Description of the general type of plant, the history of the origin of roses, an overview of the conditions for growing in the garden, difficulties in growing and pest control. Rose (Rosa) is included in the genus Rosehip, which is attributed to the Rose family, the Latin name is the same as the name of the plant. In fact, this word refers to all representatives of the genus grown by man, regardless of their variety. Some of the varieties originate from flowers that grow in the wild, but a great many varieties have already been obtained through numerous breeding efforts and careful selection. This plant is very difficult to classify, since it is constantly in instability. They try to classify plants according to some special characteristics, but as soon as a new type of flower is deduced, which responds to several at once, the whole harmonious system collapses. There are about 400 species of wild roses, about 1000 subspecies of these beauties and more than 30 thousand varieties of plants. This flower is bought most often in the world.
The rose is known to mankind since the "dense" antiquity, mentions of this plant fall on the time before the beginning of our era. Many countries have been involved in the cultivation of this magnificent plant - Rome, Italy, Persia and Greece, and these are not all of the countries listed. Of course, the beauty of the flower is unique, but basically it was cultivated not only for the aesthetic delight of the eyes, but also because of the medicinal and cosmetic properties of the rose. There were many beautiful legends about the flower.
There are the following varieties of roses:
- shrub (shrubs);
- floribunda (polyanthus);
- ground cover;
In shape, a rose bush can differ in a spreading appearance or pyramidal outlines. The height of the plant depends on the type of rose:
- hybrid tea or floribunda roses can stretch up to 30–90 cm in height;
- polyanthus can only grow up to 30–45 cm, but some of these varieties measure 60 cm;
- the height of miniature roses is only 25–30 cm;
- whip-like varieties of roses extend their creeping and curving shoots up to 2.5-6 m.
Usually, two types of perennial branches are distinguished in a plant: the main (uterine) and branches with complete growth, as well as five types of annual stems: growth, premature, fatty, generative, sylliptic.
The peduncle of roses, which are grown in gardens, can reach up to 80 cm, but sometimes it is only 10 cm. The sizes of flowers range from 1, 8-18 cm in diameter, and the colors are striking in their variety. The only thing is that there are no specimens with pure blue buds. However, a rose with green shades of petals has already been bred, but it is interesting only to people studying botany. There can be from 5 to 128 petals in a bud. The forms of flowers are also diverse, they can grow single, and gather in inflorescences of three or 200 pieces. Some roses began to grow in the form of double flowers, as some of the stamens grew into staminodes of petals. Staminodes are a stamen that has changed and lost its anther and no longer produces pollen (it has become sterile).
The aroma of roses is also striking in its variety of shades, in addition to the usual scent of a damask rose, there are notes of citrus, fruits, spices or incense.
Knowing which variety the plant belongs to is important for any grower who decided to start growing these wonderful flowers, as this will help create conditions for the successful growth and further flowering of his Rose.
Recommendations for growing roses in the garden
- Lighting and maintenance of a rose in the garden. The garden beauty loves sunny places most of all, therefore, when planting a rose in the garden, this must be taken into account. If this condition is not met, then the plant can be affected by diseases and pests. Also, the buds that the flower releases in a shaded place become small and completely dimly colored. The winter hardiness of a rose is very dependent on its group. However, most rose bushes that are grown in the middle lane and a little further north require winter shelter. It is recommended to shelter from mid-autumn (not earlier), after removing all unripe shoots and leaf plates, and shorten those that are ripe. The best shelter is air-dry, when a metal frame with a height of 50-60 cm is installed above the bush.
- Pruning a rose bush. You can form a bush at any time except for the winter months, but it is worth remembering that the spring operation of cutting shoots is preferable to create beautiful forms. If the plant is planted in the fall, then pruning will occur in the spring, as soon as the shelter from the cold has been removed. If the shoots are weakened, then it is recommended to set aside only two well-formed buds on them, but healthy and strong shoots are shortened by about 10-15 cm and the number of buds is 2-3. If the shoots of the bush are strongly stretched, then they must be pinched.
- Placement and planting of rose bushes. Most of all, when planting, you need to create space for the plants. To do this, you will have to try, since for a beginner grower, growing rose bushes will require certain knowledge. Usually, planting is carried out in the spring and it is better to choose the first half of the day. If the planting of rose bushes occurs in the middle lane, then the days are selected in late April or early May, but in the south you can plant roses in the autumn months. Before planting a plant, remove all roots and shoots that are damaged or diseased.
The grafting site must be buried approximately 3 cm into the soil. Rose bushes should not be thickened, this directly depends on the variety of roses that are planted - usually from 4 to 8-10 bushes are placed per 1 square meter. Their number is determined by the productivity of the variety and the compactness of the bush. If, for example, we take the Peyshen variety, then due to its compact form, but low productivity, experts recommend planting 10 bushes of a plant per 1 square meter. It is important that the bushes, growing, do not shade each other, since the decorativeness of the plant suffers with a lack of illumination. But, and too much space should not be left, it is very wasteful. Taking a rose of the Avalanche variety, which is distinguished by bushiness and spreading shoots, as well as high productivity, then planting for it in a flower bed is carried out only in 4 bushes per 1 sq.m. There are some rules for planting rose bushes according to flower varieties:
- Hybrid tea roses, floribunda, grandiflora - the distance between the bushes is 25–30 cm, and the length between the rows is 60–70 cm.
- Polyanthus and miniature roses - measurements between the bushes will be 15–20 cm, but 40–50 cm are left between the rows.
- Climbing and shrub roses - are planted at a distance of half a meter to a meter, the aisle is left from one and a half to two meters.
- Groundcover roses - for a skin variety, catalogs indicate their data, it is necessary to do a reconciliation.
For planting, it is necessary to make a depression 50x50 cm in size and lay the prepared soil mixture there so that a small mound is formed. For roses, it is best to use heavy loamy soil, with sufficient humus, with good air permeability and moisture capacity, acidity varies in the pH range of 5, 8-6, 5. It is recommended to prepare the composition of the soil in the fall or at least a month before planting rose bushes.
The substrate can be formulated on the basis of the following ingredients: sod-clay soil or garden soil, humus or compost soil (in proportions 1: 1). A rose seedling needs to be installed on a mound, the root system is carefully straightened and sprinkled with soil. Then the soil must be carefully and thoroughly compacted to avoid voids between the roots and the soil, then moistened abundantly. After watering, the rose bush should be spud. The planted shoots must be protected from drying out. After new shoots appear on the shoot, it is recommended to rake out the substrate and change its properties by mulching with peat or humus to a height of 3-5 cm - this will help maintain moisture.
The soil must be loosened regularly and weeds removed. After the spring pruning has passed, the soil should be "re-bayed" - this is done together with the application of fertilizers. Deep loosening of the substrate is carried out with the overturn of the earth layer to a depth of about 20 cm. Then, throughout the summer, with a regularity of 10 days, loosening is also performed to a depth of 15–20 cm, followed by the destruction of weeds.
After the plant has been planted, the soil should not be fertilized for a year, but then fertilizing is mandatory. They correspond to the stages of plant growth:
- the first is the revitalization of growth after winter;
- the second - when the buds begin to lay and ripen;
- the third - after the flowering process before the beginning and before new growth;
- fourth - when the shoots begin to lignify.
Liquid complex fertilizers are taken 1 glass per bucket (10 l) of water. Complex fertilizers are also used per 1 m2: nitroammophoska 40–45, nitrophoska within 30–40, nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium solutions containing 30–40 microelements, etc.
Along with this, it is necessary to introduce organic mixtures (humus), about 5–6 kg per 1 m2. Before and after the rose bushes are applied, it is required to water abundantly with clean water. You can use organic manure diluted in water, chicken droppings or crushed charcoal. Fertilizers with nitrogen should be applied only until the end of July, and with the arrival of August, so that the shoots ripen faster, they feed the roses with potassium and phosphorus with reduced watering.
Breeding methods for roses in garden plots
You can get a new plant using grafting methods, dividing the bush, layering, grafting, root shoots.
Pluses of cuttings - on the obtained plants there is no wild growth coming from the roots. A semi-lignified shoot is selected for cutting. There should be 2-3 buds on the handle and it is necessary to cut it obliquely from below (the upper cut can be straight and 1 cm above the bud). The lower cuts are treated with any root growth stimulant, the lower leaf plates are removed, and from above they are cut by a third. Landing is carried out in moistened sand or perlite 2 cm deep and slightly inclined. The planted twigs are wrapped in a plastic bag. For rooting, it is important to adhere to the requirements: heat indicators 20-25 degrees, and humidity in the range of 80-90%. Plants should not be exposed to the sun. If buds appear or root growth has begun, then this is evidence of root formation. In this case, the polyethylene is removed, and the young roses themselves can winter at 2-4 degrees Celsius.
Dividing a bush can be done if the rose is climbing, park or miniature and necessarily rooted. At the very beginning of spring, it is necessary to dig up the bush, and then divide it in such a way that each division has its own root system. Then, the pieces are planted in accordance with the previously described planting method. In order for the new plant to endure the winter well and grow better, then in the first year all the buds must be cut off. But park or species roses release a large number of root suckers, they have a high growth rate, and strong shoots grow from them. After a year, they are transplanted to a new place of growth.
The layering method is used to propagate ground cover or climbing roses. In early spring, an annual branch is selected and a small incision is made in the bark at the eye (a place in that part of the shoot that will be buried in the soil). The branch is planted in the ground to a depth of 10 cm and sufficiently moistened. The top of the shoot should be vertically above the soil. As the year passes, this plant should be planted.
Grafting should be done on a rosehip rootstock that was grown from cuttings or seeds. A stalk or eye of the selected rose is taken. Vaccination time is mid-summer. Most often, wrinkled rose (Rosa rugose) or dog rose (Rosa canina) are used, varieties that are resistant to frost, drought, have a developed root system, and are distinguished by durability. When budding (grafting with an eye), a stock is taken and after cleaning the root collar from the soil, a T-shaped incision is made, in which the horizontal line is measured 2.5 cm, and the vertical line is not more than 1 cm. The bud that will be grafted is selected from the middle of the matured branch. Then a cut is made from the bottom up with the capture of a piece of bark with a dormant kidney. This "notch" -shield is inserted into the T-shaped incision and if the upper part of the shield is visible, then it is cut off. The whole structure is tightly wrapped with a film for budding, and only the kidney remains free. After 3 weeks, the kidney should swell and begin to develop, but if it turns black, then the vaccination has failed. With the arrival of autumn, the place of the scion should be spud, and as soon as spring comes, the rootstock in the upper part is cut off slightly above the grafting and the film is removed.
Problems of growing roses in the garden, insect control
Roses can be affected by the following fungal diseases:
- Downy mildew, manifested by brown or reddish mildew. In this case, it is necessary to collect and destroy all affected leaves. For prophylaxis, planting is carried out in places where there is always an air flow circulation, and the plants are fed with preparations containing potassium and phosphate. You can carry out treatment with agents from the following list: afugan, topaz, zineb, bayleton, foundationol, topsin or similar in action to them.
- If the plant has been affected by aphids, then over time a sooty bloom will appear, which multiplies due to the sticky and sweet secretions of the pest. Rose bushes are treated with alcohol, soap or oil solutions to fight aphids.
- If a rusty spot is suddenly noticed, then this is also a fungal disease that has passed from another plant (carrier or host) to a rose bush. To fight, a transplant from such a plant is necessary (for example, a juniper can act as it).
- A big problem is gray mold damage, which affects all parts of the plant, excluding the root system. The disease is manifested by the appearance of a gray-gray plaque, rotting, and subsequently withering away. For the fight, a horsetail broth is used, processing plants with it and pruning all affected parts of the rose.
The plant also has many pests, among them one can distinguish a red spider mite, leaf rollers, chopped nutcrackers, and moth caterpillars. The roots are of interest to the larvae of May beetles (beetles) and nematodes. To combat the latter, it is necessary to treat the root system with the drug "Nemabakt" or similar to it before planting in the ground. If a caterpillar is affected by a moth, then all the leaves damaged by the pest must be removed and destroyed. And then the bush is treated with decoctions or tinctures of horseradish, bitter capsicum or wormwood.
It is also necessary for prevention purposes to regularly process rose bushes with solutions of copper sulfate and iron sulfate, an emulsion based on soap, Bordeaux liquid, nitrafen solution.
You can find tips for growing roses in the country in this video: