Biathlon workouts for beginners

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Biathlon workouts for beginners
Biathlon workouts for beginners
Anonim

Find out what stages a beginner must go through before he begins to master the training principles of biathlon. Biathlon is very popular in our country, and parents often want to know how to start doing this sport. The biathlete must not only be able to quickly overcome the ski distance, but have a firm hand with a sharp eye. Failures at the shooting range will certainly affect the final results. Today we will tell you how to organize training for beginners in biathlon.

Ski training for a beginner biathlete

Beginner biathletes and their coach

You all know that biathlon is a combination of rifle shooting and cross-country skiing. This sport is Olympic and eleven sets of medals are played in it. Depending on the distance, leading athletes take 18-50 minutes for men and 18-43 minutes for women to overcome it. It should also be said that the loads to which the body of athletes is exposed are within the 3rd mixed aerobic-anaerobic zone.

This suggests that the energy supply of the body's systems occurs due to muscle glycogen, glucose and fatty acids. The heart rate is about 180 beats per minute. The aerobic element accounts for 85 to 90 percent, and 15–10, respectively, anaerobic. The annual volume of cyclic load depends on the length of the competitive distance and this ratio is a guideline for determining the total volume of cyclic load (OOCN).

However, it should be remembered that athletes now participate in all classic races. This is quite understandable, because the distances compactly fit within one power supply zone. This suggests that when training men, one should be guided by the intermediate value of the OECN, equal to seven thousand kilometers per year. For women, this figure ranges from 5.5 to 6 thousand kilometers. To clarify, the numbers above are for adult athletes.

It should also be remembered that the indicated annual load volumes are a quantitative indicator. If we talk about quality, then under this concept it is necessary to understand the distribution of the load over the zones of intensity. Since the distinction between skiers to prepare for competitions at different distances coincides with the range of distances in biathlon, the following OOCN indicators can be used as a guide:

  1. Men - 7 thousand kilometers.
  2. Women - 6 thousand kilometers.

Now we know the magnitude of the load for the preparation of experienced athletes, which gives us the opportunity to talk about training for beginners who want to know how to start doing biathlon. To solve this problem, we need to clarify the age of the adult biathlon elite. With an accuracy of 0.5 years, we can establish the age of the first twenty biathletes at distances of 10 and 20 kilometers. The result is an average age of 28.2 years. At the same time, the spread of indicators was 3.4 years.

When designing a workout program for beginners, you must remember that the age of excellence in biathlon is analogous to cross-country skiing. As a result, you need to target 23 and older. It is quite obvious that at this stage of training for beginners, there is no difference between biathlon and skiers. Thus, it is advisable to use the indicators of the annual volumes of the cyclical load of young skiers performing at distances from 10 to 15 kilometers.

Shooting training of a beginner biathlete

Biathletes undergo shooting training

Most specialists use a structural model of competitive activity, which consists of four elements.It is she who allows you to achieve high sports results.

Lap times

Biathlete pulls out his rifle

This element contributes 38 to 48 percent to the overall result. It is important to remember that this indicator does not take into account the time spent on shooting and overcoming penalty loops. As you can see, the range of influence of the element we are considering is wide and with insufficient functional training of the athlete, the final results can be improved thanks to shooting training. It should also be noted that the times when the racing component had about 70 percent of the results are irrevocably gone.

Shooting quality

Biathletes at the shooting range

The average contribution of this element to the final result is just over 48 percent. Since there is no relationship of this indicator with the rate of fire and the time to overcome the firing line, it makes no sense to delay being on the shooting range. This can improve the quality of shooting, but have little effect on the final result. If we talk about the relationship between the quality of shooting and the speed of movement along the distance, it is absent, or is the opposite. Simply put, the faster an athlete runs, the worse his shooting will be.

Shooting time

Biathlete reloading his rifle

The contribution of the element to the overall result of the athlete's performance is about 11 percent. Now some rapid-fire biathletes on a distance with four shooting lines keep within 1.32 minutes. In sprint races, representatives of both sexes most often spend about 0.45 minutes. The main reserve for improving performance results is the preparation time for the first shot.

Time of passing the firing line

Biathlete at the shooting range

This element began to be taken into account relatively recently and a few years ago was part of functional training. This is due to the low hoard in the overall result of just under two percent. We can definitely talk about the presence of a correlation with the lap times. This suggests that fast biathletes can leave the shooting range in a short time. The time loss at four firing lines is 12-17 seconds on average. The main reserve for improving the results of the performance is to quickly leave the firing line, and not reduce the speed on the way to it.

Of course, the model we have considered is not rigorous, and any of its elements can be changed. For example, the time of laps and shooting ranges depends on the quality of glide, the complexity of the track, its length, etc. The wind rose, the presence or absence of precipitation, the difficulty of approaching the shooting range, the lighting of the shooting range, etc., affect the shooting time. e. The contribution of each of the elements discussed above to the final result may vary, but within a small range. At the same time, all structural links remain constant.

How to organize training for beginners in biathlon?

Young biathlete preparing to shoot a rifle

The long-term practice of training athletes suggests that biathlon begins with a cross-country skiing race. Often beginners come to biathlon who already have basic ski training. When selecting in such a situation, it is necessary to check the athletes' abilities in shooting and, especially in combination of this element with physical activity. The best time to select biathletes from among skiers is spring. We recommend completing it after 8 to 10 lessons with skiing and shooting.

During selection and at the initial stage of preparation, it is worth using air rifles. Summarizing the experience of a large number of specialists, a three-stage system should be used to select skiers:

  • 1st stage - the presence of the first category in skiing.
  • 2nd stage - high accuracy of fire.
  • 3rd stage - positive dynamics of results in training, combined with high accuracy of fire.

The first few workouts for newcomers to biathlon should be theoretical.Athletes must master the art of aiming and shooting while standing and lying down. An indicator such as the accuracy of fire is important. This speaks of the biathlete's poise. The intensity of the training should be adjusted so that the heart rate before shooting is between 140 and 156 beats per minute.

To quickly master and consolidate the skills of firing, the following exercises can be recommended:

  1. Training without the use of cartridges - the athlete closes his eyes and trains the stability of the rifle, simulating the process of firing.
  2. Working with a lightweight rifle.
  3. Exercises with 4-6x optical sights, imitation of a shot with a change in magnification. At the last stage, you can move on to using cartridges.
  4. Training with increased trigger pull.
  5. Calm training.
  6. Shooting at reduced targets.
  7. Practicing the first shot.
  8. Comprehensive training with an approach to the shooting range with different heart rate indicators.

Lessons without ammunition

Junior group of biathletes

During training without cartridges, the athlete must work out the individual elements and positions. As a result, the biathlete will learn how to pull the trigger correctly, find a comfortable position and a rational breathing pattern. This exercise should be set aside 1 to 15 hours each day.

During the first 20 minutes, the biathlete should work with closed eyes, concentrating on the trigger handling technique. The next 20 minutes you need to work on the stability of the rifle under the target. At this time, it is necessary to hold the weapon for 2 or 3 seconds without leaving the target. The remaining time of the training is devoted to practicing the technique of preparing for shooting.

For a high-quality practice of shooting, you must use a lightweight rifle. Also, in the lesson, the PV-8 target is used, the distance to which is from 10 to 13 meters. It is important to understand that a large number of muscles are actively working when holding the rifle. With a lightweight rifle, you should train for 30 to 40 days, then move on to using the MK-5.6.

For the athlete to consolidate the previously acquired skills. It is recommended to use optical sights that are attached to the weapon instead of dioptric ones. The biathlete needs to try to hold the weapon and fire a shot with minimal vibrations. It is imperative to make a mark of the shot (front sight position). This will then allow you to work on the errors.

Working with an increased trigger pull will allow the biathlete to practice correct finger work and learn to apply force evenly. When the athlete manages to knock out 95–96 and 80–83 points in the prone and sitting positions, respectively, the hook tension can be slightly loosened, but not more than by 200 grams. About ten days before the start of the competition, you can reduce the tension a little more. Note that the minimum allowable tension is 500 grams.

Today we introduced you to the basics of training for beginners in biathlon. It is quite obvious that the training process has a lot of nuances that must be taken into account.

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