Find out which hormones need to be suppressed so that the percentage of adipose tissue in the body does not dramatically increase, even with a plentiful diet. Today, not only doctors, but also many ordinary people know what an important role hormones play in the body. All processes in our body, including appetite and metabolism, depend on the synthesis of these substances. Today we will take a look at hormones that affect weight gain.
What hormones affect weight gain?
This is not one, but a whole group of hormonal substances that have a huge effect on the female body. In small amounts, estrogens are also necessary for men. In total, the estrogen group includes three substances, and they are not interchangeable. The most famous of these is estradiol. The hormone is synthesized by the ovaries, and after the onset of menopause, this process stops.
Estradiol helps to increase the index of insulin resistance of tissues, increases energy storage, improves mood, memory and attention. Among other properties of estradiol, we note the ability to enhance sexual desire, increase the rate of metabolic processes and increase the rate of bone mineralization.
If the concentration of the hormone in middle-aged women falls, then this can lead to a slowdown in the synthesis of serotonin. Let's remind that our emotional state depends on the level of this substance. Scientists are confident that a decrease in estradiol levels leads to an increase in body weight.
The second hormone of the estrogen group is estrone. The substance is synthesized by adipose tissues and ovaries. In situations where the concentration of estradiol drops (menopause, removal of the uterus, or for other reasons), the female body begins to actively produce estrone.
This as a result leads to a decrease in the rate of metabolic processes and weight gain. Estrone cannot eliminate the negative changes that are activated in the female body after menopause. In addition, an increased concentration of this hormonal substance can cause the development of oncological ailments of the mammary glands.
The third hormone from the estrogen group is called estriol. It is the weakest and is produced during pregnancy by the placenta. Due to the low effect on the body, estriol-based preparations are considered safe and easy. However, it should be remembered that the substance has all the same properties that estradiol has. Although these hormones are not interchangeable, when using synthetic estriol during menopause, it becomes possible to stimulate the functioning of the mammary glands and uterus.
Another female hormone that prepares pregnancy. It has a strong effect on appetite, and its concentration reaches its maximum levels in the second half of the cycle. Actually, it is this fact that explains the constant desire to eat in a given period of time. In addition to all of the above, progesterone contributes to fluid retention in the body and an increase in breast size, which, again, is a preparation for pregnancy.
Thanks to progesterone, the process of moving food through the digestive tract slows down and the body receives more nutrients. This property of the substance is useful during hunger. The substance also acts on the brain, producing a sedative effect. This often causes a sharp decrease in activity and a gain in fat mass.
The male hormone is also present in small quantities in the body of women.After menopause, testosterone production almost halves. The male hormone helps to increase sex drive and is also necessary for the regulation of body weight. Since the substance has strong anabolic properties, it promotes the growth of muscle tissue and causes the body to start burning fat stores for energy.
Although today we are focusing primarily on hormones that affect weight gain, testosterone is worth talking about. We'll come back to it below, and you will find out how testosterone in combination with estradiol helps maintain body weight.
The thyroid gland synthesizes two substances - T3 and T4, which have a serious impact on metabolic processes. They are able to regulate the processes of energy use and its creation in the cellular structures of all body tissues. General metabolism depends on the concentration of thyroid hormones and the biochemical processes activated by them at the cellular level.
With violations in the work of the ovaries, the concentration of thyroid hormones drops, and the woman begins to actively gain weight. This occurs even when using a low energy nutrition program. If the level of T3 and T4 increases significantly, then this leads to an increase in appetite and the subsequent gain in body weight.
It is a stress hormone that increases in concentration during irritation. If the stress was short-lived, but strong, then the body begins to actively synthesize adrenaline. However, stressful situations, regardless of the duration, can activate the processes of neolipogenesis, and especially in the waist area.
This is due to the fact that after the release of adrenaline into the bloodstream, appetite increases dramatically. First of all, a person is drawn to sweets and not everyone can restrain himself. If stress is chronic in nature, then the situation is aggravated, as you become exhausted, and the desire to eat sweets is constantly growing.
Speaking of insulin, we should remember another hormonal substance - glucagon. They affect blood glucose levels. And, therefore, on a set of body weight. Note that their effect on glucose is the opposite. Insulin's job is to lower sugar levels and deliver it to cellular structures, where it is then converted into energy.
If the body does not need energy, then insulin delivers glucose to adipose cell structures, which leads to weight gain. Glucagon, in turn, at a low sugar concentration, causes the liver to release glucose from adipose tissues, after which it is used for energy. The rate of insulin synthesis is greatly influenced by hormones synthesized by the ovaries. Insulin resistance is a very important indicator. If it is high, then the body becomes insulin resistant and the person gains weight.
This hormonal substance is synthesized by the pituitary gland and, at high concentrations, can cause weight gain. The main task of the hormone in a woman's body is to regulate the production of breast milk and in the last trimester, its level rises sharply. In small quantities, prolactin is also found in the male body.
If a woman's prolactin level exceeds the normal level, then the production of estrogen slows down, and her periods become irregular. If this situation is observed for a long time, then menstruation may stop altogether, and the mammary glands will begin to produce milk. This is the main symptom of a disruption in the hormonal system, which is associated with many problems, including weight gain.
The main effect on body weight is prolactin through the influence on appetite.During pregnancy, this is important, because some of the nutrients consumed by the mother are taken by the fetus. However, if a woman is not pregnant, and the concentration of the hormone is high, then weight gain is difficult to avoid. Also, the hormone suppresses the work of the ovaries, thereby slowing down the synthesis of estradiol and testosterone.
With age and with menopause, the concentration of prolactin increases, which can cause an increase in body weight. Many factors affect the synthesis of the hormonal substance, for example, stress, sports, hypothyroidism, various medications, etc. If you suspect that the level of prolactin in your body has increased, we recommend that you consult a doctor and conduct a diagnosis.
Leptin is also a hormone that contributes to weight gain. This substance was discovered relatively recently, and it is used by the body as a regulator of the amount of adipose tissue and their distribution throughout the body. The synthesis of a substance can be disrupted in middle age or during menopause. An interesting fact is that the hormone is synthesized directly by adipose tissues.
Once in the bloodstream, and then the brain, leptin tells it about the amount of fat reserves. In addition, the substance has a certain effect on reproductive function. It becomes difficult for a woman to become pregnant with excessive obesity or low appetite. Almost always, in people suffering from these ailments, during the diagnosis, a high concentration of leptin and disturbances in the process of its synthesis are found.
Scientists hypothesize that leptin can safely reduce appetite while increasing the ability of cellular structures to consume energy, leading to weight loss. Another important task solved by the hormone is the activation of the production and release of NPU (neuropeptide U).
This substance has the opposite properties of leptin, reducing energy consumption and increasing appetite, as well as the concentration of insulin with cortisol. Everyone knows that the distribution of adipose tissues in the male and female body is different. Scientists now speculate that this is due to the concentration of leptin, the production of which is influenced by estrogens, testosterone and progesterone.
Another hormone prevalent in the male body. At one time, synthetic DHEA was touted as an effective weight loss product, but it could only be beneficial for men. If a woman takes drugs based on this substance, then in addition to gaining excess weight, she will also receive a lot of problems. The hormone is synthesized most actively in the female body before menopause.
In the course of research, it was found that during menopause in the female body there is a high content of fats, which are distributed throughout the body in the shape of an apple. At the same time, the concentration of leptin is high, and there are violations in the processes of hormone production. The theory of leptin resistance is now popular, which explains the presence of a high concentration of the hormone in obese people.
Since the body becomes less sensitive to the substance, the brain does not have a complete picture of what is happening in the body. If the leptin resistance indicator is normal, then an increase in its concentration should lead to active fat burning.
You will learn more about hormones that affect weight in the following video: