Insulation of the walls of a panel house, the choice of a suitable method and material, the preparatory stage of work, technologies for external and internal thermal insulation of housing. Wall insulation is a series of measures aimed at increasing the comfort of living in a house by reducing its heat losses. High-quality thermal insulation of the enclosing structures allows you to provide the premises with an acceptable temperature and optimal humidity level. Modern technologies for insulating panel walls provide an opportunity to perform the necessary procedures without temporary eviction of residents and with minimal financial costs.
Choosing a way to insulate walls
Compared to brick buildings, panel houses are much less resistant to sudden temperature changes. In winter, the concrete walls freeze strongly, and with the onset of heat, moisture condenses on their inner surface, which contributes to the formation of mold. In such conditions, the decorative finishing of the room can become completely unusable, not to mention the harmful effects of fungal spores on the health of the inhabitants of the home.
The only correct solution for concrete panel walls is their thermal insulation, which creates a "thermos" effect in the interior of the house. There are two types of wall insulation: internal and external. The choice of any of them depends on the area of the premises, living conditions, number of storeys and financial capabilities of the owners.
Owners of private houses have the opportunity to independently perform both external and internal insulation. It will not be possible to perform external thermal insulation of apartment buildings with your own hands, since from the outside of the house, materials must be installed exclusively by experienced specialists who have permission to conduct high-altitude work and the appropriate equipment for an industrial climber. Such works are not cheap, so many apartment owners prefer to insulate the panel wall from the inside on their own. Internal wall insulation has more disadvantages than advantages. With such insulation, the area of the room is reduced by an average of 8-10 cm along the entire length of the walls due to the thickness of the insulation and decorative cladding. During the renovation, full operation of the room becomes impossible. Polyfoam or mineral wool, which is used as a heater, can cause an allergic reaction in the body in the future.
But most importantly, the insulation laid from the inside insulates the wall panels from the heating system. This means that they are in the subzero temperature zone. As a result, the dew point shifts to the inner surface of the walls, as a result of which condensate accumulates between the insulation and the enclosing structure, which contributes to the development of the fungus. Nevertheless, with proper internal insulation, many of its negative factors can be minimized.
If it is possible to insulate panel walls from the outside, it is recommended to give preference to this method. It has undeniable advantages:
- The load-bearing walls of the building are covered with insulation and cladding against weathering and precipitation, which prolongs its service life.
- Due to the removal of the dew point to the outer surface of the walls, they do not freeze in winter and keep the room cool in summer.
- The useful area of the room is preserved, which is especially important for small apartments.
- Unlike internal insulation, the room can be fully used during thermal insulation.
The materials used to insulate panel walls by this method have increased heat and sound insulation, high strength, durability, resistance to precipitation and changes in ambient temperature.
External thermal insulation changes the appearance of the facade. Sometimes this requires permission from the authorities.
Selection of material for wall insulation
Wall insulation is performed using various heat-insulating materials, which differ from each other in their properties, scope and cost. The most demanded of them in this case are polystyrene, glass and mineral basalt wool. Any wall insulation should be distinguished by long-term operation, fire resistance, elasticity, lack of heat loss and the presence of biological protection. Their environmental safety is also extremely important, especially when used for internal insulation of premises, since low-quality material can negatively affect the health of their inhabitants.
For the right choice, you need to know the properties of this or that insulation. Let's consider them in detail:
- Mineral wool… Basalt stone is used as the main raw material for its production. Cotton wool has a fibrous structure, due to which the material retains air, which in itself is an excellent heat insulator. Mineral wool is available in slabs or rolls. It has low thermal conductivity, good fire resistance and durability. Its only drawback is instability to moisture. Therefore, when installing mineral wool, it needs careful waterproofing protection. The material is used for both external and internal wall insulation in a panel house.
- Glass wool… The structure of this insulation is made up of thin glass fibers up to 5 cm long. Previously, the material was very popular, but in recent years it has begun to give way to more technological designs. Glass wool does not burn, withstands low temperatures perfectly, has good sound insulation characteristics and low cost. It is unsuitable for rodents and does not support the growth of mold and mildew. The insulation is environmentally friendly and elastic: if glass wool is compressed, it quickly regains its original appearance after being removed from the package. However, compared to other thermal insulation materials, the service life of glass wool is slightly lower. In addition, working with it requires protective equipment for the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Getting on the body, the glass fibers of the material cause severe itching, therefore, it is recommended to lay such insulation in tight clothing and gloves. Special glasses and a respirator will also be useful.
- Styrofoam… This is the most common and economical insulation. There are two types of it: foamed and extruded. They differ in manufacturing technology, appearance and price. The first is cheaper, consists of sintered granules, and the second has a dense fine-mesh structure. Most often, the foam is produced in the form of slabs. It has excellent heat and sound insulation characteristics, excellent moisture resistance, light weight and durability when properly installed. The disadvantages of this insulation can be attributed to its fragility, this mainly concerns the foamed foam. Therefore, when buying several plates, it is recommended to take in reserve. Polyfoam is a combustible material that, in a fire, releases toxins that are hazardous to health, although the fire itself is also difficult to call safe. And the last thing: this insulation does not have biological protection, so rodents can start in it and mold can appear. To minimize risks with foam, you need to work in a strictly technological sequence.
- Penofol… It belongs to the new generation of thermal insulation. The insulation is made by foaming polyethylene and has a foil coating.It can be used for external and internal wall insulation. Penofol is produced in the form of rolls, differs in a small thickness, which does not affect its thermal insulation qualities. It is environmentally friendly, easy to install and compact for transportation. In addition, this material is distinguished by high sound insulation, fire safety and low vapor permeability. Insulation is laid using a special adhesive.
- Fibrolite… Insulation is made from pressed wood shavings, magnesia salt or Portland cement serves as a binder. Fiberboard goes on sale in the form of plates, covered with a protective film on top, which resists the penetration of moisture into the material and the formation of mold. The material is easy to process and easy to install. After installation on the wall, fiberboard slabs are plastered. After that, the finished coating becomes tough and durable.
- Cork insulation… The material is used for internal insulation of panel walls. Of all of the above heaters, it is the most environmentally friendly. Cork insulation has high strength, low weight, low thermal conductivity. It is durable, multifunctional and shrinkage resistant. The material is produced in the form of slabs. After their installation on the wall, further finishing of the coating can be omitted, it will already have a completely presentable appearance. In addition, cork insulation has good biological protection, which counteracts the appearance of various microorganisms in it. This material is expensive, but the price is more than compensated for by its advantages.
- Foamed polyurethane… To apply it to the surface, special equipment and formwork installation are required. The material goes through the polymerization process very quickly, and after its completion it is covered with a waterproofing film. By its structure, the insulation resembles a frozen layer of polyurethane foam. Its strength is low, therefore, polyurethane must be covered with an external finish. Plasterboard or plywood can be used as an additional hard cover. Due to the fact that the entire structure is mounted on a frame, the useful area of the room will decrease by the thickness of the inner lining.
Before purchasing any insulation for panel walls, it is recommended to check product certificates and material compliance with sanitary and fire safety standards.
Surface preparation of panel walls for thermal insulation
Before insulating the walls of a panel house with the selected material, it is necessary to prepare them with the preliminary purchase of appropriate tools. But first, you need to determine the source of heat loss through the wall panels. From cold and damp, as a rule, residents of the lower floors suffer more than others. The same applies to rooms that are located at the end of the building. Such places have the largest contact area of the walls with the outside air and humidity.
Cold can penetrate into the room through the cracks of door and window openings, but the main cause of heat loss is poor-quality sealing or destruction of the material of interpanel seams. The main indicator of such a defect is the presence of mold traces in the corners of the ceiling or floor. In addition, the air in the room is constantly damp. Therefore, any insulation of panel walls should begin with sealing the joints between their elements. For this, special silicone-based mixtures are used.
It is recommended to insulate the panels during the warm season, preferably in summer. The walls must be dry. With internal insulation, their surface should be cleaned of paint, wallpaper and other decorative finishes. The facade for outdoor work must also be cleaned and dried. These procedures are performed using hand and power tools: spatulas, scrapers, drills with attachments, industrial hair dryers, etc.
After cleaning the panel walls, they must be inspected for cracks, cracks, depressions and sagging. Bumps from the surface can be knocked down with a chisel, and the remaining defects found can be repaired with cement or plaster mortar. Before repair, problem areas should be primed for better adhesion of materials.
When minor defects of the panels are eliminated, it is recommended to check their surface with a two-meter rail. The gaps between the wall plane and the attached tool should not exceed 2-3 mm. But usually there are no problems, since the factory concrete products are initially flat. If necessary, you can perform a continuous leveling with a thin layer of putty.
At the last stage of preparing the walls, they must be treated with a penetrating primer in 2-3 layers. The adhesive composition of the insulation on such a surface will hold much better. In case of internal thermal insulation, the wall should be treated with an antiseptic before priming to prevent the formation of mold. Each layer of primer applied must be dry. After final drying, you can proceed to the internal or external insulation of walls in a panel house.
Insulation of the walls of a panel house from the inside
As mentioned above, the thermal insulation of the walls from the inside creates favorable conditions for condensation between the insulation and the inner surface of the wall. To minimize the risk of fungus formation for this reason, the layer of material should be sealed with a vapor barrier and provide the required heat transfer resistance at a minimum thickness. The thicker the insulation layer is, the lower the temperature on the wall and the higher the likelihood of steam condensation. In addition, with internal insulation, door and window slopes of the outer walls require similar insulation.
Thermal insulation of panel walls with foam
For thermal insulation of panel walls, PSB-S-25 (35) foam plastic slabs are used, which have an increased density. They are fixed on the surface with special or tile adhesive, which should ensure maximum filling of the gap between the wall and the insulation.
After gluing, it is recommended to additionally fix all the plates on the wall with plastic disc dowels, the caps of which will firmly press the material to the base surface. Five dowels are enough for one plate. The coating must be airtight, therefore, the joints of the sheets must be tightly adjusted, and large gaps must be filled with polyurethane foam.
Then, a layer of glue should be evenly applied to the surface of the thermal insulation and a fiberglass reinforcing mesh with 3-6 mm cells should be pressed into it. After the mixture has dried, an adhesive leveling layer with a thickness of 2 mm should be applied to the coating, and the corners should be reinforced with a perforated galvanized profile.
When the glue is dry, the wall can be plastered for wallpapering, painting, or simply tiled.
Thermal insulation of walls with mineral wool
This insulation requires a wall frame. It can be made from U-shaped metal profiles or wooden beams. The step between the frame posts should be 2-3 mm less than the width of the insulation plates. This will allow the material to be held against the edge between the vertical bars. The density of mineral wool must be at least 75 kg / m3.
Unlike foam, mineral wool is vapor-permeable. Therefore, after laying the insulation in the cells of the frame, the thermal insulation material must be hermetically covered with a protective film. It is attached to a wooden frame with staple staples, and to a metal frame with double-sided tape. The vapor barrier canvases are installed with an overlap of at least 100 mm, their joints are located on the vertical frame elements and glued with a metallized tape. The film must have gaps on the floor, ceiling, openings and adjoining walls.
Places where the film is adjacent to pipes and electrical appliances must be carefully processed. For this, special liquid sealants are used. The composition is applied to the junction, the film is pressed against it, and then fixed with construction tape against displacement.
After completing the thermal insulation of the wall, you can finish it. Plasterboard sheets, plastic panels, wooden lining and other materials that can be attached to the frame with screws are used as a base coating.
Insulation of walls in a panel house with penofol
For internal wall insulation with this material, a wooden frame is required, which allows you to use all its properties with maximum effect. Due to the fact that penofol has a foil coating, which has a high electrical conductivity, it is necessary to check the insulation of cables passing along the wall in order to avoid a short circuit. If necessary, they can be pulled in a protective crimped sleeve.
After making the frame, you should cut the penofol with a knife into canvases, and then attach them end-to-end to the wooden racks with stapler staples. Then you need to make another frame, leaving an air gap of 2 cm, and fix sheets or panels on it, which can later be putty, pasted over with wallpaper or painted.
Thermal insulation of walls in a panel house from the outside
There are two main ways to insulate panel walls outside: dry and wet. Thermal insulation in the first way involves the installation of a special protective screen on the wall, which is called a "ventilated facade". Its basis is a frame made of metal, on which the insulation is fixed, and then the external cladding is made.
Wet insulation is a frameless installation of insulation on walls, followed by finishing with building mixtures. Usually these are different types of plaster, which can differ from each other in color, efficiency, relief and other advantages.
The work on the external insulation of the house begins with the repair of the interpanel seams. They are cleaned of seals, old plaster, and then primed and dried. Then a new sealant is installed in the seams, a repeated primer and putty are performed.
The next stage is the preparation of the walls. They are cleaned of dirt and old coatings. With the wet method of insulation, foam is most often used as a heat-insulating material. The technology of its installation is practically no different from the method described in the previous section. The only caveat is that building mixtures that are resistant to precipitation and temperature extremes should be used as a topcoat here to protect the insulation. When using frame technology for insulating walls from the outside, basalt wool is usually used as a heat insulator, which is placed in the cells of the metal structure of the ventilated facade and sealed with a vapor barrier membrane. In this case, the outer skin of the frame can be made of profiled sheet, plastic panels, wood and other materials. Watch a video about wall insulation in a panel house:
[media = https://www.youtube.com/watch? v = 6t_doON99Fw] To summarize, I would like to add the following. We hope you have received the necessary information on how to insulate a panel wall in an affordable way. It became obvious that such work is better done outside, and not inside the house. Finding performers for this business is not difficult. There are many construction companies that will insulate an apartment reliably, quickly and efficiently. But if your home has a low number of storeys, you can do all the work yourself, and the money saved can be spent on charity!