Characteristics of hummus, production and manufacture at home. Caloric content and chemical composition, impact on the human body. What dishes are prepared with a snack?
Hummus (khomus, khommus, hummus) is an appetizer made from chickpea puree, olive oil and spices. Consistency - homogeneous, pasty; color - ocher, beige, brown, light brown, creamy, greenish; taste and smell are difficult to describe unambiguously, they depend on additional ingredients. It can be spicy, sweetish, pungent, bitter. In cooking, chickpea sauce is used as an ingredient in many dishes.
How is hummus made?
In the countries of the Middle East, the snack is very popular, and in order to saturate the market, production complexes for its production have been developed, although the process is not fully automated.
How hummus is made industrially
- The beans are sorted by hand on special tables equipped with sides on three sides, and on one side with a chute through which the raw material enters the washing installation (or into the bath).
- After rinsing, the chickpeas are allowed to swell in tap water. The duration of the process is 2.5-3 hours.
- The swollen chickpeas enter the digester via an open conveyor, the boiling temperature is 100 ° C.
- The finished beans are fed via a conveyor to a cooling unit - a quick freezing chamber. The product comes with a temperature of 70 ° C, and within 3-7 minutes it drops to 4 ° C.
- Cold chickpeas are ground in a cutter. When preparing hummus at this stage, additional additives are introduced into the composition, according to the recipe used, and kneaded thoroughly.
- The final raw materials are placed in a vacuum dispenser and then packaged in a plastic container. The weight of the package is controlled using an electronic scale.
- Further, the process is fully automated. They are sealed with latch caps, self-adhesive labels are applied using an installation, marked and transferred again with a conveyor to a group package.
- The boxes are placed in the refrigerating chamber of the warehouse, from where they are later sent to the consumer. Shelf life - from the moment of packaging.
You can buy hummus not only in Israel or Arab countries. Bean paste began to be produced in Russia. Industrial lines are automated, the feedstock is supplied completely cleaned and crushed, that is, flour is often used instead of beans. There is no GOST for hummus, but in order to control the quality of the product, TU 9165-272-37676459-2014 has been developed. Now 20 types of snacks are made.
The price of a pack of Russian-made hummus is from 75 rubles, imported - from 150 rubles. "Domestic pasta" is packaged in glass jars with a screw cap.
There are many recipes for making your own hummus. Raw materials should be soaked not for 3 hours, but for 10-12 hours. Cook over very low heat, so that the water does not boil away. If there is not enough liquid, it will not be possible to achieve the desired consistency. It is best to use a pressure cooker during this process. The beans are done if they turn into a delicate puree when squeezed in the hand. Neither salt nor other seasonings are added during cooking.
- With cumin and pine nuts… Transfer the finished paste to a blender, pour in a little olive oil, crushed cumin, a few drops of lemon juice, tahini - sesame paste, salt to taste. The homogeneous mixture is transferred to a glass jar and allowed to cool and infuse for at least 2-3 hours, under a lid. Garnish with fried pine nuts before serving.
- Homemade hummus with parsley… 1, 5 cups of pasta are placed in the bowl of a blender, add 3/4 cup sesame paste and 1/2 - lemon juice, 2-3 harvested garlic teeth, 1 teaspoon of salt, pepper and olive oil - to taste. Sprinkle with finely chopped parsley before serving.
- Classic recipe… The easiest way to prepare: 200 g of pasta is whipped with 20 ml of fresh lemon juice, 40 ml of olive oil, 40 ml of tahini, add 10 g of ground cumin and smoked paprika each.
At home, hummus is made not only from fresh, but also from canned beans, various spices and seasonings are added, and even the main ingredient is changed. For example, beets are used instead of chickpea paste. 500 g of boiled vegetable is crushed to a pasty state, sometimes 2 tbsp are mixed with pieces of tops. l. sesame paste, salt, pepper, add 1 tbsp. l. lemon zest and cumin, 5 tbsp. l. lemon juice, 1-2 cloves of crushed garlic. If zucchini is the main ingredient, it is recommended to add sesame seeds, eggplant - paprika and a little tomato paste.
Composition and calorie content of hummus
In the photo hummus
Conscientious manufacturers do not use genetically modified beans as the main ingredient. But to be sure of the naturalness of the product, you should purchase domestic options or cook it yourself.
The calorie content of classic hummus is 237 kcal per 100 g, of which
- Proteins - 7.8 g;
- Fat - 17.8 g;
- Carbohydrates - 9.5 g;
- Dietary fiber - 5.5 g;
- Ash - 2 g;
- Water - 57 g.
There are so many vitamins that you should pay attention only to the predominant ones, which provide the beneficial properties of hummus. Most of all in the composition of nicotinic and pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, tocopherol and carotene.
Macronutrients per 100 g
- Potassium, K - 312 mg;
- Calcium, Ca - 47 mg;
- Magnesium, Mg - 75 mg;
- Sodium, Na - 426 mg;
- Phosphorus, P - 181 mg.
Microelements per 100 g
- Iron, Fe - 2.54 mg;
- Manganese, Mn - 1.155 mg;
- Copper, Cu - 377 μg;
- Selenium, Se - 4.7 μg;
- Zinc, Zn - 1.44 mg.
The benefits and harms of hummus depend not only on the complex of vitamins and minerals. Due to the addition of olive oil in the composition, a high amount of fats, including transgenic ones, which cause an increase in cholesterol.
Fats per 100 g
- Saturated - 2.56 g;
- Monounsaturated - 5.34 g;
- Polyunsaturated - 8.8 g;
- Trans fats - up to 1.9 g.
Hummus contains 12 types of essential and 8 nonessential amino acids, fast and slowly digestible carbohydrates - starch, dextrins, mono- and disaccharides, fructose, sucrose.
Despite the relatively high calorie content, the seasoning is recommended to be introduced into diets intended for weight loss. This is due to the property to accelerate the breakdown of the subcutaneous fat layer. In large quantities, they do not eat pasta - they are limited to a few spoons. You can't get fat from such a portion. The recommended dosage is 1.5 tbsp. l. for a meal.
Important! Stabilizers and preservatives must be added to the composition of the snack, packaged in an industrial environment, otherwise it will turn sour during transportation.
Useful properties of hummus
The beneficial effect of a food product on the body was noticed by the ancient Arabs, who made a snack for the first time.
The benefits of hummus
- It speeds up metabolism, increases the speed of peristalsis, stimulates the removal of accumulated toxins and toxins.
- Increases appetite, increases saliva production, which reduces the incidence of tooth decay and periodontal disease.
- Cleanses the liver, helps to get rid of the breakdown products of nicotine and ethanol.
- Improves the condition of the skin and hair, suppresses the purulent-inflammatory processes of the epithelium.
- Normalizes immunity.
- Increases resistance to psycho-emotional stress, stabilizes the nervous system, accelerates nerve-impulse conduction.
- Increases endurance, strengthens the walls of blood vessels, has a positive effect on the work of the heart, maintains a stable rhythm and prevents coronary disorders.
- Prevents the development of inflammatory processes of the bone system - arthritis and osteoarthritis.
Hummus can be added to the daily menu during pregnancy. Indeed, at this time, the body needs products with easily digestible protein - plant is easier to digest than animal. In young women, the seasoning stabilizes the menstrual cycle, at the age of 45 - it facilitates the transition to the climacteric phase and reduces the severity of unpleasant symptoms (hot flashes and "surges" of blood pressure).
Contraindications and harm of hummus
Despite the beneficial effect, it must be remembered that chickpeas in themselves are a product that is difficult for the stomach. One of the properties of legumes is to increase flatulence. Therefore, overeating is undesirable.
Hummus can be harmful to people with a history of peptic ulcer disease, chronic cholecystitis, pancreatitis, colitis, or liver dysfunction. You should refuse to enter into the diet with acute gastritis, with hepatitis, thrombophlebitis and other diseases of the hematopoietic system, a symptom of which is blood thickening.
If there is a tendency to allergic reactions, preference should be given to homemade hummus. The composition of the product is not always fully indicated on the packaging, moreover, food disorders or symptoms of intolerance (diarrhea, flatulence, colic, itching) can be provoked by preservatives or flavorings.
Seasoning is universal. It can be put on the table during gala receptions and offered to family members as an addition to breakfast or dinner. Serving can be ordinary and "ceremonial" - for decorative purposes, they are decorated with pomegranate seeds, pine nuts or greenery. The pasta can be used as an ingredient in various dishes.
- Rice soup… In a deep frying pan, heat 3 tbsp. l. olive oil and fry 5 crushed garlic teeth and half a finely chopped onion. When the onion is soft, add seasonings - 1 tsp each. paprika and cumin, stir in 4 tbsp. l. tomato paste and stew for 3 minutes, stirring constantly. Washed with 3/4 cup rice. Add it to the frying, pour in 2.5 liters of pre-cooked chicken broth and stir in a glass of hummus. Cook until rice is cooked, add some salt and pepper, if necessary. The hot soup is poured into bowls. A lemon slice is dipped into each, a handful of white bread croutons and fresh cilantro slices are poured. Additional flavoring ingredients can be served separately.
- Platter with hummus and small fish… Red mullet, gobies or smelt are cleaned, rolled in batter - a mixture of flour, salt and pepper. Heat vegetable oil in a frying pan to a boil, lower the fish and fry until a crispy brown crust appears. The chickpea paste is heated, mixed with lemon juice, chili and roasted pine nuts. Spread fried fish on a dish and "sink" in a "pillow". The dish is decorated with olives.
- Spaghetti sauce… Pasta (200 g) is boiled and discarded in a colander without rinsing. 1 glass of liquid is left. Remove sun-dried tomatoes (50 g) from the oil and fry in a pan along with 3 crushed garlic teeth. Add hummus (150 g), chopped spinach (200 g) to frying and simmer over low heat until the herbs are cooked. Regulate thickening by pouring in spaghetti water. The sauce is added and pepper to taste. You can season the spaghetti by spreading it out on plates, or pour them into the pan and stir.
Read also about the features of making chickpeas.
Interesting facts about hummus
This is one of the most ancient spices. The first mentions were found in the cookbooks of Arab cooks dating from the 13th century, but the dish was probably prepared much earlier. After all, chickpeas were one of the main products of the peoples of the countries of North Africa and the Middle East.
At that time, there were no refrigerators, and to extend the shelf life, bean paste was necessarily mixed with natural preservatives - lemon juice and vinegar. Now they have given up the vinegar.There were no chemical compounds and stabilizers, so people did not risk their own health. They ate only a natural product made by themselves. Hummus was used to season tortillas, vegetable dishes and even dairy products.
Europeans appreciated the taste and benefits of the seasoning only in the middle of the twentieth century: in 1955, the British first described hummus and offered recipes to the general public. In the United States, the snack was appreciated at the end of the twentieth century and immediately began not only to be purchased in large quantities, but also to be made independently. In 2017, 15 million Americans were found to have this product a regular feature of their daily menus.
It is interesting that, despite the availability of travel around the world for American citizens, they learned about hummus not from fellow citizens-tourists who visited Israel, but from migrants from Lebanon. 1975-1980 there was a civil war in this country, and many refugees ended up in the States.
In Israel, the seasoning is served in catering establishments and guests are treated to it. Preference is given to the finished product. But in Palestine, they make it on their own and eat it hot, with flat cakes or cereals.
In 2010, the largest portion of hummus was prepared - 10452 kg! The achievement was entered into the Guinness Book of Records. For almost a year, more precisely 300 days, the cooks of Beirut used to cook it, they spent 8000 kg of chickpeas, 2000 kg of sesame paste and lemon juice, and also olive oil - almost 100 liters, spices.
What is hummus - watch the video:
If possible, it is worth introducing this seasoning into the diet of households on an ongoing basis. And cook it yourself. Then hummus will be not only tasty, but also healthy.