Local sewerage device and features of its functioning. Characteristics of the main components of the system. Installation of the structure. The price of a local sewerage system for a summer residence and a country house.
Local sewerage for a summer residence and a private house is a system for draining wastewater from a residential building into special containers without connecting to a centralized system. It contains accumulators and filters that ensure the autonomous functioning of the structure. We will talk about the features of the local sewage system and its operation in this article.
Features of local sewerage
In the photo there is a local sewerage system for a country house
A house without a drainage system can only satisfy the owners who do not have running water on the site or they live in it very rarely. In other cases, they try to improve the dwelling, which implies, first of all, the supply of water and the removal of sewage. The presence of a local system relieves owners of outdoor toilets and provides comfort from using plumbing fixtures.
Today, there are many designs for drainage, which make it possible to do without a centralized sewage system. They differ in different characteristics: the type of storage, the presence of filtering systems, the way of moving sewage, etc.
The autonomous complex includes the following parts:
- Internal sewerage;
- Outdoor sewerage;
- Tanks for waste collection and filtration;
- Ground filters.
The first two systems are the same for both the centralized system and the local one. The latter are found only in autonomous structures.
All elements of the local sewerage system are shown in the table:
|Highway||Wastewater supply to a storage tank or purifier||It is a modified external sewage system for the movement of sewage|
|Capacities||Tank for temporary storage of liquid, often with the functions of the main sewage purifier||The most common two-chamber container connected by overflow pipes, you can make yourself or buy a factory-made product|
|Ventilation system||Removal of formed gases, air supply to the sewage system||Pipes with lids, water seals|
|Drain system||Removing the purified liquid from the accumulator||Distinguish between a gravity system and a forced system, in the latter case, pumps are used|
|Filtration system||Wastewater treatment||This includes additional soil filters behind septic tanks or built-in purification complexes.|
|Service items||Cleaning the line, monitoring the state of the line||Manholes, wells|
Local sewerage systems with a septic tank and a biological treatment station perform their functions with the help of a large number of microorganisms - anaerobic or aerobic microbes. For their reproduction and living in purifiers, special conditions must be created. For example, anaerobic microbes can live without oxygen, they are used to process dirt at the bottom of storage tanks. Aerobic microbes need an oxygen environment, so they are on the surface of the effluent.
At dachas and in private houses, the most widespread is the gravity system, in which the liquid moves by gravity. For the functioning of some types of storage devices (deep service stations), electric pumps are needed to mix the contents of the containers and supply fresh air to the tank.
Utilization of sewage in a gravity autonomous system takes place in several stages:
- Accumulation and rough treatment of effluents… Dirty water through the pipes of the external sewage system enters the first compartment of the septic tank. Heavy elements precipitate, light and gaseous fractions remain at the top.
- Bottom waste disposal… Heavy elements settled on the bottom are processed by anaerobic microbes. As a result, after a few days, the sediment turns into a thick mass, which is an activated sludge that destroys the newly supplied organic matter.
- Recycling floating fractions… Light elements remain on the surface of the water, where aerobic bacteria dissolve them. The process is accompanied by the release of heat, gas and the formation of solid insoluble particles that sink to the bottom.
- Additional cleaning and liquid removal… If the degree of wastewater treatment in the storage tank does not satisfy the owners, they are sent to soil filters or taken out by a sewer truck.
See also the device and principle of operation of the storm sewer.
Characteristics of the main elements of the local sewerage system
There are many options for local sewerage at home. As a rule, the owners install the drainage system in country houses on their own, so they must be well versed in its design and the principle of operation. Below are the characteristics of the main parts of the local complex - storage tanks, septic tanks, biological treatment plants, etc.
Accumulator for local sewerage
An improved version of the cesspool, which differs from the ancient counterpart in tightness. The contents of the tank are partially decomposed by bacteria, but the degree of cleaning is insufficient to drain the waste into the ground. Therefore, after filling the pit, the drains are removed with a cesspool machine.
The design is very simple, the product is easy to make with your own hands from a reinforced concrete pipe or other sealed tank with a volume of within 1 m3… Experts recommend building a storage tank of the same volume as the tank of a sewage machine, because you have to pay for calling the car, and not for the amount of removed sewage.
In addition, the stores sell ready-made, factory-made tanks. The most popular models are Triton-N, Chistok, Bars N.
The drive has many disadvantages:
- The pit fills up quickly; water from the shower room, from the washing machine and other plumbing units must not be drained into it.
- From time to time you have to spend money on calling the sewer truck.
- It is impossible to pour the contents of the pit into the ground, because groundwater is polluted, and an unpleasant odor appears around it.
A drive of this type can be found today at dachas where people come for a short rest.
Dry closet for local sewerage
The dry closet is appreciated for its ability to be installed anywhere. It can be placed directly in the house, but it does not guarantee the absence of unpleasant odors in the room. Products differ in tank volume, dimensions, etc. The most important parameter is the method of waste treatment.
Information on the principle of operation of the dry closet is given in the table:
|Cleaning method||Principle of operation|
|Chemical||Special chemicals are used to dispose of sewage. They prevent the growth of microorganisms and destroy odors.|
|Peat||The principle of operation of the peat purifier is similar to the chemical purification method. After filling the tank, the contents can be used as peat.|
|Bacteriological||Special microorganisms process sewage. The results of the vital activity of bacteria can be used as fertilizer. Toilets with a similar device cannot be installed in the house, only outdoors.|
However, the product has plenty of disadvantages. It has a small tank volume, so it is recommended to install a dry closet in summer cottages with a rare visit. Water from a washing machine or shower must not be drained into the product - it has a storage tank that is too small. You will also have to constantly spend money on consumables.
Septic tanks for local sewerage
Such products are most suitable for local sewage treatment plants. The simplest devices consist of one tank, the more expensive ones have 2-3 tanks.
In the first compartment, the dirty water is settled. Special types of bacteria - aerobic, which do not require oxygen - decompose organic elements that settle to the bottom. After a while, acidic fermentation begins, in which carbohydrates, fats and protein are processed. The resulting substances decompose into gaseous elements, which are removed through the ventilation system, and insoluble, taken out with water outside the septic tank or settling to the bottom.
Water from the septic tank can be drained into the ground only after additional purification. Therefore, drainage wells or filtering fields are built next to the storage. The sediment is removed mechanically or with a sewage machine.
Septic tanks can be easily made yourself from concrete rings, bricks, or bought ready-made at an affordable price. Homemade products from improvised means do not protect the area around from pollution, so it is recommended to install them in case of a rare appearance in the country.
Local sewerage with a septic tank has the following advantages:
- The device has a simple structure, very reliable in operation.
- The cost of the system is low.
- No electricity is required to function.
- Maintenance is performed no more than once every 2-3 years.
- Operating costs are minimal.
The disadvantages of the product include the following:
- Insufficiently high degree of dirty water purification - no more than 75%.
- Before starting operation, a large amount of preparatory work must be performed.
- A local sewage system with a septic tank and a soil filter can be built if the groundwater is located at a depth of more than 2.5 m or if the soil in the area is sandy and passes water well.
- The filtering layer, which is used for post-treatment of effluents, will become dirty in 5-8 years and will have to be replaced or washed. The volume of soil to be replaced is large, and very few people will be pleased with such work.
- On clay soils, the liquid from the septic tank will have to be removed with a pump, which will lead to costs for electricity.
Briefly summarizing, we can say that the price of a local suburban sewage system with a septic tank is not high, but in the future you will have to spend a lot of money on maintaining the system, which neutralizes the low cost of the structure.
Deep biological treatment station for local sewerage
Typically, this factory-made product is sold ready-to-use. The device operates as follows: wastewater from the house enters a special capacity of the station, divided into several zones. In the first compartment, solid elements are separated from the debris. They settle to the bottom and are decomposed by anaerobic bacteria. In parallel with this process, in the upper layers of the liquid, aerobic microorganisms process fats and other floating impurities. To increase the efficiency of the process, the wastewater is constantly mixed by a pump, and fresh air is supplied to the tank by a fan. In the second compartment, the water settles: suspensions settle to the bottom, and the clarified liquid is discharged outside. The degree of purification is very high, so the water can be used without additional soil filtration for irrigation or for other technical purposes.
Such a storage device has more advantages than septic tanks:
- The device is small in size.
- At the outlet of the system, the effluent is purified by 98%.
- During operation, there is no need for the cost of additional consumables.
- Installation work is carried out without the involvement of special equipment.
- Sewer cleaners can be installed anywhere on the site.
- A deep biological treatment station is irreplaceable if the groundwater is close to the surface or the area is dominated by soils that do not allow water to pass through.
Among the disadvantages of such systems are the following:
- The high cost of stations.
- The need to remove insoluble sediment.
- It requires electricity to work.
Pipes for local sewerage
For arranging a local sewage system for a country house, any pipes are suitable - cast iron, steel, concrete, but plastic is considered the best option. They have significant advantages over other samples: the parts do not rust, withstand the aggressive effects of drains, are able to withstand a large mechanical load, and have a smooth surface, which reduces the likelihood of blockages.
Distinguish between pipes for indoor and outdoor use. They have different properties, so you cannot change their purpose. In order not to be mistaken, products are painted in different colors; for external use gray pipes are used, for internal use - orange ones.
The following plastic products are best suited for local sewerage:
- PVC pipes… No special equipment is required for their installation. Products are connected to a socket or glued with a special solution. The blanks have an attractive appearance, they can be mounted even on the surface - they do not spoil the interior. Of all types of plastic pipes, they are the cheapest.
- Polypropylene pipes… They are connected with special fittings or by cold welding.
- Polyethylene pipes… They are characterized by high elasticity. They are realized in coils, so the number of joints is minimal.
Soil filters for local sewerage
Additional filters for local sewerage are constructed to increase the degree of wastewater treatment before being discharged into the soil. They can be built if the soil on the site quickly passes water into the ground. Clay soils do not have this property, so the area near the septic tank will quickly turn into a swamp.
Reference: 1m3 sand passes 80 liters of water per day, and the same volume of clay - 5 m3.
The possibility of building a soil filter can be determined independently. To do this, dig a small hole measuring 30x30x15 cm and fill it with water. Time it for all the liquid to seep into the ground. If the water is gone in 15-20 seconds, there is a lot of sand in the soil. If in 2 minutes - a lot of clay.
The simplest soil filter consists of perforated pipes on the surface of the earth, laid on a layer of crushed stone with sand. It has a small capacity and is designed for a family of 1-2 people.
More complex designs of soil filters are shown in the table:
|Well||Built on sandy soils. The degree of purification is 98-100%.||Leaky container in the ground with a layer of sand and gravel at the bottom.|
|Absorption trench||Built on sandy soils. The cleaning efficiency is 95-98%.||Special pipes with a large number of small holes are laid deep in the ground and covered with a thick layer of sand and gravel.|
|Filter trench||Used on dense, heavy soils. Cleaning efficiency - up to 98%.||For the construction, you will need two perforated pipes with a filtering layer between them. One by one, the water comes from the sump, the other, purified water flows out of the site.|
|Infiltrate||Built on sands and loamy sands. Removes 98% of impurities.||It looks like a sand and gravel filtering platform covered with a concrete box. Can be placed on the surface or buried in the ground. Sold ready-made.|
In order for the filters to cope with the task at hand, it is necessary to calculate their sizes, for which it is necessary to correctly determine the amount of discharged waste. Otherwise, the drives will simply flood.
Underground liquid treatment is considered the most convenient for local sewerage, for example, using a filter well with a leaky bottom. It is easy to make from concrete pipe or rings. A filtering layer of sand, crushed stone, broken stone, etc. is poured onto the bottom. Fragments should not exceed 3 cm in size. Over time, microorganisms settle on small particles, so the filter layer not only purifies dirty water, but also recycles organic elements.The depth of the pit for the cleaner is 2-2.5 m. Under the bottom, there must be a layer of soil at least 1 m to the groundwater. If the moisture is too close to the surface, you cannot build a well.
The bottom area depends on the composition of the soil. On clay soils, it can reach 4 m2, on sandy ones - 1.5 m2… It has long been proven that the larger the footprint, the longer the life of the system.
Note! The filter well can handle a small amount of wastewater - 1-1.5 m3 per day. If there is a lot of waste, more powerful devices are needed.
How to make a local sewerage system?
Installation work inside the house is the same for the local and central drainage system. The same cannot be said about other parts of the autonomous sewage system, since they contain special-purpose elements. The work is carried out in several stages according to a pre-developed project.
Local sewerage design
Local sewerage scheme for the house
Construction begins with the development of the project. When designing on your own, it is recommended to choose simple schemes in order to avoid mistakes during installation. It is better to order complex schemes to specialists. The document must comply with all SNiP requirements - selection and placement of pipes, arrangement of ventilation, installation of a storage device, etc. By observing all the nuances, you will get a reliable, efficient and simple design, easy to maintain and easy to assemble.
When developing a local sewerage project for a summer residence, adhere to the following recommendations:
- In one-story houses, place rooms with plumbing fixtures next to each other (kitchens, showers, toilets). In multi-storey buildings - one above the other, closer to the riser.
- Design the internal drainage system in such a way that the number of pipe and element joints is minimal. This will reduce the likelihood of leaks or blockages and increase the reliability of the structure.
- If you need to use pumps, do not save on equipment, choose proven quality products.
- Place the waste container close to the fence so that the hose of the suction truck can reach it.
- When designing an external sewage system, find out the depth of soil freezing and the level of groundwater. It affects the choice of the type of septic tank and the method of wastewater treatment: sealed if the soil is clay, with a soil filter if the soil is sandy.
- Be sure to determine the amount of liquid that your local sewage system is capable of passing. The amount depends on the number of residents and the installed plumbing fixtures. It determines the volume of the septic tank. It should exceed 3 times the daily volume of effluent.
Installation instructions for local sewerage
To build a drainage system, it is necessary to dig a trench for pipes, a pit for installing a septic tank and build a soil filter. There is a lot of work, so it is recommended not to save on manual labor, but to involve earth-moving equipment.
Installation of a local sewerage system with a factory-made septic tank and a soil filter (well) is performed in the following sequence:
- Dig a pit for the storage, taking into account the subsequent insulation. Its depth should not exceed 3 m, otherwise problems may arise when removing the contents with a sewage machine.
- Fill the bottom with concrete and level it horizontally.
- Install the septic tank in the pit and secure according to the manufacturer's requirements. If you are building the drive manually, seal it when finished.
- Dig a trench from the house to the septic tank. If the system is gravity, make the bottom with a slope at the rate of 2 cm per 1 running meter of the trench.
- Place a layer of sand 10-15 cm thick on the bottom of the ditch.
- Lay the pipes and fit the line. Connect it to the inlet of the septic tank and to the plank bed of the internal sewerage system of the house.
- Pour in water and make sure that there are no leaks at the joints and that all liquid enters the reservoir.
- At a distance of 2-4 m from the septic tank, dig a hole for a filter well, taking into account all the requirements for the structure. Pour a layer of rubble at the bottom - first with small fractions, then with large ones.
- In the pit, build a round well of brick with holes for water to flow out. Leave a hole in the wall for connecting the pipe from the septic tank.
- Install the route from the drive to the filter. It should be inclined and end in the middle of the well.
- Close the well with a cover with a hole. Install a ventilation pipe into it.
- Fill the trench and pits with septic tank and well with gravel.
See also how to insulate the sewer with your own hands.
Local sewerage price
The construction of a local sewerage system for a summer residence refers to processes that are developed individually for each case. To determine the costs of its construction, it is necessary to take into account various factors: the cost of structural elements and their transportation, installation work, setting up a septic tank and deep wastewater treatment stations.
The costs of building an autonomous system include the following items:
- Excavation… For laying pipes, it is necessary to dig long trenches, and for the installation of accumulators and filters - deep holes. The cost of work depends on the composition of the soil. Digging holes and trenches in sand is cheaper than in heavy soils. There are prices for excavation and backfilling of the ditch, laying of pipelines and their connection to the internal sewage system. Horizontal drilling under the road is expensive.
- Pipe laying method… It is cheaper to lay pipes on the surface than to bury them in the ground. In addition, there is no need to spend money on improving the site.
- Local sewerage type… The amount of work performed depends on it. The more nodes in the system, the longer the installation takes and the higher the price of local sewerage.
- Purchase of structural elements… The most expensive are deep cleaning stations.
- Setting up and starting the system… This item is included in the estimate when installing a deep wastewater treatment station. This includes the services of an electrician to connect to the electricity station. To reduce the cost of setting up, experts recommend buying a local sewerage system assembled and configured at the factory.
The cost of installing a local sewerage system in Russia:
|Kind of work||Description||Price|
|Digging septic tank and pipe trenches||Without the use of technology||500-1200 rubles / rm|
|Preparation of the bottom of the ditch and pit||Creation of a gravel-sand cushion in a pit and a ditch for a septic tank and pipes||RUB 150 / rm|
|Installation of pipes in a ditch||The cost depends on the pipe material||150-300 rubles / rm|
|Backfilling of the main||Backfilling of pipes and improvement of the site||90-120 rubles / rm|
|Septic tank installation||Laying in a pit, checking the horizontal level of the container, connecting to a supply pipe, installing a ventilation system, installing pipes for draining liquid into a filtering field, warming, backfilling with soil, checking performance||from 20 thousand rubles|
|Installation of a soil filter||Formation of an absorbent platform, installation of drainage pipes, checking their slope by level, backfilling the field with rubble||from 18 thousand rubles|
|Installation of a deep cleaning station||Laying in a pit, checking the horizontal level of the container, connecting to the supply pipe, checking the filling of the reservoir with water, setting up the system||from 29 thousand rubles|
|Installation of underground storage tank||Laying in a pit, connecting to a supply pipe||from 15 thousand rubles|
|Installation of a filtration well||Laying in a pit of a container, shaping the bottom, supplying pipes||from 4 thousand rubles|
The cost of the main elements of an autonomous sewage system in Russia:
|Septic tank "Tank"||70-110 thousand rubles|
|Deep biological cleaning system, Picobell GRAF||150-190 thousand rubles.|
|Underground storage tank "Rostok"||24-28 thousand rubles|
|Infiltrator "Triton 400"||4, 5-6 thousand rubles.|
The cost of installing a local sewerage system in Ukraine:
|Kind of work||Description||Price|
|Digging septic tank and pipe trenches||Without the use of technology||180-1200 UAH / rm|
|Preparation of the bottom of the ditch and pit||Creation of a gravel-sand cushion in a pit and a ditch for a septic tank and pipes||60-80 UAH / rm|
|Installation of pipes in a ditch||The cost depends on the pipe material||70-120 UAH / rm|
|Backfilling of the main||Backfilling of pipes and improvement of the site||30-55 UAH / rm|
|Septic tank installation||Laying in a pit, checking the horizontal level of the container, connecting to a supply pipe, installing a ventilation system, installing pipes for draining liquid into a filtering field, warming, backfilling with soil, checking performance||from 8 thousand UAH|
|Installation of a soil filter||Formation of an absorbent platform, installation of drainage pipes, checking their slope by level, backfilling the field with rubble||from 4 thousand UAH|
|Installation of a deep cleaning station||Laying in a pit, checking the horizontal level of the container, connecting to the supply pipe, checking the filling of the reservoir with water, setting up the system||from 8 thousand UAH|
|Installation of underground storage tank||Laying in a pit, connecting to a supply pipe||from 5 thousand UAH|
|Installation of a filtration well||Laying in a pit of a container, shaping the bottom, supplying pipes||from 1, 5 thousand UAH|
The cost of the main elements of an autonomous sewage system in Ukraine:
|Septic tank "Tank"||25-40 thousand UAH|
|Deep biological cleaning system, Picobell GRAF||60-85 thousand UAH|
|Underground storage tank "Rostok"||8-12 thousand UAH|
|Infiltrator "Triton 400"||1, 5-2, 5 thousand UAH.|
How to make a local sewage system - watch the video:
There are many different types of autonomous systems, and each has a different demand. In order to choose the right design, it is necessary to study the local sewage system and understand the features of its functioning. Taking into account the nuances of the work of all elements, the system will function reliably for a long time.