Distinctive features of the yarrow plant, how to plant and care in a personal plot, breeding rules, difficulties in the growing process, interesting notes, applications, species and varieties.
Yarrow (Achillea) is a fairly large genus included in the family Asteraceae or Compositae. The number of the genus, calculated by scientists, reaches two hundred species. The main natural distribution area of yarrow falls mainly on the Eurasian lands, but there are several species that come from the North American continent. Basically, the places of growth are forests, steppes and forest-steppe areas, plants can be found in shrub thickets, along wastelands and the banks of waterways, in meadows and ravines, on the outskirts of fields and in the frame of roads. Some species of this genus are often included in the rather closely related genus Tansy (Tanacetum).
Most often, if the word "yarrow" is pronounced, then for some reason its medicinal properties immediately come to mind, but most do not even suspect that this representative of the flora has the opportunity to grow on its site as an ornamental or spicy crop, this will be discussed below …
|Family name||Astral or Compositae|
|Vegetation form||Herbaceous, rarely semi-shrub|
|Breeds||By seed method or by dividing the rhizome|
|Open ground transplant terms||End of April or beginning of May|
|Landing rules||The scheme of 25x25 cm is maintained or 25x60 cm is left between the seedlings|
|Soil acidity values, pH||Any|
|Illumination level||Well-lit open area|
|Humidity level||Regular watering only in heat and drought|
|Special care rules||Top dressing is needed, sometimes a garter of the stems|
|Height options||0.5-0.9 m|
|Flowering period||Depends on species in June-August|
|Type of inflorescences or flowers||Shield-shaped or racemose inflorescences formed from small baskets|
|Color of flowers||White, cream, yellow, orange and red|
|Fruit type||Seed capsule|
|The timing of fruit ripening||July to September|
|Application in landscape design||Group planting in flower beds and flower beds, decoration of borders, as dried flowers for bouquets|
|USDA zone||4 and up|
The genus of yarrow got its name thanks to the term in the ancient Greek language "achilleios" - an adjective that has a feminine gender and has a translation of "Achilles". Apparently, this is rooted in the name of Achilles or Achilles, a hero who became famous in the Trojan War and has tremendous strength. According to legends, Achilles, since he was the son of Peleus and Phytida, was a pupil of the centaur Heron, who uses some kind of plant to heal any wounds. According to some reports, such a representative of the flora was the yarrow. The people have a nickname "cut grass".
All species are perennials with a herbaceous vegetative form of growth, but in rare cases they take the form of semi-shrubs. The stem of the yarrow grows straight or may have a slight curvature at the surface of the soil. Plant height varies within 50–90 cm. The color of bare stems in the upper part is green, but sometimes reddish tones are mixed, in the lower part it is woody, taking on a brownish tint.The root system is characterized by rod-like outlines; filamentary root processes extend from the main rod.
The foliage of the yarrow has a green or greenish-gray color scheme. The shape of the leaves can be serrated, incised, or pinnately dissected. The leaf lobes are located in the next sequence. In the lower part, the leaf plates are attached to the stems by means of petioles, and gradually become sessile at the top.
When flowering, yarrow forms inflorescences, which are small baskets formed into lush shields or brushes. The color of the petals in the small flowers included in the baskets can be white, cream, but when the marginal flowers are short-tongued, their color is yellow, pink and orange, and some species also have red petals and a yellow center. In diameter, the inflorescence measures 15 cm. The flowers that make up the baskets are characterized by a tubular shape. The flowering process of "cut grass" depends on the species, but mainly occurs in the summer months.
After pollination, fruits are formed, which in yarrow have the form of achenes. The outlines of such fruitlets can be ovoid or elongated. When fully ripe, the achenes take on a light brown hue. The fruits of the "cut grass" begin to ripen, depending on the timing of flowering - from July to September.
The yarrow plant is quite easy to care for and does not require much effort when growing, but at the same time, despite its decorative qualities, it can be successfully used as a medicinal plant.
How to plant and care for yarrow outdoors?
- Landing place It is recommended to choose a "cut grass" well lit and open, then the growth and flowering of yarrow will be active, but there is information that such plants take root with great success even in a shaded location. If there are close ground waters nearby, then it is better to use a good drainage layer when planting. In one place, the bushes can grow up to ten years.
- Priming it will not be difficult to pick up yarrow for planting, since in nature this representative of the flora grows on the most diverse composition of the substrate. The same applies to acidity indicators.
- Planting yarrow. It is best to plant seedlings of "cut grass" in open ground from late April or early May days. For planting, they adhere to the scheme 25x25 cm or leave 25x65 cm between the plants. The planting hole should be about 10 cm deep. The seedling is placed in the center of the hole and the voids are filled with the extracted soil. If the pick was not carried out, and the seedlings are in the seedling box before planting, then you need to get a lump of earth with the plant with a tablespoon, trying not to destroy the soil surrounding the root system. After planting, the soil around the yarrow is carefully squeezed out and abundant watering is performed. Flowering in plants grown from seed can only be expected at the end of the summer season.
- Watering when caring for yarrow, it should be performed only if the period in the summer season is characterized by heat and aridity, then soil moisture should be abundant and regular. In this case, water the "cut grass" once a week, but no more than twice every 7 days. With a normal amount of precipitation, humidification is rather rare.
- Fertilizers when growing yarrow, you can not bring it in, but the plants will gratefully respond to such feeding. During the growing season, they will be required only 1-2 times. You can use preparations for flowering garden plants, such as Kemira-Universal. When the first year of yarrow cultivation has passed (and then in each subsequent year), it is necessary, with the arrival of spring, to loosen the aisle and apply ammonium fertilizers (for example, ammonium nitrate).When autumn comes, then also loosening the soil between the rows, apply a top dressing of superphosphate and potassium salt, using 20-30 grams of the first agent per 1m2 and 10-15 grams of the second.
- General advice on care. Since in some varieties of yarrow, the stems are characterized by high rates of height, it will be necessary to tie them to the pegs dug in a row. If the "cut grass" is grown as an ornamental crop, then as the inflorescences wither, they should be removed, this will also prevent active self-seeding. When spring comes, it is recommended to cut off all the shoots, leaving 10-15 cm from the soil surface. In regions with a warm climate, it is not necessary to cover the yarrow bushes for the winter, but if the growing area is with cold, long and snowy winters, then it is recommended to cover such plantings using spruce branches or a good layer of dry foliage. As with growing any plant in the garden, it is recommended to weed the weeds and loosen the soil next to the bushes after watering or rain.
- Collection. It is recommended to harvest the yarrow during its flowering period. It was at this time that parts of the "cut grass" are characterized by a high content of essential oils and, as a result, have the most powerful medicinal properties. For collection, a dry and clear day is chosen, but at the same time the dew should already evaporate from the leaves of the plant. The stems of the yarrow are cut with a knife or secateurs. Only the upper part of the shoot with an inflorescence is subject to cutting - an approximate length of 20 cm. The lower, lignified part of the stems is not used, since it does not have medicinal properties. You should not pull out the yarrow by the roots if it is supposed to be collected again in the next season.
- Drying Yarrow should be carried out in a dry, cool and ventilated area or under a canopy in the open air. When drying, the sun should not fall on the yarrow, as its medicinal properties will decrease, as essential oils and chlorophyll will be destroyed. The collected grass is laid out in a thin layer on a clean canvas; when drying in this way, the material should be periodically agitated so that it does not begin to evaporate. Some make bundles from the collected stems and hang them down with flower heads in the attic, where it is dry, warm and ventilated. A signal that the raw material of the yarrow has dried up is the fragility of the branches and foliage, the inflorescences crumble easily. Then you can put the dried grass in paper or linen bags, removing all thick stems (their maximum length for storage is no more than 15 cm). Some people store yarrow in plastic or glass containers. Such medicinal raw materials do not lose their properties over a two-year period, but if storage is carried out in a tightly-sealed container, then up to five years.
- The use of yarrow in landscape design. The plant can be a decoration for any rocky garden, rockery or rock garden. Some species with a low height are useful as a ground cover, forming real fragrant clumps.
See also the rules for planting feverfew and outdoor care.
Yarrow breeding rules
In order to grow independently bushes of "cut grass" on your site, it is recommended to sow or separate overgrown specimens.
Propagation of yarrow by seedsWhen using this method, it is recommended to grow seedlings. Sowing must be done on the last winter days. Seed material is placed in seedling boxes filled with a soil mixture of river sand and a fine-grained substrate, the parts of the components should be equal in volume. If there is no seedling box, then some for this adapt a not too deep plastic container. The surface of the soil is moistened from the spray gun and the seed is carefully laid out on its surface.The distance between the seeds is about 3-5 cm. A thin layer of river sand or the same soil should be poured over the yarrow seeds.
Watering is recommended after sowing, but such moistening is also best done using a finely dispersed spray bottle so that the seeds are not washed out of the soil. For successful germination, it is necessary to provide conditions of high humidity, for this the seedling box is wrapped in a transparent plastic wrap - a mini-greenhouse is created. The place in which the germination of yarrow seeds will take place should be provided with room heat indicators (approximately 20-24 degrees) and good lighting. When caring for crops, daily ventilation and moistening of the soil are necessary. If its surface begins to dry out.
After about 10-12 days, yarrow seedlings should appear above the soil surface. Then the shelter is removed, and the container with seedlings is rearranged to a place where the lighting will be even greater - on the sill of the south window, however, you should take care of shading at noon so that direct sunlight does not burn the tender sprouts. When two or three true leaves appear on young plants of "cut grass", you can start picking. Seedlings are transplanted into separate plastic cups filled with peat-sandy substrate or take purchased soil for seedlings.
AdviceSo that later planting yarrow seedlings in open ground is easier, it is recommended to pick in a container of pressed peat.
Since young plants are fragile, it is important to do all the manipulations very carefully. With subsequent care, it is important to water during the time, when the top layer of the soil dries up - approximately twice a week, no more.
When the yarrow seedlings reach a size of 10–12 cm in height, they begin to harden them. To do this, the seedlings are exposed to the open air for 10-15 minutes during the day. Every day, the hardening time will need to be increased by 15–20 minutes, so that subsequently the seedlings of the "cut grass" will remain outside around the clock. Only then can seedlings be transplanted into flower beds. This time just falls on the end of April or the first days of May.
Reproduction of yarrow by divisionFor this, the spring-summer period is suitable, so that before the cold weather, the planted parts of the bush can normally take root in a new place. So, with the help of a sharpened shovel, a part of the curtain of "cut grass" is cut off, pushed off with a pitchfork and planted in a previously prepared hole at a new location. It is recommended to maintain the distance between the divisions at least 25 cm. After that, it is recommended to carry out abundant watering. Separation is recommended every 3-4 years.
Difficulty growing yarrow in the garden
Since the "cut grass" contains a large amount of highly active substances and essential oils, this serves as a natural protection for the plant against pests and fungal diseases. But there is such a problem as the uncontrolled rapid growth of yarrow. All this is associated with self-scattering of its seeds in a nearby growing bush. In order to prevent an aggressive invasion of "young growth", it is recommended to periodically weed the beds where the yarrow is planted, otherwise this representative of the flora will fill the entire surrounding space. It is recommended to weed the plantings of "cut-through grass" at least once a month, and once in three years to carry out the separation of heavily overgrown clumps with the subsequent transplantation of the divisions.
Read also about possible diseases and pests when growing titonia in the garden
Interesting notes about the yarrow plant
"Cutting grass" can be used in garden decoration not only as a bush, but also as a ground cover. These species decorate rock gardens and rockeries, yarrow inflorescences in bouquets, both cut and dry, also look good.
To collect yarrow (many people know this species under the name of the medicinal yarrow - Achillea millefolium), you can take it as stems with leaves or the inflorescences themselves. It is recommended to harvest at the beginning or during the flowering period. Until the flower heads began to take on a dark shade and wither. Storing the dried parts requires dryness and shading.
For a long time, healers, and later these data were confirmed by medical research, were aware of the saturation of parts of the yarrow with highly active substances. Among them, tannins and tannins are distinguished, which can fight against pathogenic bacteria, have an anti-inflammatory and astringent effect, under their influence, the skin was toned, irritations were calmed. Decoctions based on "cut grass" were used to eliminate oily seborrhea on the face, narrow pores and treat acne, strengthened the root hair follicles.
Yarrow was also known for its ability to stop bleeding and remove the effects of hemorrhages on the surface of the skin, to rapidly heal wounds and ulcers. All this is possible because the plant contains phylloquinones or otherwise vitamin K, through which the strength of the capillaries increased.
A large amount of carotene, which yarrow is saturated with, entering the human body, was converted into vitamin A. A lack of this element could lead to brittle hair and nails, the formation of gray hair, since the skin became dry, peeled and keratinized, wrinkles quickly appeared. When using products based on "cut grass" it was possible to cure the effects of frostbite and remove acne.
Among other things, the etheric little present in yarrow, alkaloids, flavonoids and their glycosoids, amines and bitter compounds, vitamin C and acids (acetic, formic and isovaleric) helped to fight not only inflammation, but increased the outflow of bile, served as a bactericidal agent used to stimulate appetite. That is, the plant, in essence, comes out almost universal. At the same time, decoctions and tinctures, extracts and ointments are prepared on its basis, and extracts are obtained.
ImportantBut do not think that treatment with such preparations containing yarrow is harmless. As with other strong medications, exceeding dosages or concentrations can lead to poisoning.
In addition to medicinal, the "cut grass" has several other areas of application. These are the following areas:
Yarrow in horticulture:
As a basis for dressing,intended for nutrition of garden and garden plants, while introducing the aerial part of the yarrow into the compost, increase its quality.
- For the manufacture of fertilizers it is necessary to pour freshly harvested yarrow herb (important! - not dried) into a bucket of water and aged until the solution ferments. This takes almost 14-15 days at most, but here everything will depend on the temperature indicators of the environment. When feeding, the resulting liquid is diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10.
- For composting Yarrow herb is also used. This is due to the fact that highly active substances that saturate the aerial part are able to suppress the spread of putrefactive bacteria, while the growth and division of bacteria that take part in the decomposition of materials used to prepare such an organic fertilizer increases. The resulting product will contain in its composition not only elements useful for the growth of representatives of garden and vegetable garden flora, but also calcium and potassium.
As an insecticidal agent,helping in the destruction of harmful insects. This is because the parts of the yarrow contain a large number of repellents that help repel mosquitoes and midges, as well as flies.Tinctures based on "cut grass" can even help get rid of ants and rid plants of such a malicious pest as aphids, which contribute to the transfer of viral diseases. The mixture can be made in the same way as in the first case, but diluted with water 1/5 so that it is more saturated.
In order to make a natural insecticide, the aerial part of the yarrow is harvested at the very beginning of flowering. Then it is dried until the stems break easily. The dried material weighing 1 kg is poured with boiling water (2 l) and then steamed in a water bath for at least 40 minutes. Another 8 liters of water are poured into the resulting composition and the container with the solution is placed in a dark place for about 48 hours. This solution will be an excellent tool in the fight against aphids.
Yarrow in beekeepingIt has long been considered a particularly valuable plant, which is a honey plant, since bees actively participate in pollination, giving useful honey. At the same time, even if only a couple of bushes of "cut grass" are planted on the site, then all plants growing nearby will become pollinated, which will affect the increase in yield.
Types and varieties of yarrow
Yarrow (Achillea nobilis)The natural habitat of perennials is in the West Siberian and West European regions, the Ciscaucasia and the south of the eastern part of Russia. The main areas of this species are meadows and slopes with rocky ground, limestones and steppes, as well as pine forests. The stems reach 65 cm in height. Their surface has three thin grooves; in the upper part, the shoots may have branching or they grow simple. A large number of leaves are attached to the stems with the help of petioles. The color of the shoots is greenish-gray.
The foliage of yarrow noble in the root zone and on the stems has an elongated elliptical or ovoid shape, while the leaves are characterized by a double or triple pinnate dissection. During flowering, the inflorescences that appear in summer have the form of dense scutes, formed by baskets. The marginal flowers are painted in a pale yellow or snow-white color scheme. The species began to be grown as a crop in 1561.
Yarrow (Achillea macrocephala)is a bush of slender outlines, varying in height within the range of 35-60 cm. Its diameter can be measured 6-14 cm. The foliage has a solid edge and lanceolate shape, while there is a double serration.
Yarrow meadow (Achillea filipendulina)It is possible to meet such a plant in nature on the territory of the Caucasus and Central Asia. The stems can reach a height of 120 cm. Leaf plates with openwork outlines are attached to them by cuttings, since they have a pinnate dissection. The foliage is greenish gray. Flowering occurs in the summer.
In the yarrow of the meadowsweet inflorescences of corymbose shape and flat outlines, their baskets are made up, the diameter of which does not exceed 5 mm. The diameter of the inflorescences themselves is equal to 13 cm. The baskets are formed by the marginal flowers on the outside and tubular in the middle. The former are characterized by a golden hue, while the latter are characterized by a bright yellow color scheme.
The following varieties of meadowsweet are most often used in culture:
- Coronation Gold or Coronation of Gold in height reaching 80 cm.The inflorescences of the corymbose shape are distinguished by their density, and their diameter is equal to 15 cm.
- Altgold justifying the name of the owl "old gold" thanks to the inflorescences painted in a copper tone. Such shields look quite colorful against the background of greenish-gray foliage.
- Flowers of Salf this name of the variety of meadowsweet corresponds to the color of inflorescences that have a sulfur-yellow color scheme, the deciduous mass has a green-gray tint.
- Gold Plate in height, the shrub can reach 120 cm. Inflorescences of the corymbose shape are characterized by a convex shape, and the flowers in them have a dark yellow tint.
- Parker it is considered a tall variety of meadowsweet yarrow, since the height of the stems is 120 cm. The inflorescences-shields are painted in a yellow-golden tone.
- Moonshine characterized by a shrubby form of growth, and the height of the shoots varies in the range of 40-60 cm. Inflorescences have corymbose outlines and their shade is yellowish-lemon.
- Schwellenburg or Goldquirl-Garbe stem heights range from 20 to 40 cm.
Yarrow ptarmica (Achillea ptarmica),which is also called sneezing herb. Growth occurs in natural conditions in the Central European region and the European part of Russia. Perennial with a creeping rhizome. The height of the stems is almost a meter. Shoots grow straight and are characterized by dense foliage. The leaves have a regular arrangement, their size is small, whole. The shape of the leaf plates is linear-lanceolate, the edge is serrated.
When flowering in the yarrow ptarmik in the summer, corymbose inflorescences formed by baskets are formed. Those, in turn, are formed from flowers with a whitish pearlescent tone. The diameter of the baskets reaches 1.5 cm. The cultivation of this species began in 1542. In those days, the plant enjoyed unprecedented popularity. When grown in gardens, the following varieties are most often used today, characterized by a double-shaped inflorescence:
- Pearl (Perl) or Pearl, named because of the pearlescent white color of the terry inflorescences from the baskets. Their diameter is measured 2 cm.The height of the stems does not exceed 75 cm.
- Boule de Neige, possesses stems, the height indicators of which vary within 45-60 cm.
- Perry's White it can reach a height of 80–100 cm with stems. The inflorescences of this variety of yarrow ptarmik also have a double shape.
- Perle Blaupunkt and Ballerina (Balerina). The stems of both of these varieties are in the range of 50–60 cm. Their tops are decorated with double-shaped inflorescences with a delicate pearl-white color scheme, but in "Ballerina" the color of the flowers very quickly becomes a dirty gray.
- Stephanie Cohen is a recently bred variety, the inflorescences are also terry, the flowers in them are characterized by a lilac hue.
Felt Yarrow (Achillea tomentosa)Natural areas of growth of this species fall on the West Siberian lands and southeastern regions of Europe. Due to the peculiarity of carpeting with the help of stems, it is recommended in the garden as a ground cover and planted in a rock garden. In height, such bushy plants are not more than 15 cm, but at the same time there is a significant growth of the curtain in width. The diameter can reach almost 45 cm. The specific name was given because of the whitish, tomentose pubescence on the surface of the leaf plates, characterized by a silvery tint. The shape of the leaves is pinnately dissected. It is interesting that in the winter period the decay of the deciduous mass does not occur, but it tends to simply press strongly against the surface of the soil on the site.
When flowering yarrow, which occurs in summer, corymbose inflorescences are formed, reaching a diameter of 7 cm. The inflorescences make up baskets with flowers of a lemon-yellow tone. The variety is popular among all varieties Aurea (Maynards Gold). These plants are no more than 20 cm in height and the color of their inflorescences is of a rich yellow color.
Yarrow (Achillea millefolium),also called Yarrow officinalis. The plant got its specific name due to the fusion of a pair of words "mille" and "folium", which translate as "thousand" and "leaf", respectively, reflecting the division of the leaf plate into a large number of segments. The species is characterized by wide distribution on the lands of both Europe and Asia; it is an introduced representative of the flora on other continents. The height of the stems is 80 cm. The leaves grow alternately.Their shape is 2 or 3 pinnately dissected, while the outlines of the segments are lanceolate. The leaves at the top of the stems grow sessile, in the lower part they are attached with petioles.
When flowering, corymbose inflorescences are formed in the medicinal yarrow. The diameter of the inflorescence is not more than 70 cm. It is formed by baskets of tubular and ligulate flowers. The first (central) ones have a yellow tint, the second (along the edges) can take on a snow-white, pink or crimson tone. The first data on cultivation date back to 1440. It is used not only as an ornamental, but also as a medicinal plant.
The best varieties of yarrow are recognized:
- Paprika characterized by reed flowers along the edges of a reddish-cherry color, which gradually fade under the sun's rays.
- Red Velvet the owner of inflorescences of a rich red hue, while the color of the flowers does not change until wilting.
- Walter Funch or Walter Funke) has flowers that are part of corymbose inflorescences of salmon tone.
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