the rather long stems, it is possible to design borders. If the cultivation of belamkanda is indoor, then the rules will be the same as the agricultural technology of ammarilis. When grown as a potted culture, the blackberry lily will become a real decoration of a balcony, gazebo or veranda. Some advise to cut the flowering stems with fruits on them and carry out drying, then such boxes with translucent petals are successfully used in dry phytocompositions.
See also tips for growing a montbrecia.
Breeding rules for belamkanda
To grow blackberry lily bushes on your site, it is recommended to use the seed and vegetative method, which involves dividing the overgrown plant.
Reproduction of belamcanda using seedsIf the tiger lily is grown in regions with a subtropical climate, then self-seeding is also possible. In our latitudes, although the seed material is capable of separating from the flowering stem when fully ripe, it is almost impossible to find seedlings in the spring. Therefore, it is recommended to collect the ripe bolls and keep them dry until spring. Such storage is possible for 1–2 years, without loss of germination properties by seeds.
Before sowing, it is recommended to soak the Belamcanda seed for 24 hours in a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate. It is important that the color of the composition is completely light, otherwise you can burn the seeds. For sowing seedlings, the best time is the end of winter or the beginning of March, this will give the young tiger lilies the opportunity to root in a new place and even please with flowering.
If you want to sow seeds directly into the soil, then this operation is performed no earlier than May, so that return frosts cannot destroy the delicate seedlings of belamkanda. But it should be remembered that flowering in the same year will occur much later, or it will not be at all.
Sow seeds of blackberry lily for seedlings in containers filled with nutritious loose soil (for example, peat-sandy). After seeding is done, it is recommended to carry out stratification. To do this, a container with seedlings is wrapped in a transparent plastic wrap and placed on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator, where the temperature is within 0–5 degrees. If in the region where it is planned to grow belamcanda in winter the temperatures do not go beyond the specified limits, then the seedling box is dropped directly in the snowdrift. The stratification time is 7–12 days.
After this period, fresh seeds will already give rise to sprouts, and for older seeds, germination may take up to 2 months. After the stratification is completed, the container with the seedlings is transferred to a warm, well-lit place, for example, on a windowsill. But here it is necessary to shade at noon from direct sunlight, which can burn belamkanda seedlings.
When young plants of tiger lilies acquire 1–2 pairs of true leaves, it's time to dive into individual pots. It is recommended to do this very carefully so as not to damage the root system of the seedlings. The soil can be used as for germinating seeds or purchased for seedlings. Transplanting into open ground is possible only at the end of May or at the beginning of summer, when return frosts recede.
Reproduction of belamkanda by dividing the bushFor this operation, the best time will be autumn or March, that is, when the growing process is completed or has not yet begun. Plants are picked up by those that reach 4–5 years of age. The division of the bush is carried out into several parts, while each of the divisions should have several stems, which will help young bushes to adapt faster. For this, the rhizome must be removed from the ground with a pitchfork, before digging around the perimeter. Then the root system is parsed into several parts. Planting the tiger lily parcels is performed immediately, preventing the roots from drying out and adhering to the above rules for the initial planting. After that, watering is performed.
Problems arising in the cultivation of belamcanda
Despite the fact that the blackberry lily is very resistant to pests and diseases, if the rules of agricultural technology are violated, it can be affected by root rot. Usually, this disease is of fungal origin and its pathogens are many fungi, such as phytophthora and rhizoctonia, diplodia and fizarium, as well as penicillin and pytium.
If, upon examination, it is noted that the stem of the belamcanda has darkened, then the next phase of the disease will be rotting of the root processes and the entire root system. Then the entire aerial part is subject to wilting and the tiger lily perishes.
The factors provoking the occurrence of root rot are:
- waterlogged soil, which becomes a favorable environment for the reproduction of fungal microorganisms;
- initially infected substrate before sowing seed;
- garden tools infected with fungi or pots (containers) in which the plant will be kept;
- violation of the rules for caring for belamkanda.
The first signs to look out for and which indicate the likelihood of root rot are:
- inhibition in the growth of blackberry lily;
- foliage takes on an unnatural color;
- brown spot formation occurs on the leaf plates;
- foliage begins to dry out and constrictions form on its surface.
At the same time, it is noted that fungal spores can be perfectly transferred from affected plants to healthy ones by rain or with drops of moisture during watering, and such infections also tend to spread with the help of an infected garden tool, insects, contaminated hands and even on the gardener's clothes. Such a disease can appear in belamcanda due to mechanical damage to the root system or stems. At the same time, it is noted that the pathogens calmly remain in the contaminated soil and the remains of diseased or dead plants. Therefore, all affected specimens are examined, parts that have been infected are removed, and if the area is too large, then the entire specimen is removed from the site.
To combat root rot on plantings of tiger lily and other garden plants, both traditional and chemical methods can be used. The first ones are:
- a solution of chalk, copper sulfate, diluted in water in a ratio of 3 large spoons to 1 small, respectively;
- crush chalk to a powdery state and mix with wood ash, previously sieved, in a 1: 1 ratio;
- a slightly pink solution of potassium permanganate is watering the soil next to the stem of the belamcanda and around the plant;
- dilute iodine in a ratio of 1: 4 and process the stem and the upper part of the root system.
From fungicidal agents that cope well with fungal diseases, Fundazol and Trichodermin are isolated, as well as Previkur or Topaz. You can take other means, of which there are many on the market, but with a similar spectrum of action.
The following can be cited as preventive measures that should protect the planting of belamcanda:
- Select seeds that are resistant to infectious diseases by root rot.
- Decontaminate the soil before sowing. For this, the substrate is calcined in the oven or poured with fungicidal preparations. The seeds themselves should also be disinfected.
- Before working with Belamkanda plantings, disinfect garden tools (also by treating them with fungicides or other agents), especially if the tools come into contact with infected plants.
- After working with infected representatives of the flora, not only wash your hands with soap, but also treat with alcohol, otherwise you can bring fungal spores to healthy plantings.
- In the event of the death of a plant from root rot, it not only needs to be removed from the flower bed, but also to capture the top layer of the substrate. It is advisable to burn the remains, and pour the soil with fungicides or a strong solution of potassium permanganate.
- Do not violate the dosage of fertilization in the direction of increase, as this can provoke the development of putrefactive bacteria in the soil and, as a result of fungal diseases.
- The soil should not be waterlogged, and the planting of belamkandas should not be carried out in places where moisture stagnation is possible.
- Before sowing and then the entrances are treated with fungicides or pesticides, and they regularly thin out the seedlings so that more oxygen can be supplied to their root system.
- After weeding, destroy the rest of the weeds.
- For indoor or greenhouse cultivation, regularly ventilate to avoid excessive humidity.
See also tips on disease and pest control when growing tigridia in the garden.
Interesting notes about the belamcanda plant
Since the natural habitats of the blackberry lily are very susceptible to human influence, the plant is on the verge of extinction, therefore it was listed in the Red Book.
At the same time, in the territory of natural habitats (on the lands of China and Vietnam), belamcanda is known as a medicinal plant. Preparations made on the basis of dried plant roots are used as a means to relieve pain when swallowing due to colds or viral diseases. Today, doctors began to study the properties of blackberry lily at the level of laboratory studies, to fight prostate cancer. At the same time, antifungal, antiviral and antibacterial action of the tiger lily-based products is noted. It is also possible to use dried rhizomes as a diuretic and laxative.
On the territory of these countries, a decoction from belamkanda has long been famous as an antidote to the bites of poisonous reptiles. Such a remedy can cope with the elimination of toxins from the body. The same drug can be used externally, for problems on the skin (for example, rashes), to help with sprains or injuries of a different nature.
ImportantSuch preparations based on belamcanda should not be used in violation of the dosage, since they are characterized by high toxicity. This is especially true when it comes to large amounts of funds.
According to the results of the studies carried out in 2005, the Belamcanda chinensis species became part of the Iris genus and was named Iris domestica. All morphological data show that the plant is the closest relative of the dichotomous iris.
Types and forms of belamkanda
Since the cultivation of the Belamcanda chinensis species with a characteristic yellow, red or orange color is mainly carried out in home and garden conditions, there are the following garden forms:
- Flava characterized by the absence of the usual spots on the petals of flowers, the color of which takes on a bright yellow tint.
- Purpurea the color of the petals in the flowers can vary from pale pink with a pattern of yellow veins to lilac and crimson.