Characteristics of the tritelia plant, the rules of planting and care in the backyard, recommendations for reproduction, how to protect against possible pests and diseases, notes for gardeners, species and varieties.
Tritelia (Triteleia) is allocated to the genus of herbaceous plants, which is included in the Brodiaeoideae subfamily. The latter is part of the vast Asparagaceae family. It happens that the specified genus in some sources belongs to the family Onions (Alliaceae), Liliaceae (Liliaceae) or Themidaceae, since the representative of the flora has corms, which is typical for plants from these families.
Although in the genus, according to various sources, there are 7-15 species, but only a number of them are used as ornamental horticultural crops. The native habitat of triteli falls on the North American continent (in particular, its western regions, from the north to British Columbia, as well as states such as Idaho and Nevada, Washington and Oregon, Montana and California). But most of all species can be found in the Californian lands. There, plants prefer to settle in open spaces or in light shading.
|Breeds||Seeds or planting bulbs|
|Open ground transplant terms||April May|
|Landing rules||At a distance of 10-15 cm from each other|
|Priming||Nutritious, light, moderately moist and drained|
|Soil acidity values, pH||6, 5-7 (neutral)|
|Illumination level||Well-lit place or light partial shade|
|Humidity level||Regular watering during growth and flowering, sparse to moderate at the end|
|Special care rules||It is recommended to apply fertilizers|
|Height options||0.3–0.7 m|
|Flowering period||From early June to mid-summer|
|Type of inflorescences or flowers||Umbrella inflorescence|
|Color of flowers||Snow white, blue, lilac, pink, purple, yellow|
|Fruit type||Seed capsule|
|The timing of fruit ripening||At the end of summer|
|Decorative period||2-3 weeks in summer|
|Application in landscape design||For the decoration of borders, in group plantings on flower beds and flower beds|
|USDA zone||5 and higher|
The genus Tritelia got its name due to the combination of a pair of Greek terms: "tri" and "teleios", which translate as "three" and "ideal", respectively. In all likelihood, this phrase indicated that the number of petals in flowers is always a multiple of three. The people have stuck with the plant the name "summer crocus", because of the similarity of these representatives of the flora and the flowering period.
Tritelia stems rarely exceed 0.3–0.7 m. As mentioned above, this plant is a perennial with a herbaceous vegetation. Its corms are small in size, their diameter does not exceed 2.5 cm. The surface of the bulbs is covered with dry membranous scales, painted in a light beige or brownish color scheme.
RemarkableLike relatives of brodiei, corms triteli are edible, in boiled form they taste like potatoes.
Each of the bulbs gives rise to several leaf blades that grow straight. Usually there are 1-3 sheets. The shape of the leaves is narrowed, narrow lanceolate or linear, the surface is flat and bare. The foliage is 20–70 cm long and about 4–10 cm wide. The leaf at the top gradually tapers into a rounded tip. The color of the deciduous mass is a rich herbaceous green hue.
Flowering in tritelia, unlike crocuses, occurs in the summer period, but it will go on at different times, since the beginning starts in early June and ends in mid-summer. Flowering takes several weeks.
NoteIf the cultivation of tritelia is carried out in greenhouse conditions, then it can bloom twice a year (in late spring and in October).
During flowering, a flowering stem with a round cross section is pulled out from the central part of the bulb. Its color is the same as that of the leaves. The surface of the stems is bare, except for the base, it is rough. If the plant is planted in shade, then the length of the flower-bearing stem can reach half a meter. At its top, an umbrella inflorescence is collected from small flowers. The bracts are green, but in Triteleia lemmoniae they are purple. Their shape is almost lanceolate, cicatricial. The flowers have a 6-toothed perianth that gradually grows into a tube of various lengths and shapes (usually funnel-shaped). The perianth is divided into lobes, usually ascending to the opening.
The outlines of the corolla in tritelia are both bell-shaped and funnel-shaped. The petals are slightly pointed at the tops. Their color in flowers can take on snow-white and blue, lilac and pink, purple and yellow colors, but this directly depends on the variety and type. The flower has 6 stamens sitting on threads adjacent to the perianth tube. The threads are arranged in 1-2 rows. Their length is equal or the size of the thread has two unequal lengths.
After flowering is completed, fruits are formed, which in Tritelia look like a box filled with a large number of seeds. Seeds are painted black. The shape of the capsules is ovoid. The surface of the seeds is ribbed on one side, the seeds themselves are finely granular or granular-mesh, covered with a crust.
Summer crocus is a plant that is not difficult to care for and with a little effort you can grow delicate flowers on a flower bed, and if you want to see them for longer, then some gardeners are cultivating them at home.
Rules for planting and caring for tritelia in the open field
- Landing place for the "summer hyacinth" should be selected open or lightly shaded, for example, under the crowns of tall trees, so that the deciduous mass can provide an openwork shade. It is noticed that in a sunny place, the flowering will be more magnificent. In strong shading, the growth of tritelia will slow down, and the number of flowering stems formed will be very small. It is recommended that such a location be warm and protected from drafts. Do not land in places close to groundwater or in lowlands where moisture can accumulate after rain.
- Soil for tritelia should be light, slightly moist, and necessarily nutritious. To do this, mix peat chips, river sand and garden soil in a 2: 1: 2 ratio. If there is no peat, leaf compost or humus may work. The acidity of the soil is preferably neutral (pH 6, 5–7). This soil mixture will be suitable for all types and varieties of "summer hyacinth".
- Landing tritelia (both seedlings and corms) in open ground should be carried out no earlier than April, but if there is a threat of return frosts, then in May. For this, a bucket of water, a shovel (to form planting holes), a bucket of river sand (or fine gravel) and a substrate prepared in advance are used. The pits for planting should be placed at a distance of 10-15 cm from one another. Their depth should not exceed 8-10 cm. A little sand or rubble (only 2-3 cm) is poured into the hole in the first layer, which will subsequently serve as protection of the bulbs from waterlogging. Then a soil mixture is placed on top, almost to half of the hole, and only then the corms of tritelia are placed on it. The well is covered with a substrate, which needs to be slightly compacted. Watering in progress.It is not necessary to deeply deepen the corm when planting, otherwise germination will take a very long time.
- Watering when growing triteli, it should be carried out in such a way that the soil does not sour, but is in a constantly moderately moist state. To do this, when planting in a hole, you need to pour 3-4 liters of water, and after planting, the plant is watered again. The next time the soil is moistened when its surface begins to dry out. Despite its drought tolerance, watering is essential during the growing season. Therefore, in the spring months, before flowering begins, the soil is moistened several times a week. After flowering is complete and until the end of the growing season, tritelia should be watered much less frequently. At the same time, it is important that the soil is never waterlogged, as this can provoke the appearance of fungal diseases. After each watering or rain, the soil should be loosened so that the roots have more air.
- Fertilizers when caring for tritelia, it is necessary to make it both during planting and after it. When a corm or a "summer hyacinth" seedling is planted in the planting hole, a little humus or leaf compost is placed in it at the bottom. After 7-14 days, after the adaptation is completed, it is recommended to apply nitrogen fertilizing (for example, nitroammofosku or urea) in order for the plant to grow its deciduous mass. When flowering, superphosphate should be added to the water for irrigation. If you dig up the corms of tritelia in the autumn and plant them in a pot, and during the winter months do top dressing, then the formation of new "babies" (young bulbs) will take place much faster. There is information that when organic matter (compost and humus) is introduced, flowering will delight with splendor and duration.
- Wintering of tritelia. When "summer hyacinth" is grown in warm climates, but the corms after the leaves wilted can not be removed from the soil. The place where they remained in the soil with the arrival of autumn is simply sprinkled with covering material. It can be spruce branches or sawdust. If the growing area is characterized by snowy and harsh winters, then tritelia bulbs will have to be dug out so that they do not die. After they are dug up and cleaned of soil residues, drying is performed. They are laid out on a horizontal surface on paper or a clean cloth. As soon as the corms are a little dry, they are placed in boxes and sprinkled with sawdust. Storage should be carried out in a dark, dry and cool place.
- The use of triteli in landscape design. Most of all "summer hyacinth" looks in group plantings. Mixed borders can be decorated with such bushes. The best neighbors for tritelia are tigridia and geissorizas, as well as escholzia and loevkokovina. It is not bad to plant bright ground cover crops nearby with such annuals. If there is a desire, then such a plant can be planted in a pot and grown indoors, providing greenhouse conditions. Then it will be possible to rejoice in flowering twice a year.
See also description of furcrea.
Recommendations for breeding tritlei
To carry out the reproduction of the "summer hyacinth", both the seed method and the planting of corms are suitable. The latter method is often considered the most acceptable.
Reproduction of tritelia using seedsThis option will require a lot of effort and time from the gardener. The grown bushes from seed material will please with flowering only after 3-4 years. Seeds are sown in planting containers filled with a nutritious, but light substrate (a peat-sand mixture or purchased special soil for seedlings may be suitable). Germination should be carried out in greenhouse conditions. With sustained high humidity and positive temperature (about 15-18 degrees). The place where the seedling box is placed should be well lit, but at the same time protected from direct sunlight.
As the surface of the soil dries up, you need to spray with warm water from a fine spray gun. It is recommended to plant seedlings of tritelia in cold climates in open ground with the arrival of next spring, if the climatic conditions are mild, then transplantation can be carried out into the garden in the fall.
NoteThere are species that, even with seed reproduction, will begin to bloom a couple of years after sowing.
Reproduction of triteli and cormsEvery year, like any bulbous plant in the "summer hyacinth" next to the mother's bulb, small bulbs - babies - are formed. It is through them that subsequent reproduction occurs. In the autumn, when all the leaves dry out, it is necessary to remove the old corms from the soil and to separate the "young". After that, all the bulbs must be sent for storage in a dark and dry place, so that, with the arrival of spring heat, they can be planted in a prepared place in the open ground.
Planting of baby bulbs Triteli is carried out in the spring, approximately in April-May, when the soil is already well warmed up, and the threat of recurrent frosts has passed. Some growers recommend planting the bulbs in seedling boxes filled with peat-sandy substrate, placing the planting holes at a distance of 10–12 cm from one another. The depth of the bulbs should not be more than 8 cm, otherwise they will germinate for a very long time. After planting, watering is performed, which should be moderate in subsequent care. It is important to keep the substrate in a slightly moist state at all times.
There is true information that in April, Tritelia bulbs begin to grow more actively, and early planting can damage them. It is best to place the bulbs directly on the prepared spot in the garden.
How to protect tritelia from possible pests and diseases when growing in the garden
Most of all, the "summer hyacinth" suffers from violations of the rules of agricultural technology. For example, if you exceed the dosage of dressings or dry and hot weather for a long time, then the leaf plates acquire a brown color and fly around. With excessive soil moisture, the root system of the triteli decays.
She can also suffer from fungal diseases such as powdery mildew or gray mold. In the first case, parts of the plant are covered with a whitish bloom, the leaves gradually turn yellow, and a general wilting begins. In the second case, slippery dark spots appear on the stems and leaves, gradually growing and on top of which a fluffy coating forms. Any of these diseases is triggered by increased soil or air humidity. For treatment, it is recommended to remove the affected parts of the tritlei and treat with fungicidal preparations such as Fundazol, Skor or Vectra.
ImportantThe treatment of bushes with fungicides is carried out in strict accordance with the manufacturer's instructions once every 7 days, until the manifestations of the disease completely disappear and the plant recovers.
Among the pests that damage tritelia are:
- Aphids, a large number of green bugs, sucking cell juices from leaves and stems. The plant withers and dies. In the course of its activity, aphids leave a sticky sugary bloom (pad) on the plant, due to which a sooty fungus can begin. Also, this pest is a carrier of viral diseases, for which there is no cure for today, therefore, if it is detected, aphids should be dealt with immediately. It is recommended to use insecticidal preparations - Aktar, Actellik or Karbofos.
- Nematode, small worms that spoil the root system of tritelia. At the same time, it can be very difficult to take out "uninvited guests". In order to prevent nematodes from appearing on the site, it is customary to plant calendula nearby, the aroma of which is unpleasant to the nematode, or to use such means as Nematorin.
Notes for gardeners about tritelia
Often the plant can be confused with the "relative" brodieya. Since they both belong to the same subfamily and family, respectively.The sizes and colors are also nearly similar. In addition, both corms can be used for food. However, unlike tritelia, the above-mentioned representative of the flora does not have such a long flowering, which occurs in the spring and early summer.
Description of species and varieties of tritelia
Loose tritelia (Triteleia laxa)is the most common species. The distribution area is open forests, mixed coniferous or foothill forests, meadows on clay soil; the approximate height of growth is 0-1500 m. Homeland - California. The people are called "Ituriel's spear" or "herbal nut". Flowering occurs during spring-summer (April-June). The parameters of the leaves are 20–40 cm x 4–25 mm. The stem is 10–70 cm in height, smooth or rough at the base. The flowers of Tritelia loose have perianths, usually pale blue, sometimes deep bluish-violet or white. Perianth length is 18–47 mm.
In a flower, the tube at the base decreases, its parameters are 12–25 mm. The blades are gradually widening, their size is 8–20 mm. The stamens in the corolla are attached alternately at 2 levels, horizontal and curved upward at the apex, almost identical. Filaments are linear, 6 mm long. Anthers are white to bluish, 2–5 mm, with obtuse to conical apices. The ovary is 1 / 3–1 / 2 of the length with a stem, either in the center or on the back of the flower. The peduncle is ascending or spreading, often bent at the apex.
There are a number of varieties that are popular among gardeners:
- Queen Fabiola, the stem of which grows up to 40 cm, the flowers are painted in bluish-purple tones.
- Koningin Fabiola (Koningin Fabiola) - a variety of Tritelia loose, in which the height of the stems varies within 0, 4–0, 5 m. Flowers with purple petals.
Tritelia grandiflora (Triteleia grandiflora)justifies its specific name, the large size of the inflorescence, in which not too large flowers are collected. People call it "blue lily" or "wild hyacinth". Flowering occurs in the spring-summer period (April-July). It grows in nature in meadows, in thickets of wormwood, pine-juniper and pine forests and on hills at an altitude of 100-3000 m. The native area is in California, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Utah, Washington, Vayo.
Smooth stems can grow to a height of 0, 2–0, 75 m. The size of leaves in Tritelia and large-flowered varies from 20–70 cm x 4–10 mm.
The flowers are blue and purple. Through them, the formation of an umbrella inflorescence, crowning the flower stalks, occurs. In flowers, the perianths are bluish-purple to white, reach 17–35 mm in length, the tube is blunt and rounded at the base, 8–20 mm. The petals in this tritel are in the range of 9–13 mm; stamens are attached alternately at 2 levels, unequal; filaments are thin and somewhat triangular, wider to the base or wider, their length is 1–4 mm. Anthers yellow or purple, 2–4 mm; the ovary is twice as long as the leg; pedicel 1-4 cm.
Tritelia grandiflora is a typical species of the genus and, along with Triteleia hyacinthina, is its most widespread representative. Occurs throughout the region between the Cascade Range and the northern Rocky Mountains. Plants of this species are easily recognized by the shape of the perianth, which is rounded at the base rather than tapering like other Triteleia species.
Variety Triteleia bicolor (Triteleia bicolor) is a colored form characterized by a perianth, with a blue tube and white lobes.
Triteleia bridgesiiThe native lands of growth are in the foothills, pine and mixed evergreen forests, often forest edges and on rocks, dry cliffs, hillsides, mainly serpentine areas. Growing height 0-100 m. Occurs naturally in the states of California, Oregon. The flowering process occurs during the spring-summer period (April-June). The parameters of the sheet plates are 20–55 cm x 3–10 mm. Stem 10–60 cm, smooth, with the exception of a sometimes rough base.Leaves with a length and width of 20–55 cm x 3–10 mm, respectively. Flowers with a perianth of lilac, bluish-purple, pink or reddish-purple hue.
The perianth size in Tritelia Bridges is 27–45 mm, the tube is strongly narrowed with a thin base, its length is 17–25 mm. There are hyaline vesicles in the tube. The blades are sharply stretched, 10–20 mm shorter than the tube. The stamens are attached at the same level, equal; filaments are triangular, extended towards the base, 3-4 mm. Anthers are bluish, their size is 3, 5–4, 5 mm. Ovary 1 / 4–1 / 3 of the leg length; peduncle 2–9 cm. Fruit is a polyspermous capsule.
Triteleia hendersoniior Triteley Henderson. Distributed in nature on dry slopes with a height of 100–3000 m; in the states of California, Oregon. Blooms throughout spring and summer (May-July). The leaves are 15–40 cm x 3–12 mm in size. Stem height 10–35 cm, its surface is smooth or slightly rough at the base. The flowers have yellow or white perianths, often tinged or discolored blue. Perianth length 18–26 mm, tubular, finely funnel-shaped. Lobes, moderately reduced at the base, 6–10 mm long. The lobes are widely spaced, with a noticeable dark purple center. Their length parameters are 12–16 mm, which is twice as long as the tube. The stamens of tritelia and Henderson are attached at the 1st level, almost identical; filaments are narrowly directed, their length is 3-4 mm. The anthers are blue or sometimes white, 1.5–2 mm in size. The ovary of the flower is 1/2 of the length of the stem; pedicel 1, 5-4 cm.
Tritela Henderson is distributed within its limited range. Plants previously recognized as a variation leachiae, or separately as Triteleia leachiae, are distinguished primarily by the presence of a white perianth and are restricted to Curry County, Oregon.
Tritelia yellow (Triteleia crocea)In nature, it grows in open coniferous-yellow pine forests and on dry slopes; spreading height 1200–2200 m; found in the states of California and Oregon. The species blooms in spring and summer (May-June). Sheet plates are 9–40 cm x 2–10 mm in size. The smooth stem has a roughness at the base, its height is 10–30 cm. Flowers with a bright yellow or pale blue perianth. Perianth size 12–19 mm, tubular at the base, 5–10 mm. Its lobes are widely spreading, striped greenish, 5–11 mm.
Stamens in triteli and yellow flowers are attached alternately at 2 levels, unequal, very short in the first row. Filaments are linear or slightly wider at the base, reaching 1 or 3 mm in length. Anthers yellow or blue, 1–2 mm. The ovary is green, equal to or longer than the leg; pedicel in dyno reaches 0, 7-2 cm, usually shorter than the perianth.
Plants of Triteleia crocea from the Trinity Mountains of northern California differ from other species by the presence of pale blue perianths instead of yellow ones, with lobes slightly edged towards the top instead of whole ones.
Triteleia clementinaPrefers to grow in damp crevices, on rocky walls, interspersed with coastal sage bushes; growing height 0-200 m; California State. It is the only Triteleia species found on any of the islands off the southern California coast; is endemic to the island of San Clemente. The plant has a conservation status. Sheet plates measuring 30–100 cm x 4–30 mm. Stem 30–90 cm, smooth.
Perianth in tritelian and clementine flowers is lavender, its length is 16–27 mm, tubular-funnel-shaped, bell-shaped, acute at the base, 7–12 mm wide, petals are straight, 9–15 mm. The stamens are attached alternately at 2 levels, the same; the filaments are triangular, the widest at the base, 2 mm in size. Anthers purple, 1.5 mm; ovary white, even on the stem; pedicel 3–8 cm. The flowering process occurs in March-April.
Triteleia dudleyigrows in nature in subalpine forests, preferring chernozems; the height of distribution varies between 3000–3500 m. It is mainly found in the state of California. Flowering occurs in the summer (July).The foliage is approximately 10-30 cm x 3-11 mm in length and width. The stem is notable for its smoothness, its size is 10–35 cm. The flowers of the plant have perianths of a pale yellow hue, dry purple. Their size is 18-24 mm, the shape of the perianths is tubular-cylindrical or narrow-funnel-shaped. Their length parameters are 8–12 mm.
The petals are prostrate, lanceolate, their length is 8–12 mm. Stamens in tritelia and Dudley flower attached at 1 level, unequal, alternately long and short; filaments are widened along their entire length or narrowly triangular, with a length of 2 or 3.5 mm. Lavender anthers reach 1 mm. The ovary is equal to or longer than the leg; peduncle slender, 1.5–4 cm long.